NCERT Textbook, पाठ 17 - बच्चे काम पर जा रहे है, कक्षा - 9, क्षितिज, हिन्दी Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 9

Class 9 : NCERT Textbook, पाठ 17 - बच्चे काम पर जा रहे है, कक्षा - 9, क्षितिज, हिन्दी Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


jkts'k tks'kh
jkts'k tks'kh dk tUe lu~ 1946 esa eè; izns'k osQ ujflagx<+ f”kys esa
gqvkA mUgksaus f'k{kk iwjh djus osQ ckn i=kdkfjrk 'kq: dh vkSj oqQN lkyksa
rd vè;kiu fd;kA jkts'k tks'kh us dforkvksa osQ vykok dgkfu;k¡]
ukVd] ys[k vkSj fVIif.k;k¡ Hkh fy[khaA lkFk gh mUgksaus oqQN ukV~; :ikarj
Hkh fd, gSaA oqQN y?kq fiQYeksa osQ fy, iVdFkk ys[ku dk dk;Z Hkh fd;kA
mUgksaus Hkr`Zgfj dh dforkvksa dh vuqjpuk Hkwfe dk dYir: ;g Hkh ,oa
ek;dksoLdh dh dfork dk vuqokn irywu ifguk ckny uke ls fd;k
gSA dbZ Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa osQ lkFk&lkFk vaxsz”kh] :lh vkSj teZu esa Hkh
jkts'k th dh dforkvksa osQ vuqokn izdkf'kr gq, gSaA
jkts'k tks'kh osQ izeq[k dkO;&laxzg gSaµ ,d fnu cksysaxs isM+] fe^h
dk psgjk] usiF; eas g¡lh vkSj nks iafDr;ksa osQ chpA mUgsa ek[kuyky
prqosZnh iqjLdkj] eè; izns'k 'kklu dk f'k[kj lEeku vkSj lfgR;
vdkneh iqjLdkj ls lEekfur fd;k x;k gSA
jkts'k tks'kh dh dfork,¡ xgjs lkekftd vfHkizk; okyh gksrh gSaA os
thou osQ ladV esa Hkh xgjh vkLFkk dks mHkkjrh gSaA mudh dforkvksa esa
LFkkuh; cksyh&ckuh] fe”kkt vkSj ekSle lHkh oqQN O;kIr gSA muosQ
dkO;yksd esa vkReh;rk vkSj y;kRedrk gS rFkk euq";rk dks cpk, j[kus
2020-21
Page 2


jkts'k tks'kh
jkts'k tks'kh dk tUe lu~ 1946 esa eè; izns'k osQ ujflagx<+ f”kys esa
gqvkA mUgksaus f'k{kk iwjh djus osQ ckn i=kdkfjrk 'kq: dh vkSj oqQN lkyksa
rd vè;kiu fd;kA jkts'k tks'kh us dforkvksa osQ vykok dgkfu;k¡]
ukVd] ys[k vkSj fVIif.k;k¡ Hkh fy[khaA lkFk gh mUgksaus oqQN ukV~; :ikarj
Hkh fd, gSaA oqQN y?kq fiQYeksa osQ fy, iVdFkk ys[ku dk dk;Z Hkh fd;kA
mUgksaus Hkr`Zgfj dh dforkvksa dh vuqjpuk Hkwfe dk dYir: ;g Hkh ,oa
ek;dksoLdh dh dfork dk vuqokn irywu ifguk ckny uke ls fd;k
gSA dbZ Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa osQ lkFk&lkFk vaxsz”kh] :lh vkSj teZu esa Hkh
jkts'k th dh dforkvksa osQ vuqokn izdkf'kr gq, gSaA
jkts'k tks'kh osQ izeq[k dkO;&laxzg gSaµ ,d fnu cksysaxs isM+] fe^h
dk psgjk] usiF; eas g¡lh vkSj nks iafDr;ksa osQ chpA mUgsa ek[kuyky
prqosZnh iqjLdkj] eè; izns'k 'kklu dk f'k[kj lEeku vkSj lfgR;
vdkneh iqjLdkj ls lEekfur fd;k x;k gSA
jkts'k tks'kh dh dfork,¡ xgjs lkekftd vfHkizk; okyh gksrh gSaA os
thou osQ ladV esa Hkh xgjh vkLFkk dks mHkkjrh gSaA mudh dforkvksa esa
LFkkuh; cksyh&ckuh] fe”kkt vkSj ekSle lHkh oqQN O;kIr gSA muosQ
dkO;yksd esa vkReh;rk vkSj y;kRedrk gS rFkk euq";rk dks cpk, j[kus
2020-21
jkts'k tks'kh@137
dk ,d fujarj la?k"kZ HkhA nqfu;k osQ u"V gksus dk [krjk jkts'k tks'kh dks
ftruk izcy fn[kkbZ nsrk gS] mruk gh os thou dh laHkkoukvksa dh [kkst
osQ fy, cspSu fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA
izLrqr dfork esa cPpksa ls cpiu Nhu fy, tkus dh ihM+k O;Dr gqbZ gSA dfo us ml
lkekftd&vkfFkZd foMacuk dh vksj b'kkjk fd;k gS ftlesa oqQN cPps [ksy] f'k{kk vkSj
thou dh meax ls oafpr gSaA
2020-21
Page 3


jkts'k tks'kh
jkts'k tks'kh dk tUe lu~ 1946 esa eè; izns'k osQ ujflagx<+ f”kys esa
gqvkA mUgksaus f'k{kk iwjh djus osQ ckn i=kdkfjrk 'kq: dh vkSj oqQN lkyksa
rd vè;kiu fd;kA jkts'k tks'kh us dforkvksa osQ vykok dgkfu;k¡]
ukVd] ys[k vkSj fVIif.k;k¡ Hkh fy[khaA lkFk gh mUgksaus oqQN ukV~; :ikarj
Hkh fd, gSaA oqQN y?kq fiQYeksa osQ fy, iVdFkk ys[ku dk dk;Z Hkh fd;kA
mUgksaus Hkr`Zgfj dh dforkvksa dh vuqjpuk Hkwfe dk dYir: ;g Hkh ,oa
ek;dksoLdh dh dfork dk vuqokn irywu ifguk ckny uke ls fd;k
gSA dbZ Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa osQ lkFk&lkFk vaxsz”kh] :lh vkSj teZu esa Hkh
jkts'k th dh dforkvksa osQ vuqokn izdkf'kr gq, gSaA
jkts'k tks'kh osQ izeq[k dkO;&laxzg gSaµ ,d fnu cksysaxs isM+] fe^h
dk psgjk] usiF; eas g¡lh vkSj nks iafDr;ksa osQ chpA mUgsa ek[kuyky
prqosZnh iqjLdkj] eè; izns'k 'kklu dk f'k[kj lEeku vkSj lfgR;
vdkneh iqjLdkj ls lEekfur fd;k x;k gSA
jkts'k tks'kh dh dfork,¡ xgjs lkekftd vfHkizk; okyh gksrh gSaA os
thou osQ ladV esa Hkh xgjh vkLFkk dks mHkkjrh gSaA mudh dforkvksa esa
LFkkuh; cksyh&ckuh] fe”kkt vkSj ekSle lHkh oqQN O;kIr gSA muosQ
dkO;yksd esa vkReh;rk vkSj y;kRedrk gS rFkk euq";rk dks cpk, j[kus
2020-21
jkts'k tks'kh@137
dk ,d fujarj la?k"kZ HkhA nqfu;k osQ u"V gksus dk [krjk jkts'k tks'kh dks
ftruk izcy fn[kkbZ nsrk gS] mruk gh os thou dh laHkkoukvksa dh [kkst
osQ fy, cspSu fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA
izLrqr dfork esa cPpksa ls cpiu Nhu fy, tkus dh ihM+k O;Dr gqbZ gSA dfo us ml
lkekftd&vkfFkZd foMacuk dh vksj b'kkjk fd;k gS ftlesa oqQN cPps [ksy] f'k{kk vkSj
thou dh meax ls oafpr gSaA
2020-21
cPps dke ij tk jgs gSa
dksgjs ls <¡dh lM+d ij cPps dke ij tk jgs gSa
lqcg lqcg
cPps dke ij tk jgs gSa
gekjs le; dh lcls Hk;kud iafDr gS ;g
Hk;kud gS bls fooj.k dh rjg fy[kk tkuk
fy[kk tkuk pkfg, bls loky dh rjg
dke ij D;ksa tk jgs gSa cPps\
D;k varfj{k esa fxj xbZ gSa lkjh xsansa
D;k nhedksa us [kk fy;k gS
lkjh jax fcjaxh fdrkcksa dks
D;k dkys igkM+ osQ uhps nc x, gSa lkjs f[kykSus
D;k fdlh Hkwdai esa <g xbZ gSa
lkjs enjlksa dh bekjrsa
D;k lkjs eSnku] lkjs cxhps vkSj ?kjksa osQ vk¡xu
[kRe gks x, gSa ,dk,d
2020-21
Page 4


jkts'k tks'kh
jkts'k tks'kh dk tUe lu~ 1946 esa eè; izns'k osQ ujflagx<+ f”kys esa
gqvkA mUgksaus f'k{kk iwjh djus osQ ckn i=kdkfjrk 'kq: dh vkSj oqQN lkyksa
rd vè;kiu fd;kA jkts'k tks'kh us dforkvksa osQ vykok dgkfu;k¡]
ukVd] ys[k vkSj fVIif.k;k¡ Hkh fy[khaA lkFk gh mUgksaus oqQN ukV~; :ikarj
Hkh fd, gSaA oqQN y?kq fiQYeksa osQ fy, iVdFkk ys[ku dk dk;Z Hkh fd;kA
mUgksaus Hkr`Zgfj dh dforkvksa dh vuqjpuk Hkwfe dk dYir: ;g Hkh ,oa
ek;dksoLdh dh dfork dk vuqokn irywu ifguk ckny uke ls fd;k
gSA dbZ Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa osQ lkFk&lkFk vaxsz”kh] :lh vkSj teZu esa Hkh
jkts'k th dh dforkvksa osQ vuqokn izdkf'kr gq, gSaA
jkts'k tks'kh osQ izeq[k dkO;&laxzg gSaµ ,d fnu cksysaxs isM+] fe^h
dk psgjk] usiF; eas g¡lh vkSj nks iafDr;ksa osQ chpA mUgsa ek[kuyky
prqosZnh iqjLdkj] eè; izns'k 'kklu dk f'k[kj lEeku vkSj lfgR;
vdkneh iqjLdkj ls lEekfur fd;k x;k gSA
jkts'k tks'kh dh dfork,¡ xgjs lkekftd vfHkizk; okyh gksrh gSaA os
thou osQ ladV esa Hkh xgjh vkLFkk dks mHkkjrh gSaA mudh dforkvksa esa
LFkkuh; cksyh&ckuh] fe”kkt vkSj ekSle lHkh oqQN O;kIr gSA muosQ
dkO;yksd esa vkReh;rk vkSj y;kRedrk gS rFkk euq";rk dks cpk, j[kus
2020-21
jkts'k tks'kh@137
dk ,d fujarj la?k"kZ HkhA nqfu;k osQ u"V gksus dk [krjk jkts'k tks'kh dks
ftruk izcy fn[kkbZ nsrk gS] mruk gh os thou dh laHkkoukvksa dh [kkst
osQ fy, cspSu fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA
izLrqr dfork esa cPpksa ls cpiu Nhu fy, tkus dh ihM+k O;Dr gqbZ gSA dfo us ml
lkekftd&vkfFkZd foMacuk dh vksj b'kkjk fd;k gS ftlesa oqQN cPps [ksy] f'k{kk vkSj
thou dh meax ls oafpr gSaA
2020-21
cPps dke ij tk jgs gSa
dksgjs ls <¡dh lM+d ij cPps dke ij tk jgs gSa
lqcg lqcg
cPps dke ij tk jgs gSa
gekjs le; dh lcls Hk;kud iafDr gS ;g
Hk;kud gS bls fooj.k dh rjg fy[kk tkuk
fy[kk tkuk pkfg, bls loky dh rjg
dke ij D;ksa tk jgs gSa cPps\
D;k varfj{k esa fxj xbZ gSa lkjh xsansa
D;k nhedksa us [kk fy;k gS
lkjh jax fcjaxh fdrkcksa dks
D;k dkys igkM+ osQ uhps nc x, gSa lkjs f[kykSus
D;k fdlh Hkwdai esa <g xbZ gSa
lkjs enjlksa dh bekjrsa
D;k lkjs eSnku] lkjs cxhps vkSj ?kjksa osQ vk¡xu
[kRe gks x, gSa ,dk,d
2020-21
jkts'k tks'kh@139
rks fiQj cpk gh D;k gS bl nqfu;k esa\
fdruk Hk;kud gksrk vxj ,slk gksrk
Hk;kud gS ysfdu blls Hkh ”;knk ;g
fd gSa lkjh ph”ksa gLcekewy
ij nqfu;k dh g”kkjksa lM+dksa ls xqtjrs gq,
cPps] cgqr NksVs NksVs cPps
dke ij tk jgs gSaA
iz'u&vH;kl
1- dfork dh igyh nks ifDr;ksa dks i<+us rFkk fopkj djus ls vkiosQ eu&efLr"d esa tks  fp=k
mHkjrk gS mls fy[kdj O;Dr dhft,A
2- dfo dk ekuuk gS fd cPpksa osQ dke ij tkus dh Hk;kud ckr dks fooj.k dh rjg u
fy[kdj loky osQ :i esa iwNk tkuk pkfg, fd ^dke ij D;ksa tk jgs gSa cPps\* dfo dh
n`f"V esa mls iz'u osQ :i esa D;ksa iwNk tkuk pkfg,\
3- lqfoèkk vkSj euksjatu osQ midj.kksa ls cPps oafpr D;ksa gSa\
4- fnu&izfrfnu osQ thou esa gj dksbZ cPpksa dks dke ij tkrs ns[k jgk@jgh gS] fiQj Hkh fdlh
dks oqQN vViVk ugha yxrkA bl mnklhurk osQ D;k dkj.k gks ldrs gSa\
5- vkius vius 'kgj esa cPpksa dks dc&dc vkSj dgk¡&dgk¡ dke djrs gq, ns[kk gS\
6- cPpksa dk dke ij tkuk /jrh osQ ,d cM+s gknls osQ leku D;ksa gS\
jpuk vkSj vfHkO;fDRk
7- dke ij tkrs fdlh cPps osQ LFkku ij vius&vki dks j[kdj nsf[k,A vkidks tks eglwl
gksrk gS mls fyf[k,A
2020-21
Page 5


jkts'k tks'kh
jkts'k tks'kh dk tUe lu~ 1946 esa eè; izns'k osQ ujflagx<+ f”kys esa
gqvkA mUgksaus f'k{kk iwjh djus osQ ckn i=kdkfjrk 'kq: dh vkSj oqQN lkyksa
rd vè;kiu fd;kA jkts'k tks'kh us dforkvksa osQ vykok dgkfu;k¡]
ukVd] ys[k vkSj fVIif.k;k¡ Hkh fy[khaA lkFk gh mUgksaus oqQN ukV~; :ikarj
Hkh fd, gSaA oqQN y?kq fiQYeksa osQ fy, iVdFkk ys[ku dk dk;Z Hkh fd;kA
mUgksaus Hkr`Zgfj dh dforkvksa dh vuqjpuk Hkwfe dk dYir: ;g Hkh ,oa
ek;dksoLdh dh dfork dk vuqokn irywu ifguk ckny uke ls fd;k
gSA dbZ Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa osQ lkFk&lkFk vaxsz”kh] :lh vkSj teZu esa Hkh
jkts'k th dh dforkvksa osQ vuqokn izdkf'kr gq, gSaA
jkts'k tks'kh osQ izeq[k dkO;&laxzg gSaµ ,d fnu cksysaxs isM+] fe^h
dk psgjk] usiF; eas g¡lh vkSj nks iafDr;ksa osQ chpA mUgsa ek[kuyky
prqosZnh iqjLdkj] eè; izns'k 'kklu dk f'k[kj lEeku vkSj lfgR;
vdkneh iqjLdkj ls lEekfur fd;k x;k gSA
jkts'k tks'kh dh dfork,¡ xgjs lkekftd vfHkizk; okyh gksrh gSaA os
thou osQ ladV esa Hkh xgjh vkLFkk dks mHkkjrh gSaA mudh dforkvksa esa
LFkkuh; cksyh&ckuh] fe”kkt vkSj ekSle lHkh oqQN O;kIr gSA muosQ
dkO;yksd esa vkReh;rk vkSj y;kRedrk gS rFkk euq";rk dks cpk, j[kus
2020-21
jkts'k tks'kh@137
dk ,d fujarj la?k"kZ HkhA nqfu;k osQ u"V gksus dk [krjk jkts'k tks'kh dks
ftruk izcy fn[kkbZ nsrk gS] mruk gh os thou dh laHkkoukvksa dh [kkst
osQ fy, cspSu fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA
izLrqr dfork esa cPpksa ls cpiu Nhu fy, tkus dh ihM+k O;Dr gqbZ gSA dfo us ml
lkekftd&vkfFkZd foMacuk dh vksj b'kkjk fd;k gS ftlesa oqQN cPps [ksy] f'k{kk vkSj
thou dh meax ls oafpr gSaA
2020-21
cPps dke ij tk jgs gSa
dksgjs ls <¡dh lM+d ij cPps dke ij tk jgs gSa
lqcg lqcg
cPps dke ij tk jgs gSa
gekjs le; dh lcls Hk;kud iafDr gS ;g
Hk;kud gS bls fooj.k dh rjg fy[kk tkuk
fy[kk tkuk pkfg, bls loky dh rjg
dke ij D;ksa tk jgs gSa cPps\
D;k varfj{k esa fxj xbZ gSa lkjh xsansa
D;k nhedksa us [kk fy;k gS
lkjh jax fcjaxh fdrkcksa dks
D;k dkys igkM+ osQ uhps nc x, gSa lkjs f[kykSus
D;k fdlh Hkwdai esa <g xbZ gSa
lkjs enjlksa dh bekjrsa
D;k lkjs eSnku] lkjs cxhps vkSj ?kjksa osQ vk¡xu
[kRe gks x, gSa ,dk,d
2020-21
jkts'k tks'kh@139
rks fiQj cpk gh D;k gS bl nqfu;k esa\
fdruk Hk;kud gksrk vxj ,slk gksrk
Hk;kud gS ysfdu blls Hkh ”;knk ;g
fd gSa lkjh ph”ksa gLcekewy
ij nqfu;k dh g”kkjksa lM+dksa ls xqtjrs gq,
cPps] cgqr NksVs NksVs cPps
dke ij tk jgs gSaA
iz'u&vH;kl
1- dfork dh igyh nks ifDr;ksa dks i<+us rFkk fopkj djus ls vkiosQ eu&efLr"d esa tks  fp=k
mHkjrk gS mls fy[kdj O;Dr dhft,A
2- dfo dk ekuuk gS fd cPpksa osQ dke ij tkus dh Hk;kud ckr dks fooj.k dh rjg u
fy[kdj loky osQ :i esa iwNk tkuk pkfg, fd ^dke ij D;ksa tk jgs gSa cPps\* dfo dh
n`f"V esa mls iz'u osQ :i esa D;ksa iwNk tkuk pkfg,\
3- lqfoèkk vkSj euksjatu osQ midj.kksa ls cPps oafpr D;ksa gSa\
4- fnu&izfrfnu osQ thou esa gj dksbZ cPpksa dks dke ij tkrs ns[k jgk@jgh gS] fiQj Hkh fdlh
dks oqQN vViVk ugha yxrkA bl mnklhurk osQ D;k dkj.k gks ldrs gSa\
5- vkius vius 'kgj esa cPpksa dks dc&dc vkSj dgk¡&dgk¡ dke djrs gq, ns[kk gS\
6- cPpksa dk dke ij tkuk /jrh osQ ,d cM+s gknls osQ leku D;ksa gS\
jpuk vkSj vfHkO;fDRk
7- dke ij tkrs fdlh cPps osQ LFkku ij vius&vki dks j[kdj nsf[k,A vkidks tks eglwl
gksrk gS mls fyf[k,A
2020-21
140@f{kfrt
8- vkiosQ fopkj ls cPpksa dks dke ij D;kas ugha Hkstk tkuk pkfg,\ mUgsa D;k djus osQ ekSosQ
feyus pkfg,\
ikBsrj lfØ;rk
• fdlh dkedkth cPps ls laokn dhft, vkSj irk yxkb, fdµ
(d) og vius dke djus dh ckr dks fdl Hkko ls ysrk@ysrh gS\
([k) tc og viuh mez osQ cPpksa dks [ksyus@i<+us tkrs ns[krk@ns[krh gS rks oSQlk
eglwl djrk@djrh gS\
• ^orZeku ;qx esa lHkh cPpksa osQ fy, [ksyowQn vkSj f'k{kk osQ leku volj izkIr gSa*µ
bl fo"k; ij okn&fookn vk;ksftr dhft,A
• ^cky Je dh jksdFkke* ij ukVd rS;kj dj mldh izLrqfr dhft,A
• panzdkar nsorkys dh dfork ^FkksM+s ls cPps vkSj ckdh cPps* (ydM+cX?kk g¡l jgk gS)
if<+,A ml dfork osQ Hkko rFkk izLrqr dfork osQ Hkkoksa esa D;k lkE; gS\
'kCn&laink
dksgjk & èkqaèk
enjlk & fo|ky;
gLcekewy & ;Fkkor
;g Hkh tkusa
lafo/ku osQ vuqPNsn 24 esa dkj[kkuksa vkfn esa ckyd@ckfydkvksa osQ fu;kstu osQ izfr"ks/ dk mYys[k
fd;k x;k gS] ftlosQ vuqlkj ^pkSng o"kZ ls de vk;q osQ fdlh cPps dks fdlh dkj[kkus ;k [kku
esa dke djus osQ fy, fu;ksftr ugha fd;k tk,xk ;k fdlh vU; ifjladVe; fu;kstu esa ugha
yxk;k tk,xkA*
2020-21
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