NCERT Textbook - पृथ्वी की उत्पत्ति एवं विकास Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - पृथ्वी की उत्पत्ति एवं विकास Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


i`Foh
bl bdkbZ osQ fooj.k %
? i`Foh dh mRifÙk ,oa fodkl] i`Foh dk vkarfjd Hkkx_ osxuj dk egk}hih; foLFkkiu
fl¼kar ,oa IysV foorZfudh] HkwoaQi ,oa Tokykeq[khA
bdkbZ
II
Page 2


i`Foh
bl bdkbZ osQ fooj.k %
? i`Foh dh mRifÙk ,oa fodkl] i`Foh dk vkarfjd Hkkx_ osxuj dk egk}hih; foLFkkiu
fl¼kar ,oa IysV foorZfudh] HkwoaQi ,oa Tokykeq[khA
bdkbZ
II
i`Foh dh mRifÙk ,oa fodkl
;k vkidks og dfork ;kn gS tks vkius viuh
ulZjh dh d{kk esa i<+h Fkh\ ^^fV~oady&fV~oady
fyfVy LVkj------------** cpiu ls gh rkjksa Hkjh jkrksa us
gesa ges'kk vkdf"kZr fd;k gSA vkius Hkh bu rkjksa osQ ckjs
esa lkspk gksxk vkSj vla[; ç'u vkiosQ fnekx esa vk,
gksaxsA oqQN bl çdkj osQ iz'u tSls&vkdk'k esa fdrus
rkjs gSa\ ;s rkjs oSQls cus\ D;k dksbZ vkdk'k osQ var rd
igq¡p ldrk gS\ bu ç'uksa osQ vfrfjDr Hkh dbZ ç'u
vkiosQ fnekx esa vk, gksaxsA bl vè;k; esa vki tkuasxs
fd ^;s fVefVekrs NksVs rkjs* oSQls cuas\ blosQ lkFk gh
vki i`Foh dh mRifÙk o fodkl dh dgkuh Hkh i<+asxsA
i`Foh dh mRifÙk
vkjafHkd fl¼kar
i`Foh dh mRifÙk osQ laca/ esa fofHkUu nk'kZfudksa o
oSKkfudksa us vusd ifjdYiuk,¡ çLrqr dh gSaA buesa ls
,d çkjafHkd ,oa yksdfç; er teZu nk'kZfud beSuqvy
dkUV (Immanuel Kant) dk gSA 1796 bZñ esa
xf.krK ykIysl (Laplace) us bldk la'kks/u çLrqr
fd;k tks uhgkfjdk ifjdYiuk (Nebular hypothesis)
osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA bl ifjdYiuk osQ vuqlkj
xzgksa dk fuekZ.k /heh xfr ls ?kwers gq, inkFkksZa osQ ckny
ls gqvk tks fd lw;Z dh ;qok voLFkk ls lac¼ FksA ckn
esa 1900 bZñ esa psEcjysu vkSj eksYVu (Chamberlain
& Moulton) us dgk fd czãkaM esa ,d vU;
Hkze.k'khy rkjk lw;Z osQ utnhd ls xqtjkA blosQ ifj.kke
Lo:i rkjs osQ xq:Rokd"kZ.k ls lw;Z&lrg ls flxkj osQ
vè;k;
vkdkj dk oqQN inkFkZ fudydj vyx gks x;kA ;g
rkjk tc lw;Z ls nwj pyk x;k rks lw;Z&lrg ls ckgj
fudyk gqvk ;g inkFkZ lw;Z osQ pkjksa rjiQ ?kweus yxk
vkSj ;gh /hjs&/hjs la?kfur gksdj xzgksa osQ :i esa
ifjofrZr gks x;kA igys lj tsEl thal (Sir James
Jeans) vkSj ckn esa lj gWjksYM tSiQjh (Sir Harold
Jeffrey) us bl er dk leFkZu fd;kA ;|fi oqQN
le; ckn osQ roZQ lw;Z osQ lkFk ,d vkSj lkFkh rkjs osQ
gksus dh ckr ekurs gSaA ;s roZQ ^^}Srkjd fl¼kar**
(Binary theories) osQ uke ls tkus tkrs gaSA 1950 bZñ
esa :l osQ vkWVks f'kfeM (Otto schmidt) o teZuh
osQ dkyZ okb”kkLdj (Carl weizascar) us uhgkfjdk
ifjdYiuk (Nebular hypothesis) esa oqQN la'kksèku
fd;k] ftlesa fooj.k fHkUu FkkA muosQ fopkj ls lw;Z
,d lkSj uhgkfjdk ls f?kjk gqvk Fkk tks eq[;r% gkbMªkstu]
ghyh;e vkSj /wfyd.kksa dh cuh FkhA bu d.kksa osQ ?k"kZ.k
o Vdjkus (Collision) ls ,d piVh r'rjh dh
vko`Qfr osQ ckny dk fuekZ.k gqvk vkSj vfHko`f¼
(Accretion) çØe }kjk gh xzgksa dk fuekZ.k gqvkA
vk/qfud fl¼kar
varrksxRok] oSKkfudksa us i`Foh ;k vU; xzgksa dh gh ugha
oju~ iwjs czãkaM dh mRifÙk laca/h leL;kvksa dks le>us
dk ç;kl fd;kA vk/qfud le; esa czãkaM dh mRifÙk
laca/h loZekU; fl¼kar fcx cSax fl¼kar (Big bang
theory) gSA bls foLrfjr czãkaM ifjdYiuk (Expanding
universe hypothesis) Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 1920 bZñ
D
Page 3


i`Foh
bl bdkbZ osQ fooj.k %
? i`Foh dh mRifÙk ,oa fodkl] i`Foh dk vkarfjd Hkkx_ osxuj dk egk}hih; foLFkkiu
fl¼kar ,oa IysV foorZfudh] HkwoaQi ,oa Tokykeq[khA
bdkbZ
II
i`Foh dh mRifÙk ,oa fodkl
;k vkidks og dfork ;kn gS tks vkius viuh
ulZjh dh d{kk esa i<+h Fkh\ ^^fV~oady&fV~oady
fyfVy LVkj------------** cpiu ls gh rkjksa Hkjh jkrksa us
gesa ges'kk vkdf"kZr fd;k gSA vkius Hkh bu rkjksa osQ ckjs
esa lkspk gksxk vkSj vla[; ç'u vkiosQ fnekx esa vk,
gksaxsA oqQN bl çdkj osQ iz'u tSls&vkdk'k esa fdrus
rkjs gSa\ ;s rkjs oSQls cus\ D;k dksbZ vkdk'k osQ var rd
igq¡p ldrk gS\ bu ç'uksa osQ vfrfjDr Hkh dbZ ç'u
vkiosQ fnekx esa vk, gksaxsA bl vè;k; esa vki tkuasxs
fd ^;s fVefVekrs NksVs rkjs* oSQls cuas\ blosQ lkFk gh
vki i`Foh dh mRifÙk o fodkl dh dgkuh Hkh i<+asxsA
i`Foh dh mRifÙk
vkjafHkd fl¼kar
i`Foh dh mRifÙk osQ laca/ esa fofHkUu nk'kZfudksa o
oSKkfudksa us vusd ifjdYiuk,¡ çLrqr dh gSaA buesa ls
,d çkjafHkd ,oa yksdfç; er teZu nk'kZfud beSuqvy
dkUV (Immanuel Kant) dk gSA 1796 bZñ esa
xf.krK ykIysl (Laplace) us bldk la'kks/u çLrqr
fd;k tks uhgkfjdk ifjdYiuk (Nebular hypothesis)
osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA bl ifjdYiuk osQ vuqlkj
xzgksa dk fuekZ.k /heh xfr ls ?kwers gq, inkFkksZa osQ ckny
ls gqvk tks fd lw;Z dh ;qok voLFkk ls lac¼ FksA ckn
esa 1900 bZñ esa psEcjysu vkSj eksYVu (Chamberlain
& Moulton) us dgk fd czãkaM esa ,d vU;
Hkze.k'khy rkjk lw;Z osQ utnhd ls xqtjkA blosQ ifj.kke
Lo:i rkjs osQ xq:Rokd"kZ.k ls lw;Z&lrg ls flxkj osQ
vè;k;
vkdkj dk oqQN inkFkZ fudydj vyx gks x;kA ;g
rkjk tc lw;Z ls nwj pyk x;k rks lw;Z&lrg ls ckgj
fudyk gqvk ;g inkFkZ lw;Z osQ pkjksa rjiQ ?kweus yxk
vkSj ;gh /hjs&/hjs la?kfur gksdj xzgksa osQ :i esa
ifjofrZr gks x;kA igys lj tsEl thal (Sir James
Jeans) vkSj ckn esa lj gWjksYM tSiQjh (Sir Harold
Jeffrey) us bl er dk leFkZu fd;kA ;|fi oqQN
le; ckn osQ roZQ lw;Z osQ lkFk ,d vkSj lkFkh rkjs osQ
gksus dh ckr ekurs gSaA ;s roZQ ^^}Srkjd fl¼kar**
(Binary theories) osQ uke ls tkus tkrs gaSA 1950 bZñ
esa :l osQ vkWVks f'kfeM (Otto schmidt) o teZuh
osQ dkyZ okb”kkLdj (Carl weizascar) us uhgkfjdk
ifjdYiuk (Nebular hypothesis) esa oqQN la'kksèku
fd;k] ftlesa fooj.k fHkUu FkkA muosQ fopkj ls lw;Z
,d lkSj uhgkfjdk ls f?kjk gqvk Fkk tks eq[;r% gkbMªkstu]
ghyh;e vkSj /wfyd.kksa dh cuh FkhA bu d.kksa osQ ?k"kZ.k
o Vdjkus (Collision) ls ,d piVh r'rjh dh
vko`Qfr osQ ckny dk fuekZ.k gqvk vkSj vfHko`f¼
(Accretion) çØe }kjk gh xzgksa dk fuekZ.k gqvkA
vk/qfud fl¼kar
varrksxRok] oSKkfudksa us i`Foh ;k vU; xzgksa dh gh ugha
oju~ iwjs czãkaM dh mRifÙk laca/h leL;kvksa dks le>us
dk ç;kl fd;kA vk/qfud le; esa czãkaM dh mRifÙk
laca/h loZekU; fl¼kar fcx cSax fl¼kar (Big bang
theory) gSA bls foLrfjr czãkaM ifjdYiuk (Expanding
universe hypothesis) Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 1920 bZñ
D
i`Foh dh mRifÙk ,oa fodkl
15
fp=k 2-1 % fcx cSax
esa ,Mfou gCcy (Edwin Hubble) us çek.k fn;s
fd czãkaM dk foLrkj gks jgk gSA le; chrus osQ lkFk
vkdk'kxaxk,¡ ,d nwljs ls nwj gks jgh gSaA vki ç;ksx dj
tku ldrs gSa fd czãkaM foLrkj dk D;k vFkZ gSA ,d
xqCckjk ysa vkSj mlij oqQN fu'kku yxk,¡ ftudks
vkdk'kxaxk;sa eku ysaA tc vki bl xqCckjs dks iqQyk,¡xs]
xqCckjs ij yxs ;s fu'kku xqCckjs osQ iSQyus osQ lkFk&lkFk
,d nwljs ls nwj tkrs çrhr gksaxsA blh çdkj vkdk'kxaxkvksa
osQ chp dh nwjh Hkh c<+ jgh gS vkSj ifj.kkeLo:i
czãkaM foLrkfjr gks jgk gSA ;|fi vki ;g ik,¡xs fd
xqCckjs ij yxs fpÉksa osQ chp dh nwjh osQ vfrfjDr]
fpÉ Lo;a Hkh c<+ jgs gSaA tcfd ;g rF; osQ vuq:i
ugha gSA oSKkfud ekurs gSa fd vkdk'kxaxkvksa osQ chp
dh nwjh c<+ jgh gS] ijarq çs{k.k vkdk'kxaxkvksa osQ
foLrkj dks ugha fl¼ djrsA vr% xqCckjs dk mnkgj.k
vkaf'kd :i ls gh ekU; gSA
fcx cSax fl¼kar osQ vuqlkj czãkaM dk foLrkj
fuEu voLFkkvksa esa gqvk gS%
çfØ;k ls o`gr~ foLrkj gqvkA oSKkfudksa dk
fo'okl gS fd fcx cSax dh ?kVuk vkt ls
13-7 vjc o"kksZa igys gqbZ FkhA czãkaM dk
foLrkj vkt Hkh tkjh gSA foLrkj osQ dkj.k
oqQN ÅtkZ inkFkZ esa ifjofrZr gks xbZA foLiQksV
(Bang) osQ ckn ,d lSosQaM osQ vYika'k osQ
varxZr gh o`gr~ foLrkj gqvkA blosQ ckn
foLrkj dh xfr /heh iM+ xbZA fcx cSax gksus
osQ vkjafHkd rhu feuV osQ varZxr gh igys
ijek.kq dk fuekZ.k gqvkA
(iii) fcx cSax ls 3 yk[k o"kkasZ osQ nkSjku] rkieku
4500
ñ
 osQfYou rd fxj x;k vkSj ijek.koh;
inkFkZ dk fuekZ.k gqvkA czãkaM ikjn'khZ gks x;kA
czãkaM osQ foLrkj dk vFkZ gS vkdk'kxaxkvksa osQ
chp dh nwjh esa foLrkj dk gksukA gkW;y (Hoyle) us
bldk fodYi ^fLFkj voLFkk ladYiuk* (Steady
state concept) osQ uke ls çLrqr fd;kA bl
ladYiuk osQ vuqlkj czãkaM fdlh Hkh le; esa ,d gh
tSlk jgk gSA ;|fi czãkaM osQ foLrkj laca/h vusd
çek.kksa osQ feyus ij oSKkfud leqnk; vc czãkaM
foLrkj fl¼kar osQ gh i{k/j gSaA
rkjksa dk fuekZ.k
çkjafHkd czãkaM esa ÅtkZ o inkFkZ dk forj.k leku ugha
FkkA ?kuRo esa vkjafHkd fHkUurk ls xq#Rokd"kZ.k cyksa esa
fHkUurk vkbZ] ftlosQ ifj.kkeLo:i inkFkZ dk ,d=k.k
gqvkA ;gh ,d=k.k vkdk'kxaxkvksa osQ fodkl dk vkèkkj
cukA ,d vkdk'kxaxk vla[; rkjksa dk lewg gSA
vkdk'kxaxkvksa dk foLrkj bruk vf/d gksrk gS fd
mudh nwjh gtkjksa çdk'k o"kksZa esa (Light years) ekih
tkrh gSA ,d vosQyh vkdk'kxaxk dk O;kl 80 gtkj ls
1 yk[k 50 gtkj çdk'k o"kZ osQ chp gks ldrk gSA ,d
vkdk'kxaxk osQ fuekZ.k dh 'kq:vkr gkbMªkstu xSl ls
cus fo'kky ckny osQ lap;u ls gksrh gS ftls uhgkfjdk
(Nebula) dgk x;kA Øe'k% bl c<+rh gqbZ uhgkfjdk
esa xSl osQ >aqM fodflr gq,A ;s >qaM c<+rs&c<+rs ?kus
xSlh; fiaM cus] ftuls rkjksa dk fuekZ.k vkjaHk gqvkA
,slk fo'okl fd;k tkrk gS fd rkjksa dk fuek.kZ yxHkx
5 ls 6 vjc o"kksZa igys gqvkA
(i) vkjEHk esa os lHkh inkFkZ] ftuls czãkaM cuk gS]
vfr NksVs xksyd (,dkdh ijek.kq) osQ :i esa
,d gh LFkku ij fLFkr FksA ftldk vk;ru
vR;f/d lw{e ,oa rkieku rFkk ?kuRo vuar FkkA
(ii) fcx cSax dh çfØ;k esa bl vfr NksVs xksyd
esa Hkh"k.k foLiQksV gqvkA bl çdkj dh foLiQksV
Page 4


i`Foh
bl bdkbZ osQ fooj.k %
? i`Foh dh mRifÙk ,oa fodkl] i`Foh dk vkarfjd Hkkx_ osxuj dk egk}hih; foLFkkiu
fl¼kar ,oa IysV foorZfudh] HkwoaQi ,oa Tokykeq[khA
bdkbZ
II
i`Foh dh mRifÙk ,oa fodkl
;k vkidks og dfork ;kn gS tks vkius viuh
ulZjh dh d{kk esa i<+h Fkh\ ^^fV~oady&fV~oady
fyfVy LVkj------------** cpiu ls gh rkjksa Hkjh jkrksa us
gesa ges'kk vkdf"kZr fd;k gSA vkius Hkh bu rkjksa osQ ckjs
esa lkspk gksxk vkSj vla[; ç'u vkiosQ fnekx esa vk,
gksaxsA oqQN bl çdkj osQ iz'u tSls&vkdk'k esa fdrus
rkjs gSa\ ;s rkjs oSQls cus\ D;k dksbZ vkdk'k osQ var rd
igq¡p ldrk gS\ bu ç'uksa osQ vfrfjDr Hkh dbZ ç'u
vkiosQ fnekx esa vk, gksaxsA bl vè;k; esa vki tkuasxs
fd ^;s fVefVekrs NksVs rkjs* oSQls cuas\ blosQ lkFk gh
vki i`Foh dh mRifÙk o fodkl dh dgkuh Hkh i<+asxsA
i`Foh dh mRifÙk
vkjafHkd fl¼kar
i`Foh dh mRifÙk osQ laca/ esa fofHkUu nk'kZfudksa o
oSKkfudksa us vusd ifjdYiuk,¡ çLrqr dh gSaA buesa ls
,d çkjafHkd ,oa yksdfç; er teZu nk'kZfud beSuqvy
dkUV (Immanuel Kant) dk gSA 1796 bZñ esa
xf.krK ykIysl (Laplace) us bldk la'kks/u çLrqr
fd;k tks uhgkfjdk ifjdYiuk (Nebular hypothesis)
osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA bl ifjdYiuk osQ vuqlkj
xzgksa dk fuekZ.k /heh xfr ls ?kwers gq, inkFkksZa osQ ckny
ls gqvk tks fd lw;Z dh ;qok voLFkk ls lac¼ FksA ckn
esa 1900 bZñ esa psEcjysu vkSj eksYVu (Chamberlain
& Moulton) us dgk fd czãkaM esa ,d vU;
Hkze.k'khy rkjk lw;Z osQ utnhd ls xqtjkA blosQ ifj.kke
Lo:i rkjs osQ xq:Rokd"kZ.k ls lw;Z&lrg ls flxkj osQ
vè;k;
vkdkj dk oqQN inkFkZ fudydj vyx gks x;kA ;g
rkjk tc lw;Z ls nwj pyk x;k rks lw;Z&lrg ls ckgj
fudyk gqvk ;g inkFkZ lw;Z osQ pkjksa rjiQ ?kweus yxk
vkSj ;gh /hjs&/hjs la?kfur gksdj xzgksa osQ :i esa
ifjofrZr gks x;kA igys lj tsEl thal (Sir James
Jeans) vkSj ckn esa lj gWjksYM tSiQjh (Sir Harold
Jeffrey) us bl er dk leFkZu fd;kA ;|fi oqQN
le; ckn osQ roZQ lw;Z osQ lkFk ,d vkSj lkFkh rkjs osQ
gksus dh ckr ekurs gSaA ;s roZQ ^^}Srkjd fl¼kar**
(Binary theories) osQ uke ls tkus tkrs gaSA 1950 bZñ
esa :l osQ vkWVks f'kfeM (Otto schmidt) o teZuh
osQ dkyZ okb”kkLdj (Carl weizascar) us uhgkfjdk
ifjdYiuk (Nebular hypothesis) esa oqQN la'kksèku
fd;k] ftlesa fooj.k fHkUu FkkA muosQ fopkj ls lw;Z
,d lkSj uhgkfjdk ls f?kjk gqvk Fkk tks eq[;r% gkbMªkstu]
ghyh;e vkSj /wfyd.kksa dh cuh FkhA bu d.kksa osQ ?k"kZ.k
o Vdjkus (Collision) ls ,d piVh r'rjh dh
vko`Qfr osQ ckny dk fuekZ.k gqvk vkSj vfHko`f¼
(Accretion) çØe }kjk gh xzgksa dk fuekZ.k gqvkA
vk/qfud fl¼kar
varrksxRok] oSKkfudksa us i`Foh ;k vU; xzgksa dh gh ugha
oju~ iwjs czãkaM dh mRifÙk laca/h leL;kvksa dks le>us
dk ç;kl fd;kA vk/qfud le; esa czãkaM dh mRifÙk
laca/h loZekU; fl¼kar fcx cSax fl¼kar (Big bang
theory) gSA bls foLrfjr czãkaM ifjdYiuk (Expanding
universe hypothesis) Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 1920 bZñ
D
i`Foh dh mRifÙk ,oa fodkl
15
fp=k 2-1 % fcx cSax
esa ,Mfou gCcy (Edwin Hubble) us çek.k fn;s
fd czãkaM dk foLrkj gks jgk gSA le; chrus osQ lkFk
vkdk'kxaxk,¡ ,d nwljs ls nwj gks jgh gSaA vki ç;ksx dj
tku ldrs gSa fd czãkaM foLrkj dk D;k vFkZ gSA ,d
xqCckjk ysa vkSj mlij oqQN fu'kku yxk,¡ ftudks
vkdk'kxaxk;sa eku ysaA tc vki bl xqCckjs dks iqQyk,¡xs]
xqCckjs ij yxs ;s fu'kku xqCckjs osQ iSQyus osQ lkFk&lkFk
,d nwljs ls nwj tkrs çrhr gksaxsA blh çdkj vkdk'kxaxkvksa
osQ chp dh nwjh Hkh c<+ jgh gS vkSj ifj.kkeLo:i
czãkaM foLrkfjr gks jgk gSA ;|fi vki ;g ik,¡xs fd
xqCckjs ij yxs fpÉksa osQ chp dh nwjh osQ vfrfjDr]
fpÉ Lo;a Hkh c<+ jgs gSaA tcfd ;g rF; osQ vuq:i
ugha gSA oSKkfud ekurs gSa fd vkdk'kxaxkvksa osQ chp
dh nwjh c<+ jgh gS] ijarq çs{k.k vkdk'kxaxkvksa osQ
foLrkj dks ugha fl¼ djrsA vr% xqCckjs dk mnkgj.k
vkaf'kd :i ls gh ekU; gSA
fcx cSax fl¼kar osQ vuqlkj czãkaM dk foLrkj
fuEu voLFkkvksa esa gqvk gS%
çfØ;k ls o`gr~ foLrkj gqvkA oSKkfudksa dk
fo'okl gS fd fcx cSax dh ?kVuk vkt ls
13-7 vjc o"kksZa igys gqbZ FkhA czãkaM dk
foLrkj vkt Hkh tkjh gSA foLrkj osQ dkj.k
oqQN ÅtkZ inkFkZ esa ifjofrZr gks xbZA foLiQksV
(Bang) osQ ckn ,d lSosQaM osQ vYika'k osQ
varxZr gh o`gr~ foLrkj gqvkA blosQ ckn
foLrkj dh xfr /heh iM+ xbZA fcx cSax gksus
osQ vkjafHkd rhu feuV osQ varZxr gh igys
ijek.kq dk fuekZ.k gqvkA
(iii) fcx cSax ls 3 yk[k o"kkasZ osQ nkSjku] rkieku
4500
ñ
 osQfYou rd fxj x;k vkSj ijek.koh;
inkFkZ dk fuekZ.k gqvkA czãkaM ikjn'khZ gks x;kA
czãkaM osQ foLrkj dk vFkZ gS vkdk'kxaxkvksa osQ
chp dh nwjh esa foLrkj dk gksukA gkW;y (Hoyle) us
bldk fodYi ^fLFkj voLFkk ladYiuk* (Steady
state concept) osQ uke ls çLrqr fd;kA bl
ladYiuk osQ vuqlkj czãkaM fdlh Hkh le; esa ,d gh
tSlk jgk gSA ;|fi czãkaM osQ foLrkj laca/h vusd
çek.kksa osQ feyus ij oSKkfud leqnk; vc czãkaM
foLrkj fl¼kar osQ gh i{k/j gSaA
rkjksa dk fuekZ.k
çkjafHkd czãkaM esa ÅtkZ o inkFkZ dk forj.k leku ugha
FkkA ?kuRo esa vkjafHkd fHkUurk ls xq#Rokd"kZ.k cyksa esa
fHkUurk vkbZ] ftlosQ ifj.kkeLo:i inkFkZ dk ,d=k.k
gqvkA ;gh ,d=k.k vkdk'kxaxkvksa osQ fodkl dk vkèkkj
cukA ,d vkdk'kxaxk vla[; rkjksa dk lewg gSA
vkdk'kxaxkvksa dk foLrkj bruk vf/d gksrk gS fd
mudh nwjh gtkjksa çdk'k o"kksZa esa (Light years) ekih
tkrh gSA ,d vosQyh vkdk'kxaxk dk O;kl 80 gtkj ls
1 yk[k 50 gtkj çdk'k o"kZ osQ chp gks ldrk gSA ,d
vkdk'kxaxk osQ fuekZ.k dh 'kq:vkr gkbMªkstu xSl ls
cus fo'kky ckny osQ lap;u ls gksrh gS ftls uhgkfjdk
(Nebula) dgk x;kA Øe'k% bl c<+rh gqbZ uhgkfjdk
esa xSl osQ >aqM fodflr gq,A ;s >qaM c<+rs&c<+rs ?kus
xSlh; fiaM cus] ftuls rkjksa dk fuekZ.k vkjaHk gqvkA
,slk fo'okl fd;k tkrk gS fd rkjksa dk fuek.kZ yxHkx
5 ls 6 vjc o"kksZa igys gqvkA
(i) vkjEHk esa os lHkh inkFkZ] ftuls czãkaM cuk gS]
vfr NksVs xksyd (,dkdh ijek.kq) osQ :i esa
,d gh LFkku ij fLFkr FksA ftldk vk;ru
vR;f/d lw{e ,oa rkieku rFkk ?kuRo vuar FkkA
(ii) fcx cSax dh çfØ;k esa bl vfr NksVs xksyd
esa Hkh"k.k foLiQksV gqvkA bl çdkj dh foLiQksV
HkkSfrd Hkwxksy osQ ewy fl¼kar
16
· lw;Z ls nwjh [kxksyh; ,dd esa gSaA vFkkZr~ vxj i`Foh dh eè;eku nwjh 14 djksM+ 95 yk[k 98 gtkj fd0eh0 ,d ,dd
osQ cjkcj gS A
@ ?kuRo xzke çfr ?kUk lsaVhehVj (gm/Cm
3
)
# v/ZO;kl % vxj Hkweè;js[kh; v/ZO;kl 6378-137 fd0 eh0¾1 gSA
çdk'k o"kZ (Light year) le; dk ugha oju~ nwjh
dk eki gSA çdk'k dh xfr 3 yk[k fd0 eh0 çfr
lSosQaM gSA fopkj.kh; gS fd ,d lky esa çdk'k
ftruh nwjh r; djsxk] og ,d çdk'k o"kZ gksxkA ;g
9-461×1012 fdñ ehñ osQ cjkcj gSA i`Foh o lw;Z
dh vkSlr nwjh 14 djksM+ 95 yk[k] 98 gtkj
fdyksehVj gSA çdk'k o"kZ osQ lanHkZ esa ;g izdk'k o"kZ
dk osQoy 8-311 feuV gSA
xzgksa dk fuekZ.k
xzgksa osQ fodkl dh fuEufyf[kr voLFkk,¡ ekuh
tkrh gSa%
(i) rkjs uhgkfjdk osQ vanj xSl osQ xqafFkr >qaM gSaA
bu xqafFkr >qaMksa esa xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy ls xSlh;
ckny esa ozQksM dk fuekZ.k gqvk vkSj bl xSlh;
ozQksM osQ pkjksa rjiQ xSl o /wyd.kksa dh ?kwerh
gqbZ r'rjh (Rotating disc) fodflr gqbZA
(ii) vxyh voLFkk esa xSlh; ckny dk la?kuu
vkjaHk gqvk vkSj ozQksM dks <+dus okyk inkFkZ
NksVs xksyksa osQ :i esa fodflr gqvkA ;s NksVs
xksys lalatu (v.kqvksa esa ikjLifjd vkd"kZ.k)
çfØ;k }kjk xzgk.kqvksa (Planetesimals) esa
fodflr gq,A la?kêðu dh fØ;k }kjk cM+s fiaM
cuus 'kq: gq, vkSj xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy osQ
ifj.kkeLo:i ;s vkil esa tqM+ x,A NksVs fiaMksa
dh vf/d la[;k gh xzgk.kq gSA
(iii) vafre voLFkk esa bu vusd NksVs xzgk.kqvksa
osQ lgof/Zr gksus ij oqQN cM+s fiaM xzgksa osQ
:i esa cusA
lkSjeaMy
gekjs lkSjeaMy esa ukS xzg gSaA (vHkh gky esa gh ,d u;k
xzg 2003 UB
313
 ns[kk x;k gS] ftls nlok¡ xzg ekuk
tk jgk gSA) uhgkfjdk dks lkSjeaMy dk tud ekuk tkrk
gS mlosQ èoLr gksus o ozQksM osQ cuus dh 'kq:vkr
yxHkx 5 ls 5-6 vjc o"kks± igys gqbZ o xzg  yxHkx
4-6 ls 4-56 vjc o"kksZa igys cusA gekjs lkSjeaMy esa lw;Z
(rkjk)] 9 xzg] 63 mixzg] yk[kksa NksVs fiaM tSlsµ{kqæ xzg
(xzgksa osQ VqdM+s) (Asteroids)] /weosQrq (Comets)
,oa o`gr~ ek=kk esa /wfyd.k o xSl gaSA
bu ukS xzgksa esa cq/] 'kqØ] i`Foh o eaxy Hkhrjh xzg
(Inner planets) dgykrs gSa] D;ksafd ;s lw;Z o
Nqæxzgksa dh iêðh] osQ chp fLFkr gSaA vU; ik¡p xzg
ckgjh xzg (Outer planets) dgykrs gSaA igys pkj
xzg ikfFkZo (Terrestrial) xzg Hkh dgs tkrs gSaA bldk
vFkZ gS fd ;s xzg i`Foh dh Hkk¡fr gh 'kSyksa vkSj /krqvksa
ls cus gSa vkSj vis{kkÑr vf/d ?kuRo okys xzg gSaA
vU; ik¡p xzg xSl ls cus fo'kky xzg ;k tksfo;u
(Jovian) xzg dgykrs gSaA tksfo;u dk vFkZ gS c`gLifr
(Jupiter) dh rjgA buesa ls vf/drj ikfFkZo xzgksa ls
fo'kky gSa vkSj gkbMªkstu o ghyh;e ls cuk l?ku
ok;qeaMy gSA lHkh xzgksa dk fuekZ.k yxHkx 4-6 vjc o"kks±
igys ,d gh le; esa gqvkA
gekjs lkSjeaMy ls lacaf/r oqQN rF; lkj.kh; 2-1
esa fn, x, gSaA
Hkhrjh xzg ikfFkZo gSa tcfd nwljs T;knkrj xzg xSlh;
gSaA ,slk D;ksa gS\
ikfFkZo o tksfo;u xzgksa esa varj fuEu ifjfLFkfr;ksa
osQ iQyLo:i gks ldrk gS%
lkj.kh 2-1 % lkSjeaMy
cq/ 'kqozQ i`Foh eaxy c`gLifr 'kfu ;wjsul usIP;wu IywVks
nwjh * 0.387 0.723 1.000 1.524 5.203 9.539 19.182 30.058 39.785
?kuRo @ 5.44 5.245 5.517 3.945 1.33 0.70 1.17 1.66 0.5-0.9
vèkZO;kl # 0.383 0.949 1.000 0.533 11.19 9.460 4.11 3.88 -0.3
mixzg 00 1 2 16   yxHkx 18 yxHkx 17 8 1
Page 5


i`Foh
bl bdkbZ osQ fooj.k %
? i`Foh dh mRifÙk ,oa fodkl] i`Foh dk vkarfjd Hkkx_ osxuj dk egk}hih; foLFkkiu
fl¼kar ,oa IysV foorZfudh] HkwoaQi ,oa Tokykeq[khA
bdkbZ
II
i`Foh dh mRifÙk ,oa fodkl
;k vkidks og dfork ;kn gS tks vkius viuh
ulZjh dh d{kk esa i<+h Fkh\ ^^fV~oady&fV~oady
fyfVy LVkj------------** cpiu ls gh rkjksa Hkjh jkrksa us
gesa ges'kk vkdf"kZr fd;k gSA vkius Hkh bu rkjksa osQ ckjs
esa lkspk gksxk vkSj vla[; ç'u vkiosQ fnekx esa vk,
gksaxsA oqQN bl çdkj osQ iz'u tSls&vkdk'k esa fdrus
rkjs gSa\ ;s rkjs oSQls cus\ D;k dksbZ vkdk'k osQ var rd
igq¡p ldrk gS\ bu ç'uksa osQ vfrfjDr Hkh dbZ ç'u
vkiosQ fnekx esa vk, gksaxsA bl vè;k; esa vki tkuasxs
fd ^;s fVefVekrs NksVs rkjs* oSQls cuas\ blosQ lkFk gh
vki i`Foh dh mRifÙk o fodkl dh dgkuh Hkh i<+asxsA
i`Foh dh mRifÙk
vkjafHkd fl¼kar
i`Foh dh mRifÙk osQ laca/ esa fofHkUu nk'kZfudksa o
oSKkfudksa us vusd ifjdYiuk,¡ çLrqr dh gSaA buesa ls
,d çkjafHkd ,oa yksdfç; er teZu nk'kZfud beSuqvy
dkUV (Immanuel Kant) dk gSA 1796 bZñ esa
xf.krK ykIysl (Laplace) us bldk la'kks/u çLrqr
fd;k tks uhgkfjdk ifjdYiuk (Nebular hypothesis)
osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA bl ifjdYiuk osQ vuqlkj
xzgksa dk fuekZ.k /heh xfr ls ?kwers gq, inkFkksZa osQ ckny
ls gqvk tks fd lw;Z dh ;qok voLFkk ls lac¼ FksA ckn
esa 1900 bZñ esa psEcjysu vkSj eksYVu (Chamberlain
& Moulton) us dgk fd czãkaM esa ,d vU;
Hkze.k'khy rkjk lw;Z osQ utnhd ls xqtjkA blosQ ifj.kke
Lo:i rkjs osQ xq:Rokd"kZ.k ls lw;Z&lrg ls flxkj osQ
vè;k;
vkdkj dk oqQN inkFkZ fudydj vyx gks x;kA ;g
rkjk tc lw;Z ls nwj pyk x;k rks lw;Z&lrg ls ckgj
fudyk gqvk ;g inkFkZ lw;Z osQ pkjksa rjiQ ?kweus yxk
vkSj ;gh /hjs&/hjs la?kfur gksdj xzgksa osQ :i esa
ifjofrZr gks x;kA igys lj tsEl thal (Sir James
Jeans) vkSj ckn esa lj gWjksYM tSiQjh (Sir Harold
Jeffrey) us bl er dk leFkZu fd;kA ;|fi oqQN
le; ckn osQ roZQ lw;Z osQ lkFk ,d vkSj lkFkh rkjs osQ
gksus dh ckr ekurs gSaA ;s roZQ ^^}Srkjd fl¼kar**
(Binary theories) osQ uke ls tkus tkrs gaSA 1950 bZñ
esa :l osQ vkWVks f'kfeM (Otto schmidt) o teZuh
osQ dkyZ okb”kkLdj (Carl weizascar) us uhgkfjdk
ifjdYiuk (Nebular hypothesis) esa oqQN la'kksèku
fd;k] ftlesa fooj.k fHkUu FkkA muosQ fopkj ls lw;Z
,d lkSj uhgkfjdk ls f?kjk gqvk Fkk tks eq[;r% gkbMªkstu]
ghyh;e vkSj /wfyd.kksa dh cuh FkhA bu d.kksa osQ ?k"kZ.k
o Vdjkus (Collision) ls ,d piVh r'rjh dh
vko`Qfr osQ ckny dk fuekZ.k gqvk vkSj vfHko`f¼
(Accretion) çØe }kjk gh xzgksa dk fuekZ.k gqvkA
vk/qfud fl¼kar
varrksxRok] oSKkfudksa us i`Foh ;k vU; xzgksa dh gh ugha
oju~ iwjs czãkaM dh mRifÙk laca/h leL;kvksa dks le>us
dk ç;kl fd;kA vk/qfud le; esa czãkaM dh mRifÙk
laca/h loZekU; fl¼kar fcx cSax fl¼kar (Big bang
theory) gSA bls foLrfjr czãkaM ifjdYiuk (Expanding
universe hypothesis) Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 1920 bZñ
D
i`Foh dh mRifÙk ,oa fodkl
15
fp=k 2-1 % fcx cSax
esa ,Mfou gCcy (Edwin Hubble) us çek.k fn;s
fd czãkaM dk foLrkj gks jgk gSA le; chrus osQ lkFk
vkdk'kxaxk,¡ ,d nwljs ls nwj gks jgh gSaA vki ç;ksx dj
tku ldrs gSa fd czãkaM foLrkj dk D;k vFkZ gSA ,d
xqCckjk ysa vkSj mlij oqQN fu'kku yxk,¡ ftudks
vkdk'kxaxk;sa eku ysaA tc vki bl xqCckjs dks iqQyk,¡xs]
xqCckjs ij yxs ;s fu'kku xqCckjs osQ iSQyus osQ lkFk&lkFk
,d nwljs ls nwj tkrs çrhr gksaxsA blh çdkj vkdk'kxaxkvksa
osQ chp dh nwjh Hkh c<+ jgh gS vkSj ifj.kkeLo:i
czãkaM foLrkfjr gks jgk gSA ;|fi vki ;g ik,¡xs fd
xqCckjs ij yxs fpÉksa osQ chp dh nwjh osQ vfrfjDr]
fpÉ Lo;a Hkh c<+ jgs gSaA tcfd ;g rF; osQ vuq:i
ugha gSA oSKkfud ekurs gSa fd vkdk'kxaxkvksa osQ chp
dh nwjh c<+ jgh gS] ijarq çs{k.k vkdk'kxaxkvksa osQ
foLrkj dks ugha fl¼ djrsA vr% xqCckjs dk mnkgj.k
vkaf'kd :i ls gh ekU; gSA
fcx cSax fl¼kar osQ vuqlkj czãkaM dk foLrkj
fuEu voLFkkvksa esa gqvk gS%
çfØ;k ls o`gr~ foLrkj gqvkA oSKkfudksa dk
fo'okl gS fd fcx cSax dh ?kVuk vkt ls
13-7 vjc o"kksZa igys gqbZ FkhA czãkaM dk
foLrkj vkt Hkh tkjh gSA foLrkj osQ dkj.k
oqQN ÅtkZ inkFkZ esa ifjofrZr gks xbZA foLiQksV
(Bang) osQ ckn ,d lSosQaM osQ vYika'k osQ
varxZr gh o`gr~ foLrkj gqvkA blosQ ckn
foLrkj dh xfr /heh iM+ xbZA fcx cSax gksus
osQ vkjafHkd rhu feuV osQ varZxr gh igys
ijek.kq dk fuekZ.k gqvkA
(iii) fcx cSax ls 3 yk[k o"kkasZ osQ nkSjku] rkieku
4500
ñ
 osQfYou rd fxj x;k vkSj ijek.koh;
inkFkZ dk fuekZ.k gqvkA czãkaM ikjn'khZ gks x;kA
czãkaM osQ foLrkj dk vFkZ gS vkdk'kxaxkvksa osQ
chp dh nwjh esa foLrkj dk gksukA gkW;y (Hoyle) us
bldk fodYi ^fLFkj voLFkk ladYiuk* (Steady
state concept) osQ uke ls çLrqr fd;kA bl
ladYiuk osQ vuqlkj czãkaM fdlh Hkh le; esa ,d gh
tSlk jgk gSA ;|fi czãkaM osQ foLrkj laca/h vusd
çek.kksa osQ feyus ij oSKkfud leqnk; vc czãkaM
foLrkj fl¼kar osQ gh i{k/j gSaA
rkjksa dk fuekZ.k
çkjafHkd czãkaM esa ÅtkZ o inkFkZ dk forj.k leku ugha
FkkA ?kuRo esa vkjafHkd fHkUurk ls xq#Rokd"kZ.k cyksa esa
fHkUurk vkbZ] ftlosQ ifj.kkeLo:i inkFkZ dk ,d=k.k
gqvkA ;gh ,d=k.k vkdk'kxaxkvksa osQ fodkl dk vkèkkj
cukA ,d vkdk'kxaxk vla[; rkjksa dk lewg gSA
vkdk'kxaxkvksa dk foLrkj bruk vf/d gksrk gS fd
mudh nwjh gtkjksa çdk'k o"kksZa esa (Light years) ekih
tkrh gSA ,d vosQyh vkdk'kxaxk dk O;kl 80 gtkj ls
1 yk[k 50 gtkj çdk'k o"kZ osQ chp gks ldrk gSA ,d
vkdk'kxaxk osQ fuekZ.k dh 'kq:vkr gkbMªkstu xSl ls
cus fo'kky ckny osQ lap;u ls gksrh gS ftls uhgkfjdk
(Nebula) dgk x;kA Øe'k% bl c<+rh gqbZ uhgkfjdk
esa xSl osQ >aqM fodflr gq,A ;s >qaM c<+rs&c<+rs ?kus
xSlh; fiaM cus] ftuls rkjksa dk fuekZ.k vkjaHk gqvkA
,slk fo'okl fd;k tkrk gS fd rkjksa dk fuek.kZ yxHkx
5 ls 6 vjc o"kksZa igys gqvkA
(i) vkjEHk esa os lHkh inkFkZ] ftuls czãkaM cuk gS]
vfr NksVs xksyd (,dkdh ijek.kq) osQ :i esa
,d gh LFkku ij fLFkr FksA ftldk vk;ru
vR;f/d lw{e ,oa rkieku rFkk ?kuRo vuar FkkA
(ii) fcx cSax dh çfØ;k esa bl vfr NksVs xksyd
esa Hkh"k.k foLiQksV gqvkA bl çdkj dh foLiQksV
HkkSfrd Hkwxksy osQ ewy fl¼kar
16
· lw;Z ls nwjh [kxksyh; ,dd esa gSaA vFkkZr~ vxj i`Foh dh eè;eku nwjh 14 djksM+ 95 yk[k 98 gtkj fd0eh0 ,d ,dd
osQ cjkcj gS A
@ ?kuRo xzke çfr ?kUk lsaVhehVj (gm/Cm
3
)
# v/ZO;kl % vxj Hkweè;js[kh; v/ZO;kl 6378-137 fd0 eh0¾1 gSA
çdk'k o"kZ (Light year) le; dk ugha oju~ nwjh
dk eki gSA çdk'k dh xfr 3 yk[k fd0 eh0 çfr
lSosQaM gSA fopkj.kh; gS fd ,d lky esa çdk'k
ftruh nwjh r; djsxk] og ,d çdk'k o"kZ gksxkA ;g
9-461×1012 fdñ ehñ osQ cjkcj gSA i`Foh o lw;Z
dh vkSlr nwjh 14 djksM+ 95 yk[k] 98 gtkj
fdyksehVj gSA çdk'k o"kZ osQ lanHkZ esa ;g izdk'k o"kZ
dk osQoy 8-311 feuV gSA
xzgksa dk fuekZ.k
xzgksa osQ fodkl dh fuEufyf[kr voLFkk,¡ ekuh
tkrh gSa%
(i) rkjs uhgkfjdk osQ vanj xSl osQ xqafFkr >qaM gSaA
bu xqafFkr >qaMksa esa xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy ls xSlh;
ckny esa ozQksM dk fuekZ.k gqvk vkSj bl xSlh;
ozQksM osQ pkjksa rjiQ xSl o /wyd.kksa dh ?kwerh
gqbZ r'rjh (Rotating disc) fodflr gqbZA
(ii) vxyh voLFkk esa xSlh; ckny dk la?kuu
vkjaHk gqvk vkSj ozQksM dks <+dus okyk inkFkZ
NksVs xksyksa osQ :i esa fodflr gqvkA ;s NksVs
xksys lalatu (v.kqvksa esa ikjLifjd vkd"kZ.k)
çfØ;k }kjk xzgk.kqvksa (Planetesimals) esa
fodflr gq,A la?kêðu dh fØ;k }kjk cM+s fiaM
cuus 'kq: gq, vkSj xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy osQ
ifj.kkeLo:i ;s vkil esa tqM+ x,A NksVs fiaMksa
dh vf/d la[;k gh xzgk.kq gSA
(iii) vafre voLFkk esa bu vusd NksVs xzgk.kqvksa
osQ lgof/Zr gksus ij oqQN cM+s fiaM xzgksa osQ
:i esa cusA
lkSjeaMy
gekjs lkSjeaMy esa ukS xzg gSaA (vHkh gky esa gh ,d u;k
xzg 2003 UB
313
 ns[kk x;k gS] ftls nlok¡ xzg ekuk
tk jgk gSA) uhgkfjdk dks lkSjeaMy dk tud ekuk tkrk
gS mlosQ èoLr gksus o ozQksM osQ cuus dh 'kq:vkr
yxHkx 5 ls 5-6 vjc o"kks± igys gqbZ o xzg  yxHkx
4-6 ls 4-56 vjc o"kksZa igys cusA gekjs lkSjeaMy esa lw;Z
(rkjk)] 9 xzg] 63 mixzg] yk[kksa NksVs fiaM tSlsµ{kqæ xzg
(xzgksa osQ VqdM+s) (Asteroids)] /weosQrq (Comets)
,oa o`gr~ ek=kk esa /wfyd.k o xSl gaSA
bu ukS xzgksa esa cq/] 'kqØ] i`Foh o eaxy Hkhrjh xzg
(Inner planets) dgykrs gSa] D;ksafd ;s lw;Z o
Nqæxzgksa dh iêðh] osQ chp fLFkr gSaA vU; ik¡p xzg
ckgjh xzg (Outer planets) dgykrs gSaA igys pkj
xzg ikfFkZo (Terrestrial) xzg Hkh dgs tkrs gSaA bldk
vFkZ gS fd ;s xzg i`Foh dh Hkk¡fr gh 'kSyksa vkSj /krqvksa
ls cus gSa vkSj vis{kkÑr vf/d ?kuRo okys xzg gSaA
vU; ik¡p xzg xSl ls cus fo'kky xzg ;k tksfo;u
(Jovian) xzg dgykrs gSaA tksfo;u dk vFkZ gS c`gLifr
(Jupiter) dh rjgA buesa ls vf/drj ikfFkZo xzgksa ls
fo'kky gSa vkSj gkbMªkstu o ghyh;e ls cuk l?ku
ok;qeaMy gSA lHkh xzgksa dk fuekZ.k yxHkx 4-6 vjc o"kks±
igys ,d gh le; esa gqvkA
gekjs lkSjeaMy ls lacaf/r oqQN rF; lkj.kh; 2-1
esa fn, x, gSaA
Hkhrjh xzg ikfFkZo gSa tcfd nwljs T;knkrj xzg xSlh;
gSaA ,slk D;ksa gS\
ikfFkZo o tksfo;u xzgksa esa varj fuEu ifjfLFkfr;ksa
osQ iQyLo:i gks ldrk gS%
lkj.kh 2-1 % lkSjeaMy
cq/ 'kqozQ i`Foh eaxy c`gLifr 'kfu ;wjsul usIP;wu IywVks
nwjh * 0.387 0.723 1.000 1.524 5.203 9.539 19.182 30.058 39.785
?kuRo @ 5.44 5.245 5.517 3.945 1.33 0.70 1.17 1.66 0.5-0.9
vèkZO;kl # 0.383 0.949 1.000 0.533 11.19 9.460 4.11 3.88 -0.3
mixzg 00 1 2 16   yxHkx 18 yxHkx 17 8 1
i`Foh dh mRifÙk ,oa fodkl
17
(i) ikfFkZo xzg tud rkjs osQ cgqr lehi cusa tgk¡
vR;f/d rkieku osQ dkj.k xSlsa la?kfur ugha
gks ikbZa vkSj ?kuhHkwr Hkh u gks ldhaA tksfo;u
xzgksa dh jpuk vis{kkÑr vf/d nwjh ij gqbZA
(ii) lkSj ok;q lw;Z osQ ut+nhd T;knk 'kfDr'kkyh
FkhA vr% ikfFkZo xzgksa ls T;knk ek=kk esa xSl o
/wyd.k mM+k ys xbZA lkSj iou bruh 'kfDr'kkyh
u gksus osQ dkj.k tksfo;u xzgksa ls xSlksa dks ugha
gVk ikbZA
(iii) ikfFkZo xzgksa osQ NksVs gksus ls budh xq#Rokd"kZ.k
'kfDr Hkh de jgh ftlosQ ifj.kkeLo:i buls
fudyh gqbZ xSl buij #dh ugha jg ldhA
paæek
paæek i`Foh dk vosQyk çkÑfrd mixzg gSA i`Foh dh
rjg paæek dh mRifÙk laca/h er çLrqr fd, x, gSaA
lu~ 1838 bZñ esa] lj tktZ MkfoZu (Sir George
Darwin) us lq>k;k fd çkjaHk esa i`Foh o paæek rsth
ls ?kwers ,d gh fiaM FksA ;g iwjk fiaM Macy (chp ls
iryk o fdukjksa ls eksVk) dh vkÑfr esa ifjofrZr gqvk
vkSj varrksxRok VwV x;kA muosQ vuqlkj paæek dk
fuek.kZ mlh inkFkZ ls gqvk gS tgk¡ vkt ç'kkar egklkxj
,d xrZ osQ :i esa ekStwn gSA
;|fi orekZu le; osQ oSKkfud buesa ls fdlh Hkh
O;k[;k dks Lohdkj ugha djrsA ,slk fo'okl fd;k tkrk
gS fd i`Foh osQ mixzg osQ :i esa paæek dh mRifÙk ,d
cM+s Vdjko (Giant impact) dk urhtk gS ftls ^n
fcx LIySV* (The big splat) dgk x;k gSA ,slk
ekuuk gS fd i`Foh osQ cuus osQ oqQN le; ckn gh
eaxy xzg osQ 1 ls 3 xq.kk cM+s vkdkj dk fiaM i`Foh
ls Vdjk;kA bl Vdjko ls i`Foh dk ,d fgLlk VwVdj
varfj{k esa fc[kj x;kA Vdjko ls vyx gqvk ;g inkFkZ
fiQj i`Foh osQ d{k esa ?kweus yxk vkSj Øe'k% vkt dk
paæek cukA ;g ?kVuk ;k paæek dh mRifÙk yxHkx
4-44 vjc o"kksZa igys gqbZA
i`Foh dk mn~Hko
D;k vki tkurs gSa fd çkjaHk esa i`Foh pêðkuh] xeZ vkSj
ohjku xzg Fkh] ftldk ok;qeaMy fojy Fkk tks gkbMªkstu
o ghyh;e ls cuk FkkA ;g vkt dh i`Foh osQ
ok;qeaMy ls cgqr vyx FkkA vr% oqQN ,slh ?kVuk,¡
,oa fozQ;k,¡ vo'; gqbZ gkasxh ftuosQ dkj.k pêðkuh]
ohjku vkSj xeZ i`Foh ,d ,sls lqanj xzg esa ifjofrZr gqbZ
tgk¡ cgqr lk ikuh] rFkk thou osQ fy, vuqdwy
okrkoj.k miyC/ gqvkA vxys oqQN Hkkxksa esa vki i<+saxs
fd vkt ls 460 djksM+ lkyksa osQ nkSjku bl xzg ij
thou dk fodkl oSQls gqvkA
i`Foh dh lajpuk ijrnkj gSA ok;qeaMy osQ ckgjh
Nksj ls i`Foh osQ ozQksM rd tks inkFkZ gSa os ,d leku
ugha gSaA ok;qeaMyh; inkFkZ dk ?kuRo lcls de gSA
i`Foh dh lrg ls blosQ Hkhrjh Hkkx rd vusd eaMy
gSa vkSj gj ,d Hkkx osQ inkFkZ dh vyx fo'ks"krk,¡ gSaA
i`Foh dh ijrnkj lajpuk oSQls fodflr gqbZ\
LFkyeaMy
xzgk.kq o nwljs [kxksyh; fiaM T;knkrj ,d tSls gh ?kus
vkSj gYosQ inkFkkasZ osQ feJ.k ls cus gSaA mYdkvksa osQ
vè;;u ls gesa bl ckr dk irk pyrk gSA cgqr ls
xzgk.kqvksa osQ bdêòk gksus ls xzg cusaA i`Foh dh jpuk Hkh
blh çde osQ vuq:i gqbZ gSA tc inkFkZ xq#Rocy osQ
dkj.k lagr gks jgk Fkk] rks mu bdêòk gksrs fiaMksa us inkFkZ
dks çHkkfor fd;kA blls vR;f/d Å"ek mRiUu gqbZA
;g fØ;k tkjh jgh vkSj mRiUu rki ls inkFkZ fi?kyus@xyus
yxkA ,slk i`Foh dh mRifÙk osQ nkSjku vkSj mRifÙk osQ
rqjar ckn gqvkA vR;f/d rki osQ dkj.k] i`Foh vkaf'kd
:i ls nzo voLFkk esa jg xbZ vkSj rkieku dh vfèkdrk
osQ dkj.k gh gYosQ vkSj Hkkjh ?kuRo osQ feJ.k okys
inkFkks± ?kuRo osQ varj osQ dkj.k vyx gksuk 'kq: gks
x,A blh vyxko ls Hkkjh inkFkZ (tSls yksgk)] i`Foh osQ
osQUæ esa pys x, vkSj gYosQ inkFkZ i`Foh dh lrg ;k
Åijh Hkkx dh rjiQ vk x,A le; osQ lkFk ;g vkSj
BaMs gq, vkSj Bksl :i esa ifjofrZr gksdj NksVs vkdkj
osQ gks x,A varrksxRok ;g i`Foh dh HkwiiZVh osQ :i esa
fodflr gks x,A gYosQ o Hkkjh ?kuRo okys inkFkksZa osQ
i`Fkd gksus dh bl çfØ;k dks foHksnu (Differentiation)
dgk tkrk gSA paæek dh mRifÙk osQ nkSjku] Hkh"k.k la?kêð
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