NCERT Textbook - स्मृति Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 9

Created by: Trisha Vashisht

Class 9 : NCERT Textbook - स्मृति Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


8/lap;u
Le`fr
Jhjke 'kekZ
lu~ 1908 bZ- dh ckr gSA fnlacj dk vk[khj ;k tuojh dk izkjaHk gksxkA fpYyk
1
tkM+k iM+ jgk FkkA nks&pkj fnu iwoZ oqQN cw¡nk&ck¡nh gks xbZ Fkh] blfy, 'khr dh
Hk;adjrk vkSj Hkh c<+ xbZ FkhA lk;adky osQ lk<+s rhu ;k pkj cts gkasxsA dbZ lkfFk;ksa
osQ lkFk eSa >jcsjh osQ csj rksM+&rksM+dj [kk jgk Fkk fd xk¡o osQ ikl ls ,d vkneh
us ”kksj ls iqdkjk fd rqEgkjs HkkbZ cqyk jgs gSa] 'kh?kz gh ?kj ykSV tkvksA eSa ?kj dks
pyus yxkA lkFk esa NksVk HkkbZ Hkh FkkA HkkbZ lkgc dh ekj dk Mj Fkk blfy, lgek
gqvk pyk tkrk FkkA le> esa ugha vkrk Fkk fd dkSu&lk dlwj cu iM+kA Mjrs&Mjrs
?kj esa ?kqlkA vk'kadk
2
 Fkh fd csj [kkus osQ vijkèk eas gh rks is'kh u gksA ij vk¡xu
esa HkkbZ lkgc dks i=k fy[krs ik;kA vc fiVus dk Hk; nwj gqvkA gesa ns[kdj HkkbZ
lkgc us dgkµ¶bu i=kksa dks ys tkdj eD[kuiqj Mkd[kkus esa Mky vkvksA rs”kh ls
tkuk] ftlls 'kke dh Mkd esa fpf_;k¡ fudy tk,¡A ;s cM+h ”k:jh gSaA¸
tkM+s osQ fnu Fks gh] frl ij gok osQ izdksi ls o¡Qi&o¡Qih yx jgh FkhA gok
eTTkk
3
 rd fBBqjk jgh Fkh] blfy, geus dkuksa dks èkksrh ls ck¡èkkA ek¡ us Hkq¡tkus
4
osQ fy, FkksM+s pus ,d èkksrh esa ck¡èk fn,A ge nksuksa HkkbZ viuk&viuk MaMk ysdj
?kj ls fudy iM+sA ml le; ml ccwy osQ MaMs ls ftruk eksg Fkk] mruk bl
mej esa jk;iQy ls ughaA esjk MaMk vusd lk¡iksa osQ fy, ukjk;.k&okgu gks pqdk
1- dM+h ljnh 2- Mj 3- gah osQ Hkhrj Hkjk eqyk;e inkFkZ 4- Hkquokuk
Page 2


8/lap;u
Le`fr
Jhjke 'kekZ
lu~ 1908 bZ- dh ckr gSA fnlacj dk vk[khj ;k tuojh dk izkjaHk gksxkA fpYyk
1
tkM+k iM+ jgk FkkA nks&pkj fnu iwoZ oqQN cw¡nk&ck¡nh gks xbZ Fkh] blfy, 'khr dh
Hk;adjrk vkSj Hkh c<+ xbZ FkhA lk;adky osQ lk<+s rhu ;k pkj cts gkasxsA dbZ lkfFk;ksa
osQ lkFk eSa >jcsjh osQ csj rksM+&rksM+dj [kk jgk Fkk fd xk¡o osQ ikl ls ,d vkneh
us ”kksj ls iqdkjk fd rqEgkjs HkkbZ cqyk jgs gSa] 'kh?kz gh ?kj ykSV tkvksA eSa ?kj dks
pyus yxkA lkFk esa NksVk HkkbZ Hkh FkkA HkkbZ lkgc dh ekj dk Mj Fkk blfy, lgek
gqvk pyk tkrk FkkA le> esa ugha vkrk Fkk fd dkSu&lk dlwj cu iM+kA Mjrs&Mjrs
?kj esa ?kqlkA vk'kadk
2
 Fkh fd csj [kkus osQ vijkèk eas gh rks is'kh u gksA ij vk¡xu
esa HkkbZ lkgc dks i=k fy[krs ik;kA vc fiVus dk Hk; nwj gqvkA gesa ns[kdj HkkbZ
lkgc us dgkµ¶bu i=kksa dks ys tkdj eD[kuiqj Mkd[kkus esa Mky vkvksA rs”kh ls
tkuk] ftlls 'kke dh Mkd esa fpf_;k¡ fudy tk,¡A ;s cM+h ”k:jh gSaA¸
tkM+s osQ fnu Fks gh] frl ij gok osQ izdksi ls o¡Qi&o¡Qih yx jgh FkhA gok
eTTkk
3
 rd fBBqjk jgh Fkh] blfy, geus dkuksa dks èkksrh ls ck¡èkkA ek¡ us Hkq¡tkus
4
osQ fy, FkksM+s pus ,d èkksrh esa ck¡èk fn,A ge nksuksa HkkbZ viuk&viuk MaMk ysdj
?kj ls fudy iM+sA ml le; ml ccwy osQ MaMs ls ftruk eksg Fkk] mruk bl
mej esa jk;iQy ls ughaA esjk MaMk vusd lk¡iksa osQ fy, ukjk;.k&okgu gks pqdk
1- dM+h ljnh 2- Mj 3- gah osQ Hkhrj Hkjk eqyk;e inkFkZ 4- Hkquokuk
Le`fr/9
FkkA eD[kuiqj osQ LowQy vkSj xk¡o osQ chp iM+us okys vke osQ isM+ksa ls izfro"kZ
mlls vke >qjs
1
 tkrs FksA bl dkj.k og ewd MaMk ltho&lk izrhr gksrk FkkA
izlUUkonu
2
 ge nksuksa eD[kuiqj dh vksj rs”kh ls c<+us yxsA fpf_;ksa dks eSaus Vksih
esa j[k fy;k] D;ksafd oqQrsZ esa tscsa u FkhaA
ge nksuksa mNyrs&owQnrs] ,d gh lk¡l esa xk¡o ls pkj iQyk±x nwj ml oqQ,¡ osQ
ikl vk x, ftlesa ,d vfr Hk;adj dkyk lk¡i iM+k gqvk FkkA oqQvk¡ dPpk Fkk]
vkSj pkSchl gkFk xgjk FkkA mlesa ikuh u FkkA mlesa u tkus lk¡i oSQls fxj x;k
Fkk\ dkj.k oqQN Hkh gks] gekjk mlosQ oqQ,¡ esa gksus dk Kku osQoy nks eghus dk
FkkA cPps uV[kV gksrs gh gSaA eD[kuiqj i<+us tkus okyh gekjh Vksyh iwjh ckuj
Vksyh FkhA ,d fnu ge yksx LowQy ls ykSV jgs Fks fd gedks oqQ,¡ esa m>dus
3
 dh
lw>hA lcls igys m>dus okyk eSa gh FkkA oqQ,¡ esa >k¡ddj ,d <syk isaQdk fd
mldh vkok”k oSQlh gksrh gSA mlosQ lquus osQ ckn viuh cksyh dh izfrèofu
4
lquus dh bPNk Fkh] ij oqQ,¡ esa T;ksagh <syk fxjk] R;ksagh ,d iqQldkj lqukbZ iM+hA
oqQ,¡ osQ fdukjs [kM+s gq, ge lc ckyd igys rks ml iqQldkj ls ,sls pfdr gks
x, tSls fdyksysa
5
 djrk gqvk e`xlewg vfr lehi osQ oqQÙks dh HkkSad ls pfdr
gks tkrk gSA mlosQ mijkar lHkh us mNy&mNydj ,d&,d <syk isaQdk vkSj oqQ,¡
ls vkus okyh ozQksèkiw.kZ iqQldkj ij dgdgs yxk,A
xk¡o ls eD[kuiqj tkrs vkSj eD[kuiqj ls ykSVrs le; izk;% izfrfnu gh oqQ,¡
esa <sys Mkys tkrs FksA eSa rks vkxs Hkkxdj vk tkrk Fkk vkSj Vksih dks ,d gkFk ls
idM+dj nwljs gkFk ls <syk isaQdrk FkkA ;g jks”kkuk dh vknr&lh gks xbZ FkhA lk¡i
ls iqQldkj djok ysuk eSa ml le; cM+k dke le>rk FkkA blfy, tSls gh ge
nksuksa ml oqQ,¡ dh vksj ls fudys] oqQ,¡ esa <syk isaQddj iqQldkj lquus dh izo`fÙk
6
tkxzr gks xbZA eSa oqQ,¡ dh vksj c<+kA NksVk HkkbZ esjs ihNs ,sls gks fy;k tSls cM+s
1- rksM+uk  2- izlUu psgjk  3- mpduk] iats osQ cy mpddj >k¡duk 4- fdlh 'kCn osQ mijkar
lqukbZ iM+us okyk mlh ls mRiUu 'kCn] xw¡t  5- ozQhM+k 6- eu dk fdlh fo"k; dh vksj >qdko
Page 3


8/lap;u
Le`fr
Jhjke 'kekZ
lu~ 1908 bZ- dh ckr gSA fnlacj dk vk[khj ;k tuojh dk izkjaHk gksxkA fpYyk
1
tkM+k iM+ jgk FkkA nks&pkj fnu iwoZ oqQN cw¡nk&ck¡nh gks xbZ Fkh] blfy, 'khr dh
Hk;adjrk vkSj Hkh c<+ xbZ FkhA lk;adky osQ lk<+s rhu ;k pkj cts gkasxsA dbZ lkfFk;ksa
osQ lkFk eSa >jcsjh osQ csj rksM+&rksM+dj [kk jgk Fkk fd xk¡o osQ ikl ls ,d vkneh
us ”kksj ls iqdkjk fd rqEgkjs HkkbZ cqyk jgs gSa] 'kh?kz gh ?kj ykSV tkvksA eSa ?kj dks
pyus yxkA lkFk esa NksVk HkkbZ Hkh FkkA HkkbZ lkgc dh ekj dk Mj Fkk blfy, lgek
gqvk pyk tkrk FkkA le> esa ugha vkrk Fkk fd dkSu&lk dlwj cu iM+kA Mjrs&Mjrs
?kj esa ?kqlkA vk'kadk
2
 Fkh fd csj [kkus osQ vijkèk eas gh rks is'kh u gksA ij vk¡xu
esa HkkbZ lkgc dks i=k fy[krs ik;kA vc fiVus dk Hk; nwj gqvkA gesa ns[kdj HkkbZ
lkgc us dgkµ¶bu i=kksa dks ys tkdj eD[kuiqj Mkd[kkus esa Mky vkvksA rs”kh ls
tkuk] ftlls 'kke dh Mkd esa fpf_;k¡ fudy tk,¡A ;s cM+h ”k:jh gSaA¸
tkM+s osQ fnu Fks gh] frl ij gok osQ izdksi ls o¡Qi&o¡Qih yx jgh FkhA gok
eTTkk
3
 rd fBBqjk jgh Fkh] blfy, geus dkuksa dks èkksrh ls ck¡èkkA ek¡ us Hkq¡tkus
4
osQ fy, FkksM+s pus ,d èkksrh esa ck¡èk fn,A ge nksuksa HkkbZ viuk&viuk MaMk ysdj
?kj ls fudy iM+sA ml le; ml ccwy osQ MaMs ls ftruk eksg Fkk] mruk bl
mej esa jk;iQy ls ughaA esjk MaMk vusd lk¡iksa osQ fy, ukjk;.k&okgu gks pqdk
1- dM+h ljnh 2- Mj 3- gah osQ Hkhrj Hkjk eqyk;e inkFkZ 4- Hkquokuk
Le`fr/9
FkkA eD[kuiqj osQ LowQy vkSj xk¡o osQ chp iM+us okys vke osQ isM+ksa ls izfro"kZ
mlls vke >qjs
1
 tkrs FksA bl dkj.k og ewd MaMk ltho&lk izrhr gksrk FkkA
izlUUkonu
2
 ge nksuksa eD[kuiqj dh vksj rs”kh ls c<+us yxsA fpf_;ksa dks eSaus Vksih
esa j[k fy;k] D;ksafd oqQrsZ esa tscsa u FkhaA
ge nksuksa mNyrs&owQnrs] ,d gh lk¡l esa xk¡o ls pkj iQyk±x nwj ml oqQ,¡ osQ
ikl vk x, ftlesa ,d vfr Hk;adj dkyk lk¡i iM+k gqvk FkkA oqQvk¡ dPpk Fkk]
vkSj pkSchl gkFk xgjk FkkA mlesa ikuh u FkkA mlesa u tkus lk¡i oSQls fxj x;k
Fkk\ dkj.k oqQN Hkh gks] gekjk mlosQ oqQ,¡ esa gksus dk Kku osQoy nks eghus dk
FkkA cPps uV[kV gksrs gh gSaA eD[kuiqj i<+us tkus okyh gekjh Vksyh iwjh ckuj
Vksyh FkhA ,d fnu ge yksx LowQy ls ykSV jgs Fks fd gedks oqQ,¡ esa m>dus
3
 dh
lw>hA lcls igys m>dus okyk eSa gh FkkA oqQ,¡ esa >k¡ddj ,d <syk isaQdk fd
mldh vkok”k oSQlh gksrh gSA mlosQ lquus osQ ckn viuh cksyh dh izfrèofu
4
lquus dh bPNk Fkh] ij oqQ,¡ esa T;ksagh <syk fxjk] R;ksagh ,d iqQldkj lqukbZ iM+hA
oqQ,¡ osQ fdukjs [kM+s gq, ge lc ckyd igys rks ml iqQldkj ls ,sls pfdr gks
x, tSls fdyksysa
5
 djrk gqvk e`xlewg vfr lehi osQ oqQÙks dh HkkSad ls pfdr
gks tkrk gSA mlosQ mijkar lHkh us mNy&mNydj ,d&,d <syk isaQdk vkSj oqQ,¡
ls vkus okyh ozQksèkiw.kZ iqQldkj ij dgdgs yxk,A
xk¡o ls eD[kuiqj tkrs vkSj eD[kuiqj ls ykSVrs le; izk;% izfrfnu gh oqQ,¡
esa <sys Mkys tkrs FksA eSa rks vkxs Hkkxdj vk tkrk Fkk vkSj Vksih dks ,d gkFk ls
idM+dj nwljs gkFk ls <syk isaQdrk FkkA ;g jks”kkuk dh vknr&lh gks xbZ FkhA lk¡i
ls iqQldkj djok ysuk eSa ml le; cM+k dke le>rk FkkA blfy, tSls gh ge
nksuksa ml oqQ,¡ dh vksj ls fudys] oqQ,¡ esa <syk isaQddj iqQldkj lquus dh izo`fÙk
6
tkxzr gks xbZA eSa oqQ,¡ dh vksj c<+kA NksVk HkkbZ esjs ihNs ,sls gks fy;k tSls cM+s
1- rksM+uk  2- izlUu psgjk  3- mpduk] iats osQ cy mpddj >k¡duk 4- fdlh 'kCn osQ mijkar
lqukbZ iM+us okyk mlh ls mRiUu 'kCn] xw¡t  5- ozQhM+k 6- eu dk fdlh fo"k; dh vksj >qdko
10/lap;u
Page 4


8/lap;u
Le`fr
Jhjke 'kekZ
lu~ 1908 bZ- dh ckr gSA fnlacj dk vk[khj ;k tuojh dk izkjaHk gksxkA fpYyk
1
tkM+k iM+ jgk FkkA nks&pkj fnu iwoZ oqQN cw¡nk&ck¡nh gks xbZ Fkh] blfy, 'khr dh
Hk;adjrk vkSj Hkh c<+ xbZ FkhA lk;adky osQ lk<+s rhu ;k pkj cts gkasxsA dbZ lkfFk;ksa
osQ lkFk eSa >jcsjh osQ csj rksM+&rksM+dj [kk jgk Fkk fd xk¡o osQ ikl ls ,d vkneh
us ”kksj ls iqdkjk fd rqEgkjs HkkbZ cqyk jgs gSa] 'kh?kz gh ?kj ykSV tkvksA eSa ?kj dks
pyus yxkA lkFk esa NksVk HkkbZ Hkh FkkA HkkbZ lkgc dh ekj dk Mj Fkk blfy, lgek
gqvk pyk tkrk FkkA le> esa ugha vkrk Fkk fd dkSu&lk dlwj cu iM+kA Mjrs&Mjrs
?kj esa ?kqlkA vk'kadk
2
 Fkh fd csj [kkus osQ vijkèk eas gh rks is'kh u gksA ij vk¡xu
esa HkkbZ lkgc dks i=k fy[krs ik;kA vc fiVus dk Hk; nwj gqvkA gesa ns[kdj HkkbZ
lkgc us dgkµ¶bu i=kksa dks ys tkdj eD[kuiqj Mkd[kkus esa Mky vkvksA rs”kh ls
tkuk] ftlls 'kke dh Mkd esa fpf_;k¡ fudy tk,¡A ;s cM+h ”k:jh gSaA¸
tkM+s osQ fnu Fks gh] frl ij gok osQ izdksi ls o¡Qi&o¡Qih yx jgh FkhA gok
eTTkk
3
 rd fBBqjk jgh Fkh] blfy, geus dkuksa dks èkksrh ls ck¡èkkA ek¡ us Hkq¡tkus
4
osQ fy, FkksM+s pus ,d èkksrh esa ck¡èk fn,A ge nksuksa HkkbZ viuk&viuk MaMk ysdj
?kj ls fudy iM+sA ml le; ml ccwy osQ MaMs ls ftruk eksg Fkk] mruk bl
mej esa jk;iQy ls ughaA esjk MaMk vusd lk¡iksa osQ fy, ukjk;.k&okgu gks pqdk
1- dM+h ljnh 2- Mj 3- gah osQ Hkhrj Hkjk eqyk;e inkFkZ 4- Hkquokuk
Le`fr/9
FkkA eD[kuiqj osQ LowQy vkSj xk¡o osQ chp iM+us okys vke osQ isM+ksa ls izfro"kZ
mlls vke >qjs
1
 tkrs FksA bl dkj.k og ewd MaMk ltho&lk izrhr gksrk FkkA
izlUUkonu
2
 ge nksuksa eD[kuiqj dh vksj rs”kh ls c<+us yxsA fpf_;ksa dks eSaus Vksih
esa j[k fy;k] D;ksafd oqQrsZ esa tscsa u FkhaA
ge nksuksa mNyrs&owQnrs] ,d gh lk¡l esa xk¡o ls pkj iQyk±x nwj ml oqQ,¡ osQ
ikl vk x, ftlesa ,d vfr Hk;adj dkyk lk¡i iM+k gqvk FkkA oqQvk¡ dPpk Fkk]
vkSj pkSchl gkFk xgjk FkkA mlesa ikuh u FkkA mlesa u tkus lk¡i oSQls fxj x;k
Fkk\ dkj.k oqQN Hkh gks] gekjk mlosQ oqQ,¡ esa gksus dk Kku osQoy nks eghus dk
FkkA cPps uV[kV gksrs gh gSaA eD[kuiqj i<+us tkus okyh gekjh Vksyh iwjh ckuj
Vksyh FkhA ,d fnu ge yksx LowQy ls ykSV jgs Fks fd gedks oqQ,¡ esa m>dus
3
 dh
lw>hA lcls igys m>dus okyk eSa gh FkkA oqQ,¡ esa >k¡ddj ,d <syk isaQdk fd
mldh vkok”k oSQlh gksrh gSA mlosQ lquus osQ ckn viuh cksyh dh izfrèofu
4
lquus dh bPNk Fkh] ij oqQ,¡ esa T;ksagh <syk fxjk] R;ksagh ,d iqQldkj lqukbZ iM+hA
oqQ,¡ osQ fdukjs [kM+s gq, ge lc ckyd igys rks ml iqQldkj ls ,sls pfdr gks
x, tSls fdyksysa
5
 djrk gqvk e`xlewg vfr lehi osQ oqQÙks dh HkkSad ls pfdr
gks tkrk gSA mlosQ mijkar lHkh us mNy&mNydj ,d&,d <syk isaQdk vkSj oqQ,¡
ls vkus okyh ozQksèkiw.kZ iqQldkj ij dgdgs yxk,A
xk¡o ls eD[kuiqj tkrs vkSj eD[kuiqj ls ykSVrs le; izk;% izfrfnu gh oqQ,¡
esa <sys Mkys tkrs FksA eSa rks vkxs Hkkxdj vk tkrk Fkk vkSj Vksih dks ,d gkFk ls
idM+dj nwljs gkFk ls <syk isaQdrk FkkA ;g jks”kkuk dh vknr&lh gks xbZ FkhA lk¡i
ls iqQldkj djok ysuk eSa ml le; cM+k dke le>rk FkkA blfy, tSls gh ge
nksuksa ml oqQ,¡ dh vksj ls fudys] oqQ,¡ esa <syk isaQddj iqQldkj lquus dh izo`fÙk
6
tkxzr gks xbZA eSa oqQ,¡ dh vksj c<+kA NksVk HkkbZ esjs ihNs ,sls gks fy;k tSls cM+s
1- rksM+uk  2- izlUu psgjk  3- mpduk] iats osQ cy mpddj >k¡duk 4- fdlh 'kCn osQ mijkar
lqukbZ iM+us okyk mlh ls mRiUu 'kCn] xw¡t  5- ozQhM+k 6- eu dk fdlh fo"k; dh vksj >qdko
10/lap;u Le`fr/11
e`x'kkod
1
 osQ ihNs NksVk e`x'kkod gks ysrk gSA oqQ,¡ osQ fdukjs ls ,d <syk mBk;k
vkSj mNydj ,d gkFk ls Vksih mrkjrs gq, lk¡i ij <syk fxjk fn;k] ij eq> ij
rks fctyh&lh fxj iM+hA lk¡i us iqQldkj ekjh ;k ugha] <syk mls yxk ;k ugha
;g ckr vc rd Lej.k ughaA Vksih osQ gkFk esa ysrs gh rhuksa fpf_;k¡ pDdj
dkVrh gqbZ oqQ,¡ esa fxj jgh FkhaA vdLekr~ tSls ?kkl pjrs gq, fgju dh vkRek
xksyh ls gr gksus ij fudy tkrh gS vkSj og rM+irk jg tkrk gS] mlh Hkk¡fr os
fpf_;k¡ D;k Vksih ls fudy xb±] esjh rks tku fudy xbZA muosQ fxjrs gh eSaus
mudks idM+us osQ fy, ,d >i^k Hkh ekjk_ Bhd oSls tSls ?kk;y 'ksj f'kdkjh dks
isM+ ij p<+rs ns[k ml ij geyk djrk gSA ij os rks ig¡qp ls ckgj gks pqdh FkhaA
mudks idM+us dh ?kcjkgV esa eSa Lo;a >VosQ osQ dkj.k oqQ,¡ esa fxj x;k gksrkA
oqQ,¡ dh ikV ij cSBs ge jks jgs FksµNksVk HkkbZ <k<+sa
2
 ekjdj vkSj eSa pqipki
vk¡[ksa McMckdjA irhyh esa mI+kQku vkus ls <duk mQij mB tkrk gS vkSj ikuh
ckgj Vid tkrk gSA fujk'kk] fiVus osQ Hk; vkSj m}sx
3
 ls jksus dk mI
+
kQku vkrk
FkkA iydksa osQ <dus Hkhrjh Hkkoksa dks jksdus dk iz;Ru djrs Fks] ij diksyksa ij
vk¡lw <qyd gh tkrs FksA ek¡ dh xksn dh ;kn vkrh FkhA th pkgrk Fkk fd ek¡
vkdj Nkrh ls yxk ys vkSj ykM+&I;kj djosQ dg ns fd dksbZ ckr ugha] fpf_;k¡
fiQj fy[k yh tk,¡xhA rch;r djrh Fkh fd oqQ,¡ esa cgqr&lh fe^h Mky nh tk,
vkSj ?kj tkdj dg fn;k tk, fd fp_h Mky vk,] ij ml le; eSa >wB cksyuk
tkurk gh u FkkA ?kj ykSVdj lp cksyus ij jQbZ dh rjg èkqukbZ gksrhA ekj osQ
[k;ky ls 'kjhj gh ugha eu Hkh dk¡i tkrk FkkA lp cksydj fiVus osQ Hkkoh Hk;
vkSj >wB cksydj fpf_;ksa osQ u ig¡qpus dh f”kEesnkjh osQ cks> ls nck eSa cSBk
flld jgk FkkA blh lksp&fopkj esa ianzg feuV gksus dks vk,A nsj gks jgh Fkh]
vkSj mèkj fnu dk cq<+kik c<+rk tkrk FkkA dgha Hkkx tkus dks rch;r djrh Fkh]
ij fiVus dk Hk; vkSj f”kEesnkjh dh nqèkkjh
4
 ryokj dysts ij fiQj jgh FkhA
1- fgju dk cPpk 2- ”kksj&”kksj ls jksuk 3- cspSuh] ?kcjkgV 4- nksuksa rjI
+
kQ ls /kj okyh] nks /kjksa
okyh
Page 5


8/lap;u
Le`fr
Jhjke 'kekZ
lu~ 1908 bZ- dh ckr gSA fnlacj dk vk[khj ;k tuojh dk izkjaHk gksxkA fpYyk
1
tkM+k iM+ jgk FkkA nks&pkj fnu iwoZ oqQN cw¡nk&ck¡nh gks xbZ Fkh] blfy, 'khr dh
Hk;adjrk vkSj Hkh c<+ xbZ FkhA lk;adky osQ lk<+s rhu ;k pkj cts gkasxsA dbZ lkfFk;ksa
osQ lkFk eSa >jcsjh osQ csj rksM+&rksM+dj [kk jgk Fkk fd xk¡o osQ ikl ls ,d vkneh
us ”kksj ls iqdkjk fd rqEgkjs HkkbZ cqyk jgs gSa] 'kh?kz gh ?kj ykSV tkvksA eSa ?kj dks
pyus yxkA lkFk esa NksVk HkkbZ Hkh FkkA HkkbZ lkgc dh ekj dk Mj Fkk blfy, lgek
gqvk pyk tkrk FkkA le> esa ugha vkrk Fkk fd dkSu&lk dlwj cu iM+kA Mjrs&Mjrs
?kj esa ?kqlkA vk'kadk
2
 Fkh fd csj [kkus osQ vijkèk eas gh rks is'kh u gksA ij vk¡xu
esa HkkbZ lkgc dks i=k fy[krs ik;kA vc fiVus dk Hk; nwj gqvkA gesa ns[kdj HkkbZ
lkgc us dgkµ¶bu i=kksa dks ys tkdj eD[kuiqj Mkd[kkus esa Mky vkvksA rs”kh ls
tkuk] ftlls 'kke dh Mkd esa fpf_;k¡ fudy tk,¡A ;s cM+h ”k:jh gSaA¸
tkM+s osQ fnu Fks gh] frl ij gok osQ izdksi ls o¡Qi&o¡Qih yx jgh FkhA gok
eTTkk
3
 rd fBBqjk jgh Fkh] blfy, geus dkuksa dks èkksrh ls ck¡èkkA ek¡ us Hkq¡tkus
4
osQ fy, FkksM+s pus ,d èkksrh esa ck¡èk fn,A ge nksuksa HkkbZ viuk&viuk MaMk ysdj
?kj ls fudy iM+sA ml le; ml ccwy osQ MaMs ls ftruk eksg Fkk] mruk bl
mej esa jk;iQy ls ughaA esjk MaMk vusd lk¡iksa osQ fy, ukjk;.k&okgu gks pqdk
1- dM+h ljnh 2- Mj 3- gah osQ Hkhrj Hkjk eqyk;e inkFkZ 4- Hkquokuk
Le`fr/9
FkkA eD[kuiqj osQ LowQy vkSj xk¡o osQ chp iM+us okys vke osQ isM+ksa ls izfro"kZ
mlls vke >qjs
1
 tkrs FksA bl dkj.k og ewd MaMk ltho&lk izrhr gksrk FkkA
izlUUkonu
2
 ge nksuksa eD[kuiqj dh vksj rs”kh ls c<+us yxsA fpf_;ksa dks eSaus Vksih
esa j[k fy;k] D;ksafd oqQrsZ esa tscsa u FkhaA
ge nksuksa mNyrs&owQnrs] ,d gh lk¡l esa xk¡o ls pkj iQyk±x nwj ml oqQ,¡ osQ
ikl vk x, ftlesa ,d vfr Hk;adj dkyk lk¡i iM+k gqvk FkkA oqQvk¡ dPpk Fkk]
vkSj pkSchl gkFk xgjk FkkA mlesa ikuh u FkkA mlesa u tkus lk¡i oSQls fxj x;k
Fkk\ dkj.k oqQN Hkh gks] gekjk mlosQ oqQ,¡ esa gksus dk Kku osQoy nks eghus dk
FkkA cPps uV[kV gksrs gh gSaA eD[kuiqj i<+us tkus okyh gekjh Vksyh iwjh ckuj
Vksyh FkhA ,d fnu ge yksx LowQy ls ykSV jgs Fks fd gedks oqQ,¡ esa m>dus
3
 dh
lw>hA lcls igys m>dus okyk eSa gh FkkA oqQ,¡ esa >k¡ddj ,d <syk isaQdk fd
mldh vkok”k oSQlh gksrh gSA mlosQ lquus osQ ckn viuh cksyh dh izfrèofu
4
lquus dh bPNk Fkh] ij oqQ,¡ esa T;ksagh <syk fxjk] R;ksagh ,d iqQldkj lqukbZ iM+hA
oqQ,¡ osQ fdukjs [kM+s gq, ge lc ckyd igys rks ml iqQldkj ls ,sls pfdr gks
x, tSls fdyksysa
5
 djrk gqvk e`xlewg vfr lehi osQ oqQÙks dh HkkSad ls pfdr
gks tkrk gSA mlosQ mijkar lHkh us mNy&mNydj ,d&,d <syk isaQdk vkSj oqQ,¡
ls vkus okyh ozQksèkiw.kZ iqQldkj ij dgdgs yxk,A
xk¡o ls eD[kuiqj tkrs vkSj eD[kuiqj ls ykSVrs le; izk;% izfrfnu gh oqQ,¡
esa <sys Mkys tkrs FksA eSa rks vkxs Hkkxdj vk tkrk Fkk vkSj Vksih dks ,d gkFk ls
idM+dj nwljs gkFk ls <syk isaQdrk FkkA ;g jks”kkuk dh vknr&lh gks xbZ FkhA lk¡i
ls iqQldkj djok ysuk eSa ml le; cM+k dke le>rk FkkA blfy, tSls gh ge
nksuksa ml oqQ,¡ dh vksj ls fudys] oqQ,¡ esa <syk isaQddj iqQldkj lquus dh izo`fÙk
6
tkxzr gks xbZA eSa oqQ,¡ dh vksj c<+kA NksVk HkkbZ esjs ihNs ,sls gks fy;k tSls cM+s
1- rksM+uk  2- izlUu psgjk  3- mpduk] iats osQ cy mpddj >k¡duk 4- fdlh 'kCn osQ mijkar
lqukbZ iM+us okyk mlh ls mRiUu 'kCn] xw¡t  5- ozQhM+k 6- eu dk fdlh fo"k; dh vksj >qdko
10/lap;u Le`fr/11
e`x'kkod
1
 osQ ihNs NksVk e`x'kkod gks ysrk gSA oqQ,¡ osQ fdukjs ls ,d <syk mBk;k
vkSj mNydj ,d gkFk ls Vksih mrkjrs gq, lk¡i ij <syk fxjk fn;k] ij eq> ij
rks fctyh&lh fxj iM+hA lk¡i us iqQldkj ekjh ;k ugha] <syk mls yxk ;k ugha
;g ckr vc rd Lej.k ughaA Vksih osQ gkFk esa ysrs gh rhuksa fpf_;k¡ pDdj
dkVrh gqbZ oqQ,¡ esa fxj jgh FkhaA vdLekr~ tSls ?kkl pjrs gq, fgju dh vkRek
xksyh ls gr gksus ij fudy tkrh gS vkSj og rM+irk jg tkrk gS] mlh Hkk¡fr os
fpf_;k¡ D;k Vksih ls fudy xb±] esjh rks tku fudy xbZA muosQ fxjrs gh eSaus
mudks idM+us osQ fy, ,d >i^k Hkh ekjk_ Bhd oSls tSls ?kk;y 'ksj f'kdkjh dks
isM+ ij p<+rs ns[k ml ij geyk djrk gSA ij os rks ig¡qp ls ckgj gks pqdh FkhaA
mudks idM+us dh ?kcjkgV esa eSa Lo;a >VosQ osQ dkj.k oqQ,¡ esa fxj x;k gksrkA
oqQ,¡ dh ikV ij cSBs ge jks jgs FksµNksVk HkkbZ <k<+sa
2
 ekjdj vkSj eSa pqipki
vk¡[ksa McMckdjA irhyh esa mI+kQku vkus ls <duk mQij mB tkrk gS vkSj ikuh
ckgj Vid tkrk gSA fujk'kk] fiVus osQ Hk; vkSj m}sx
3
 ls jksus dk mI
+
kQku vkrk
FkkA iydksa osQ <dus Hkhrjh Hkkoksa dks jksdus dk iz;Ru djrs Fks] ij diksyksa ij
vk¡lw <qyd gh tkrs FksA ek¡ dh xksn dh ;kn vkrh FkhA th pkgrk Fkk fd ek¡
vkdj Nkrh ls yxk ys vkSj ykM+&I;kj djosQ dg ns fd dksbZ ckr ugha] fpf_;k¡
fiQj fy[k yh tk,¡xhA rch;r djrh Fkh fd oqQ,¡ esa cgqr&lh fe^h Mky nh tk,
vkSj ?kj tkdj dg fn;k tk, fd fp_h Mky vk,] ij ml le; eSa >wB cksyuk
tkurk gh u FkkA ?kj ykSVdj lp cksyus ij jQbZ dh rjg èkqukbZ gksrhA ekj osQ
[k;ky ls 'kjhj gh ugha eu Hkh dk¡i tkrk FkkA lp cksydj fiVus osQ Hkkoh Hk;
vkSj >wB cksydj fpf_;ksa osQ u ig¡qpus dh f”kEesnkjh osQ cks> ls nck eSa cSBk
flld jgk FkkA blh lksp&fopkj esa ianzg feuV gksus dks vk,A nsj gks jgh Fkh]
vkSj mèkj fnu dk cq<+kik c<+rk tkrk FkkA dgha Hkkx tkus dks rch;r djrh Fkh]
ij fiVus dk Hk; vkSj f”kEesnkjh dh nqèkkjh
4
 ryokj dysts ij fiQj jgh FkhA
1- fgju dk cPpk 2- ”kksj&”kksj ls jksuk 3- cspSuh] ?kcjkgV 4- nksuksa rjI
+
kQ ls /kj okyh] nks /kjksa
okyh
12/lap;u
n`<+ ladYi ls nqfoèkk dh csfM+;k¡ dV tkrh gSaA esjh nqfoèkk Hkh nwj gks xbZA
oqQ,¡ esa ?kqldj fpf_;ksa dks fudkyus dk fu'p; fd;kA fdruk Hk;adj fu.kZ; Fkk!
ij tks ejus dks rS;kj gks] mls D;k\ ew[kZrk vFkok cqf¼eÙkk ls fdlh dke dks
djus osQ fy, dksbZ ekSr dk ekxZ gh Lohdkj dj ys] vkSj og Hkh tkucw>dj]
rks fiQj og vosQyk lalkj ls fHkM+us dks rS;kj gks tkrk gSA vkSj iQy\ mls iQy
dh D;k ¯prkA iQy rks fdlh nwljh 'kfDr ij fuHkZj gSA ml le; fpf_;k¡
fudkyus osQ fy, eSa fo"kèkj ls fHkM+us dks rS;kj gks x;kA iklk isaQd fn;k FkkA ekSr
dk vk¯yxu gks vFkok lk¡i ls cpdj nwljk tUeµbldh dksbZ ¯prk u FkhA ij
fo'okl ;g Fkk fd MaMs ls lk¡i dks igys ekj n¡wxk] rc fiQj fpf_;k¡ mBk y¡wxkA
cl blh n`<+ fo'okl osQ cwrs ij eSaus oqQ,¡ esa ?kqlus dh BkuhA
NksVk HkkbZ jksrk Fkk vkSj mlosQ jksus dk rkRi;Z Fkk fd esjh ekSr eq>s uhps cqyk
jgh gS] ;|fi og 'kCnksa ls u dgrk FkkA okLro esa ekSr ltho vkSj uXu :i esa
oqQ,¡ esa cSBh Fkh] ij ml uXu ekSr ls eqBHksM+ osQ fy, eq>s Hkh uXu gksuk iM+kA
NksVk HkkbZ Hkh uaxk gqvkA ,d èkksrh esjh] ,d NksVs HkkbZ dh] ,d pusokyh] nks dkuksa
ls c¡èkh gqbZ èkksfr;k¡µik¡p èkksfr;k¡ vkSj oqQN jLlh feykdj oqQ,¡ dh xgjkbZ osQ fy,
dkI
+
kQh gqb±A ge yksxksa us èkksfr;k¡ ,d&nwljh ls ck¡èkh vkSj [kwc [khap&[khapdj
vk”kek fy;k fd xk¡Bsa dM+h gSa ;k ughaA viuh vksj ls dksbZ èkks[ks dk dke u j[kkA
èkksrh osQ ,d fljs ij MaMk ck¡èkk vkSj mls oqQ,¡ esa Mky fn;kA nwljs fljs dks Msax
(og ydM+h ftl ij pjl&iqj fVdrk gS) osQ pkjksa vksj ,d pDdj nsdj vkSj
,d xk¡B yxkdj NksVs HkkbZ dks ns fn;kA NksVk HkkbZ osQoy vkB o"kZ dk Fkk]
blhfy, èkksrh dks Msax ls dM+h djosQ ck¡èk fn;k vkSj rc mls [kwc e”kcwrh ls
idM+us osQ fy, dgkA eSa oqQ,¡ esa èkksrh osQ lgkjs ?kqlus yxkA NksVk HkkbZ jksus yxkA
eSaus mls vk'oklu
1
 fnyk;k fd eSa oqQ,¡ osQ uhps ig¡qprs gh lk¡i dks ekj n¡wxk vkSj
esjk fo'okl Hkh ,slk gh FkkA dkj.k ;g Fkk fd blls igys eSaus vusd lk¡i ekjs
1- Hkjkslk] fnyklk
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