NCERT Textbook, पाठ - 5 समकालीन दक्षिण एशिया, कक्षा 12, राजनितिक विज्ञान - I Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

राजनितिक विज्ञान - I (समकालीन विश्व राजनीति) कक्षा 12

Created by: Mrinal Grover

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook, पाठ - 5 समकालीन दक्षिण एशिया, कक्षा 12, राजनितिक विज्ञान - I Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


ifjp;
vkb,] vc ge 'khr ;q¼ osQ nkSj esa fo'o osQ
,d cM+s I
+
kQyd ij gq, cnykoksa ls u”kj gVk
dj viuk è;ku vius {ks=k ;kuh nf{k.k ,f'k;k
dh vksj eksM+saA chloha lnh osQ vkf[+kjh lkyksa
esa tc Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku us [kqn dks ijek.kq
'kfDr&laiUu jk"Vªksa dh fcjknjh esa cSBk fy;k rks
;g {ks=k vpkud iwjs fo'o dh u”kj esa
egÙoiw.kZ gks mBkA Li"V gh fo'o dk è;ku bl
bykosQ esa py jgs dbZ rjg osQ la?k"kks± ij x;kA
bl {ks=k osQ ns'kksa osQ chp lhek vkSj unh ty
osQ c¡Vokjs dks ysdj fookn dk;e gSA blosQ
vfrfjDr foæksg] tkrh; la?k"kZ vkSj lalk/uksa osQ
c¡Vokjs dks ysdj gksus okys >xM+s Hkh gSaA bu
otgksa ls nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk bykdk cM+k
laosnu'khy gS vkSj vusd fo'ks"kKksa dk ekuuk gS
fd vkt fo'o esa ;g {ks=k lqj{kk osQ fygkt ls
[krjs dh vk'kadk okyk {ks=k gSA lkFk gh ,d
ckr vkSj gSA bl bykosQ osQ cgqr ls yksx bl
rF; dh fu'kkunsgh djrs gSa fd nf{k.k ,f'k;k
osQ ns'k vxj vkil esa lg;ksx djsa rks ;g {ks=k
fodkl djosQ le`¼ cu ldrk gSA bl vè;k;
esa ge nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa osQ chp ekStwn
la?k"kks± dh çÑfr vkSj bu ns'kksa osQ vkilh
lg;ksx dks le>us dh dksf'k'k djsaxsA nf{k.k
,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa dh ?kjsyw jktuhfr ls bu >xM+ksa
;k lg;ksx dk fe”kkt r; gksrk gS vFkok og
buosQ ewy esa gSaA bl otg ls vè;k; esa igys
nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk ifjp; fn;k tk,xk vkSj oqQN
ns'kksa dh ?kjsyw jktuhfr dh ppkZ dh tk,xhA
vè;k; 5
ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k
ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k
;sxsuh MsykØks us lu~ 1830 esa ,d isafVax cuk;h FkhA bldk 'kh"kZd
Fkkµ^fycVhZ yhfMax n ihiy*A isafVax esa Lora=krk dh nsoh dks turk dh
vxqvkbZ djrs gq, fpf=kr fd;k x;k FkkA ;gk¡ fn;k x;k fp=k mlh isafVax dk
lqHkk"k jk; Ñr :ikarj.k gSA
fgeky lkmFk ,f'k;u (tuojh] 2007)] n lkmFk ,f'k;u VªLV] usiky
ls lkHkkj
2018-19
Page 2


ifjp;
vkb,] vc ge 'khr ;q¼ osQ nkSj esa fo'o osQ
,d cM+s I
+
kQyd ij gq, cnykoksa ls u”kj gVk
dj viuk è;ku vius {ks=k ;kuh nf{k.k ,f'k;k
dh vksj eksM+saA chloha lnh osQ vkf[+kjh lkyksa
esa tc Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku us [kqn dks ijek.kq
'kfDr&laiUu jk"Vªksa dh fcjknjh esa cSBk fy;k rks
;g {ks=k vpkud iwjs fo'o dh u”kj esa
egÙoiw.kZ gks mBkA Li"V gh fo'o dk è;ku bl
bykosQ esa py jgs dbZ rjg osQ la?k"kks± ij x;kA
bl {ks=k osQ ns'kksa osQ chp lhek vkSj unh ty
osQ c¡Vokjs dks ysdj fookn dk;e gSA blosQ
vfrfjDr foæksg] tkrh; la?k"kZ vkSj lalk/uksa osQ
c¡Vokjs dks ysdj gksus okys >xM+s Hkh gSaA bu
otgksa ls nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk bykdk cM+k
laosnu'khy gS vkSj vusd fo'ks"kKksa dk ekuuk gS
fd vkt fo'o esa ;g {ks=k lqj{kk osQ fygkt ls
[krjs dh vk'kadk okyk {ks=k gSA lkFk gh ,d
ckr vkSj gSA bl bykosQ osQ cgqr ls yksx bl
rF; dh fu'kkunsgh djrs gSa fd nf{k.k ,f'k;k
osQ ns'k vxj vkil esa lg;ksx djsa rks ;g {ks=k
fodkl djosQ le`¼ cu ldrk gSA bl vè;k;
esa ge nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa osQ chp ekStwn
la?k"kks± dh çÑfr vkSj bu ns'kksa osQ vkilh
lg;ksx dks le>us dh dksf'k'k djsaxsA nf{k.k
,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa dh ?kjsyw jktuhfr ls bu >xM+ksa
;k lg;ksx dk fe”kkt r; gksrk gS vFkok og
buosQ ewy esa gSaA bl otg ls vè;k; esa igys
nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk ifjp; fn;k tk,xk vkSj oqQN
ns'kksa dh ?kjsyw jktuhfr dh ppkZ dh tk,xhA
vè;k; 5
ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k
ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k
;sxsuh MsykØks us lu~ 1830 esa ,d isafVax cuk;h FkhA bldk 'kh"kZd
Fkkµ^fycVhZ yhfMax n ihiy*A isafVax esa Lora=krk dh nsoh dks turk dh
vxqvkbZ djrs gq, fpf=kr fd;k x;k FkkA ;gk¡ fn;k x;k fp=k mlh isafVax dk
lqHkk"k jk; Ñr :ikarj.k gSA
fgeky lkmFk ,f'k;u (tuojh] 2007)] n lkmFk ,f'k;u VªLV] usiky
ls lkHkkj
2018-19
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr 66
D;k gS nf{k.k ,f'k;k\
Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku osQ chp fØosQV&eSp
fdruk rukoiw.kZ gksrk gSµ ;g ge c[kwch
tkurs gSaA geus ;g Hkh ns[kk gS fd fØosQV
eSp ns[kus osQ fy, ikfdLrkuh vFkok Hkkjrh;
^iSQUl* tc ,d&nwljs osQ ns'kksa esa igq¡prs gSa
rks mudk cM+k vknj&lRdkj gksrk gS_ xeZtks'kh
ls estckuh dh tkrh gSA ;gh gky nf{k.k
,f'k;kbZ ekeyksa dk Hkh gSA ;g ,d ,slk {ks=k
gS tgk¡ ln~Hkko vkSj 'k=kqrk] vk'kk vkSj
fujk'kk rFkk ikjLifjd 'kadk vkSj fo'okl
lkFk&lkFk clrs gSaA
'kq#vkr ge ,d cqfu;knh loky ls djsa
fd nf{k.k ,f'k;k gS D;k\ veweu ckaXykns'k]
HkwVku] Hkkjr] ekynho] usiky] ikfdLrku
vkSj Jhyadk dks bafxr djus osQ fy, ^nf{k.k
,f'k;k* in dk O;ogkj fd;k tkrk gSA mÙkj
dh fo'kky fgeky; ioZr&J`a[kyk] nf{k.k
dk ¯gn egklkxj] if'pe  dk vjc lkxj
vkSj iwjc esa ekStwn caxky dh [kkM+h ls ;g
bykdk ,d fof'k"V çkÑfrd {ks=k osQ :i esa
u”kj vkrk gSA ;g HkkSxksfyd fof'k"Vrk gh
bl mi&egk}hih; {ks=k osQ Hkk"kkbZ] lkekftd
rFkk lkaLÑfrd vuwBsiu osQ fy, ftEesnkj
gSA bl {ks=k dh ppkZ esa tc&rc vI
+
kQxkfuLrku
vkSj E;kaekj dks Hkh 'kkfey fd;k tkrk gSA
phu bl {ks=k dk ,d çeq[k ns'k gS ysfdu
phu dks nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk vax ugha ekuk
tkrkA bl vè;k; esa ge ^nf{k.k ,f'k;k* in
dk bLrseky mi;qZDr lkr ns'kksa osQ fy,
djsaxsA bl rjg ifjHkkf"kr nf{k.k ,f'k;k gj
vFkZ esa fofo/rkvksa ls Hkjk&iwjk bykdk gS
fiQj Hkh Hkw&jktuhfrd èkjkry ij ;g ,d
{ks=k gSA
nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ fofHkUu ns'kksa esa ,d&lh
jktuhfrd ç.kkyh ugha gSA vusd leL;kvksa
vkSj lhekvksa osQ ckotwn Hkkjr vkSj Jhyadk
esa fczVsu ls vk”kkn gksus osQ ckn] yksdrkaf=kd
O;oLFkk liQyrkiwoZd dk;e gSA Hkkjr esa
yksdra=k osQ fodkl osQ ckjs esa vki ,d vkSj
fO+kQrkc esa foLrkj ls i<+saxsA bl fO+kQrkc esa
vk”kknh osQ ckn osQ fnuksa dh Hkkjrh; jktuhfr
dh ppkZ dh xbZ gSA Hkkjr osQ yksdra=k dh
cgqr lkjh lhekvksa dh rjiQ bafxr fd;k tk
ldrk gS ysfdu gesa ;kn j[kuk pkfg, fd
,d jk"Vª osQ :i esa Hkkjr ges'kk yksdrkaf=kd
jgk gSA ;gh ckr Jhyadk ij ykxw gksrh gSA
ikfdLrku vkSj ckaXykns'k esa yksdrkaf=kd
vkSj lSfud nksuksa rjg osQ usrkvksa dk 'kklu
jgk gSA 'khr;q¼ osQ ckn osQ lkyksa esa ckaXykns'k
esa yksdra=k dk;e jgkA ikfdLrku esa 'khr;q¼
osQ ckn osQ lkyksa esa yxkrkj nks yksdrkaf=kd
ljdkjsa cuhaA igyh ljdkj csu”khj HkqV~Vks
vkSj nwljh uok”k 'kjhI
+
kQ osQ usr`Ro esa dk;e
gqbZA ysfdu blosQ ckn 1999 esa ikfdLrku esa
lSfud r[rkiyV gqvkA rc ls ;gk¡
lSfud&'kklu gSA 2006 rd usiky esa
laoSèkkfud jktra=k Fkk vkSj bl ckr dk [krjk
cjkcj cuk gqvk Fkk fd jktk vius gkFk esa
dk;Zikfydk dh lkjh 'kfDr;k¡ ys ysxkA
ysfdu] 2006 esa ,d liQy tu&foæksg
gqvk vkSj ;gk¡ yksdra=k dh cgkyh gqbZA jktk
dh gSfl;r u osQ cjkcj jg xbZA ckaXykns'k
vkSj usiky osQ vuqHkoksa osQ vk/kj ij ge
dg ldrs gSa fd iwjs nf{k.k ,f'k;k esa
yksdra=k ,d LohÑr ewY; cu pyk gSA
nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ nks lcls NksVs ns'kksa esa
Hkh ,sls gh cnyko dh c;kj cg jgh gSA
HkwVku esa vc Hkh jktra=k gS ysfdu ;gk¡ osQ
jktk us HkwVku esa cgqnyh; yksdra=k LFkkfir
djus dh ;kstuk dh 'kq#vkr dj nh gSA
nwljk }hih; ns'k ekynho 1968 rd lYrur
nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa
dh oqQN ,slh
fo'ks"krkvksa dh igpku
djsa tks bl {ks=k osQ
ns'kksa esa rks leku :i
ls ykxw gksrh gSa ijarq
if'pe ,f'k;k vFkok
nf{k.k iwoZ ,f'k;k osQ
ns'kksa ij ykxw ugha
gksrhaA
D;k bu ns'kksa dh dksbZ
lqfuf'pr ifjHkk"kk gS\
;g ifjHkk"kk
cukrk dkSu gS\
2018-19
Page 3


ifjp;
vkb,] vc ge 'khr ;q¼ osQ nkSj esa fo'o osQ
,d cM+s I
+
kQyd ij gq, cnykoksa ls u”kj gVk
dj viuk è;ku vius {ks=k ;kuh nf{k.k ,f'k;k
dh vksj eksM+saA chloha lnh osQ vkf[+kjh lkyksa
esa tc Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku us [kqn dks ijek.kq
'kfDr&laiUu jk"Vªksa dh fcjknjh esa cSBk fy;k rks
;g {ks=k vpkud iwjs fo'o dh u”kj esa
egÙoiw.kZ gks mBkA Li"V gh fo'o dk è;ku bl
bykosQ esa py jgs dbZ rjg osQ la?k"kks± ij x;kA
bl {ks=k osQ ns'kksa osQ chp lhek vkSj unh ty
osQ c¡Vokjs dks ysdj fookn dk;e gSA blosQ
vfrfjDr foæksg] tkrh; la?k"kZ vkSj lalk/uksa osQ
c¡Vokjs dks ysdj gksus okys >xM+s Hkh gSaA bu
otgksa ls nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk bykdk cM+k
laosnu'khy gS vkSj vusd fo'ks"kKksa dk ekuuk gS
fd vkt fo'o esa ;g {ks=k lqj{kk osQ fygkt ls
[krjs dh vk'kadk okyk {ks=k gSA lkFk gh ,d
ckr vkSj gSA bl bykosQ osQ cgqr ls yksx bl
rF; dh fu'kkunsgh djrs gSa fd nf{k.k ,f'k;k
osQ ns'k vxj vkil esa lg;ksx djsa rks ;g {ks=k
fodkl djosQ le`¼ cu ldrk gSA bl vè;k;
esa ge nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa osQ chp ekStwn
la?k"kks± dh çÑfr vkSj bu ns'kksa osQ vkilh
lg;ksx dks le>us dh dksf'k'k djsaxsA nf{k.k
,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa dh ?kjsyw jktuhfr ls bu >xM+ksa
;k lg;ksx dk fe”kkt r; gksrk gS vFkok og
buosQ ewy esa gSaA bl otg ls vè;k; esa igys
nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk ifjp; fn;k tk,xk vkSj oqQN
ns'kksa dh ?kjsyw jktuhfr dh ppkZ dh tk,xhA
vè;k; 5
ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k
ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k
;sxsuh MsykØks us lu~ 1830 esa ,d isafVax cuk;h FkhA bldk 'kh"kZd
Fkkµ^fycVhZ yhfMax n ihiy*A isafVax esa Lora=krk dh nsoh dks turk dh
vxqvkbZ djrs gq, fpf=kr fd;k x;k FkkA ;gk¡ fn;k x;k fp=k mlh isafVax dk
lqHkk"k jk; Ñr :ikarj.k gSA
fgeky lkmFk ,f'k;u (tuojh] 2007)] n lkmFk ,f'k;u VªLV] usiky
ls lkHkkj
2018-19
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr 66
D;k gS nf{k.k ,f'k;k\
Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku osQ chp fØosQV&eSp
fdruk rukoiw.kZ gksrk gSµ ;g ge c[kwch
tkurs gSaA geus ;g Hkh ns[kk gS fd fØosQV
eSp ns[kus osQ fy, ikfdLrkuh vFkok Hkkjrh;
^iSQUl* tc ,d&nwljs osQ ns'kksa esa igq¡prs gSa
rks mudk cM+k vknj&lRdkj gksrk gS_ xeZtks'kh
ls estckuh dh tkrh gSA ;gh gky nf{k.k
,f'k;kbZ ekeyksa dk Hkh gSA ;g ,d ,slk {ks=k
gS tgk¡ ln~Hkko vkSj 'k=kqrk] vk'kk vkSj
fujk'kk rFkk ikjLifjd 'kadk vkSj fo'okl
lkFk&lkFk clrs gSaA
'kq#vkr ge ,d cqfu;knh loky ls djsa
fd nf{k.k ,f'k;k gS D;k\ veweu ckaXykns'k]
HkwVku] Hkkjr] ekynho] usiky] ikfdLrku
vkSj Jhyadk dks bafxr djus osQ fy, ^nf{k.k
,f'k;k* in dk O;ogkj fd;k tkrk gSA mÙkj
dh fo'kky fgeky; ioZr&J`a[kyk] nf{k.k
dk ¯gn egklkxj] if'pe  dk vjc lkxj
vkSj iwjc esa ekStwn caxky dh [kkM+h ls ;g
bykdk ,d fof'k"V çkÑfrd {ks=k osQ :i esa
u”kj vkrk gSA ;g HkkSxksfyd fof'k"Vrk gh
bl mi&egk}hih; {ks=k osQ Hkk"kkbZ] lkekftd
rFkk lkaLÑfrd vuwBsiu osQ fy, ftEesnkj
gSA bl {ks=k dh ppkZ esa tc&rc vI
+
kQxkfuLrku
vkSj E;kaekj dks Hkh 'kkfey fd;k tkrk gSA
phu bl {ks=k dk ,d çeq[k ns'k gS ysfdu
phu dks nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk vax ugha ekuk
tkrkA bl vè;k; esa ge ^nf{k.k ,f'k;k* in
dk bLrseky mi;qZDr lkr ns'kksa osQ fy,
djsaxsA bl rjg ifjHkkf"kr nf{k.k ,f'k;k gj
vFkZ esa fofo/rkvksa ls Hkjk&iwjk bykdk gS
fiQj Hkh Hkw&jktuhfrd èkjkry ij ;g ,d
{ks=k gSA
nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ fofHkUu ns'kksa esa ,d&lh
jktuhfrd ç.kkyh ugha gSA vusd leL;kvksa
vkSj lhekvksa osQ ckotwn Hkkjr vkSj Jhyadk
esa fczVsu ls vk”kkn gksus osQ ckn] yksdrkaf=kd
O;oLFkk liQyrkiwoZd dk;e gSA Hkkjr esa
yksdra=k osQ fodkl osQ ckjs esa vki ,d vkSj
fO+kQrkc esa foLrkj ls i<+saxsA bl fO+kQrkc esa
vk”kknh osQ ckn osQ fnuksa dh Hkkjrh; jktuhfr
dh ppkZ dh xbZ gSA Hkkjr osQ yksdra=k dh
cgqr lkjh lhekvksa dh rjiQ bafxr fd;k tk
ldrk gS ysfdu gesa ;kn j[kuk pkfg, fd
,d jk"Vª osQ :i esa Hkkjr ges'kk yksdrkaf=kd
jgk gSA ;gh ckr Jhyadk ij ykxw gksrh gSA
ikfdLrku vkSj ckaXykns'k esa yksdrkaf=kd
vkSj lSfud nksuksa rjg osQ usrkvksa dk 'kklu
jgk gSA 'khr;q¼ osQ ckn osQ lkyksa esa ckaXykns'k
esa yksdra=k dk;e jgkA ikfdLrku esa 'khr;q¼
osQ ckn osQ lkyksa esa yxkrkj nks yksdrkaf=kd
ljdkjsa cuhaA igyh ljdkj csu”khj HkqV~Vks
vkSj nwljh uok”k 'kjhI
+
kQ osQ usr`Ro esa dk;e
gqbZA ysfdu blosQ ckn 1999 esa ikfdLrku esa
lSfud r[rkiyV gqvkA rc ls ;gk¡
lSfud&'kklu gSA 2006 rd usiky esa
laoSèkkfud jktra=k Fkk vkSj bl ckr dk [krjk
cjkcj cuk gqvk Fkk fd jktk vius gkFk esa
dk;Zikfydk dh lkjh 'kfDr;k¡ ys ysxkA
ysfdu] 2006 esa ,d liQy tu&foæksg
gqvk vkSj ;gk¡ yksdra=k dh cgkyh gqbZA jktk
dh gSfl;r u osQ cjkcj jg xbZA ckaXykns'k
vkSj usiky osQ vuqHkoksa osQ vk/kj ij ge
dg ldrs gSa fd iwjs nf{k.k ,f'k;k esa
yksdra=k ,d LohÑr ewY; cu pyk gSA
nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ nks lcls NksVs ns'kksa esa
Hkh ,sls gh cnyko dh c;kj cg jgh gSA
HkwVku esa vc Hkh jktra=k gS ysfdu ;gk¡ osQ
jktk us HkwVku esa cgqnyh; yksdra=k LFkkfir
djus dh ;kstuk dh 'kq#vkr dj nh gSA
nwljk }hih; ns'k ekynho 1968 rd lYrur
nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa
dh oqQN ,slh
fo'ks"krkvksa dh igpku
djsa tks bl {ks=k osQ
ns'kksa esa rks leku :i
ls ykxw gksrh gSa ijarq
if'pe ,f'k;k vFkok
nf{k.k iwoZ ,f'k;k osQ
ns'kksa ij ykxw ugha
gksrhaA
D;k bu ns'kksa dh dksbZ
lqfuf'pr ifjHkk"kk gS\
;g ifjHkk"kk
cukrk dkSu gS\
2018-19
67 ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k
gqvk djrk FkkA 1968 esa ;g ,d x.kra=k cuk vkSj ;gk¡ 'kklu
dh vè;{kkRed ç.kkyh viuk;h x;hA 2005 osQ twu esa
ekynho dh laln us cgqnyh; ç.kkyh dks viukus osQ i{k esa
,der ls ernku fd;kA ekynhfo;u MseksozsQfVd ikVhZ (,eMhih)
dk ns'k osQ jktuhfrd ekeyksa esa ncnck gSA 2005 osQ pqukoksa
osQ ckn ekynho esa yksdra=k etcwr gqvk gS D;ksafd bl pquko
esa foi{kh nyksa dks dkuwuh ekU;rk ns nh xbZA
nf{k.k ,f'k;k esas yksdra=k dk fjdkMZ feyk&tqyk jgk gSA
blosQ ckotwn nf{k.k ,f'k;kbZ ns'kksa dh turk yksdra=k dh
vkdka{kkvksa esa lgHkkxh gSA bl {ks=k osQ ik¡p cM+s ns'kksa esa gky
gh esa ,d losZ{k.k fd;k x;k FkkA losZ{k.k ls ;g ckr ”kkfgj
gqbZ fd bu ik¡pksa ns'kksa esa yksdra=k dks O;kid tu&leFkZu
gkfly gSA bu ns'kksa esa gj oxZ vkSj /eZ osQ vke ukxfjd µ
yksdra=k dks vPNk ekurs gSa vkSj izfrfuf/ewyd yksdra=k dh
laLFkkvksa dk leFkZu djrs gSaA bu ns'kksa osQ yksx 'kklu dh fdlh
vkSj ç.kkyh dh vis{kk yksdra=k dks ojh;rk nsrs gSa vkSj ekurs
gSa fd muosQ ns'k osQ fy, yksdra=k gh Bhd gSA ;s fu"d"kZ cM+s
egÙoiw.kZ gSa D;ksafd igys ls ekuk tkrk jgk gS fd yksdra=k
fliQZ fo'o osQ /uh ns'kksa esa iQy&iwQy ldrk gSA bl fygkt
ls ns[ksa rks nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ yksdra=k osQ vuqHkoksa ls yksdra=k dh
oSf'od dYiuk dk nk;jk c<+k gSA
vkb,] ge ns[ksa fd Hkkjr dks NksM+dj nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ
vU; pkj cM+s ns'kksa esa yksdra=k dk vuqHko oSQlk jgk\
;s nksuksa vkjs[k nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ ik¡p cM+s ns'kksa osQ 19 gtkj ls vf/d
ukxfjdksa ls fy, x, lk{kkRdkj ij vk/kfjr gSaA
lzksr µ ,l Mh ,l , Vhe µ LVsV vkWo MseksØslh bu lkÅFk ,f'k;k]
u;h fnYyh] vkWDliQksMZ ;wfuoflZVh çsl] 2007
fo'o 71.6 84.3 76 14,600 31.6 15.5 – –
fodkl'khy 70.0 83.3 71 9,376 34.4 18.4 – –
ns'k
nf{k.k ,f'k;k 68.7 70.3 65 5,806 40.7 20.7 – –
ckaXykns'k 72.0 61.5 58 3,137 30.7 51.0 18.5 139
Hkkjr 68.3 72.1 69 5,730 37.9 17.0 21.2 131
usiky 70.0 64.7 67 2,313 29.4 17.0 15.0 144
ikfdLrku 66.4 58.7 42 4,745 65.8 26.0 6.1 147
Jhyadk 75.0 92.6 100 11,048 8.4 6.1 – 73
lzksr % ;w,uMhih] ekuo fodkl fjiksVZ] 2016
ns'k
tUe osQ le;
vk;q çR;k'kk
(o"kks± esa)
2015
O;Ld lk{kjrk
nj (% vk;q 15
vkSj vfèkd)
2015
fo|ky;h
ukekadu vuqikr
(ekè;fed)
2010&15
thMhih (2011
rqyukRed ozQ;
'kfDr] $ esa)
2015
cky e`R;q nj
(izfr g”kkj
cPps)
2015
Vh-ch- dk
iSQyko (izfr
yk[k) tula[;k
2014
1-90 MkWyj izfrfnu ls
de esa thus okyh
tula[;k
2005&2014
ekuo
fodkl
lwph esa
LFkku
2018-19
Page 4


ifjp;
vkb,] vc ge 'khr ;q¼ osQ nkSj esa fo'o osQ
,d cM+s I
+
kQyd ij gq, cnykoksa ls u”kj gVk
dj viuk è;ku vius {ks=k ;kuh nf{k.k ,f'k;k
dh vksj eksM+saA chloha lnh osQ vkf[+kjh lkyksa
esa tc Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku us [kqn dks ijek.kq
'kfDr&laiUu jk"Vªksa dh fcjknjh esa cSBk fy;k rks
;g {ks=k vpkud iwjs fo'o dh u”kj esa
egÙoiw.kZ gks mBkA Li"V gh fo'o dk è;ku bl
bykosQ esa py jgs dbZ rjg osQ la?k"kks± ij x;kA
bl {ks=k osQ ns'kksa osQ chp lhek vkSj unh ty
osQ c¡Vokjs dks ysdj fookn dk;e gSA blosQ
vfrfjDr foæksg] tkrh; la?k"kZ vkSj lalk/uksa osQ
c¡Vokjs dks ysdj gksus okys >xM+s Hkh gSaA bu
otgksa ls nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk bykdk cM+k
laosnu'khy gS vkSj vusd fo'ks"kKksa dk ekuuk gS
fd vkt fo'o esa ;g {ks=k lqj{kk osQ fygkt ls
[krjs dh vk'kadk okyk {ks=k gSA lkFk gh ,d
ckr vkSj gSA bl bykosQ osQ cgqr ls yksx bl
rF; dh fu'kkunsgh djrs gSa fd nf{k.k ,f'k;k
osQ ns'k vxj vkil esa lg;ksx djsa rks ;g {ks=k
fodkl djosQ le`¼ cu ldrk gSA bl vè;k;
esa ge nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa osQ chp ekStwn
la?k"kks± dh çÑfr vkSj bu ns'kksa osQ vkilh
lg;ksx dks le>us dh dksf'k'k djsaxsA nf{k.k
,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa dh ?kjsyw jktuhfr ls bu >xM+ksa
;k lg;ksx dk fe”kkt r; gksrk gS vFkok og
buosQ ewy esa gSaA bl otg ls vè;k; esa igys
nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk ifjp; fn;k tk,xk vkSj oqQN
ns'kksa dh ?kjsyw jktuhfr dh ppkZ dh tk,xhA
vè;k; 5
ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k
ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k
;sxsuh MsykØks us lu~ 1830 esa ,d isafVax cuk;h FkhA bldk 'kh"kZd
Fkkµ^fycVhZ yhfMax n ihiy*A isafVax esa Lora=krk dh nsoh dks turk dh
vxqvkbZ djrs gq, fpf=kr fd;k x;k FkkA ;gk¡ fn;k x;k fp=k mlh isafVax dk
lqHkk"k jk; Ñr :ikarj.k gSA
fgeky lkmFk ,f'k;u (tuojh] 2007)] n lkmFk ,f'k;u VªLV] usiky
ls lkHkkj
2018-19
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr 66
D;k gS nf{k.k ,f'k;k\
Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku osQ chp fØosQV&eSp
fdruk rukoiw.kZ gksrk gSµ ;g ge c[kwch
tkurs gSaA geus ;g Hkh ns[kk gS fd fØosQV
eSp ns[kus osQ fy, ikfdLrkuh vFkok Hkkjrh;
^iSQUl* tc ,d&nwljs osQ ns'kksa esa igq¡prs gSa
rks mudk cM+k vknj&lRdkj gksrk gS_ xeZtks'kh
ls estckuh dh tkrh gSA ;gh gky nf{k.k
,f'k;kbZ ekeyksa dk Hkh gSA ;g ,d ,slk {ks=k
gS tgk¡ ln~Hkko vkSj 'k=kqrk] vk'kk vkSj
fujk'kk rFkk ikjLifjd 'kadk vkSj fo'okl
lkFk&lkFk clrs gSaA
'kq#vkr ge ,d cqfu;knh loky ls djsa
fd nf{k.k ,f'k;k gS D;k\ veweu ckaXykns'k]
HkwVku] Hkkjr] ekynho] usiky] ikfdLrku
vkSj Jhyadk dks bafxr djus osQ fy, ^nf{k.k
,f'k;k* in dk O;ogkj fd;k tkrk gSA mÙkj
dh fo'kky fgeky; ioZr&J`a[kyk] nf{k.k
dk ¯gn egklkxj] if'pe  dk vjc lkxj
vkSj iwjc esa ekStwn caxky dh [kkM+h ls ;g
bykdk ,d fof'k"V çkÑfrd {ks=k osQ :i esa
u”kj vkrk gSA ;g HkkSxksfyd fof'k"Vrk gh
bl mi&egk}hih; {ks=k osQ Hkk"kkbZ] lkekftd
rFkk lkaLÑfrd vuwBsiu osQ fy, ftEesnkj
gSA bl {ks=k dh ppkZ esa tc&rc vI
+
kQxkfuLrku
vkSj E;kaekj dks Hkh 'kkfey fd;k tkrk gSA
phu bl {ks=k dk ,d çeq[k ns'k gS ysfdu
phu dks nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk vax ugha ekuk
tkrkA bl vè;k; esa ge ^nf{k.k ,f'k;k* in
dk bLrseky mi;qZDr lkr ns'kksa osQ fy,
djsaxsA bl rjg ifjHkkf"kr nf{k.k ,f'k;k gj
vFkZ esa fofo/rkvksa ls Hkjk&iwjk bykdk gS
fiQj Hkh Hkw&jktuhfrd èkjkry ij ;g ,d
{ks=k gSA
nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ fofHkUu ns'kksa esa ,d&lh
jktuhfrd ç.kkyh ugha gSA vusd leL;kvksa
vkSj lhekvksa osQ ckotwn Hkkjr vkSj Jhyadk
esa fczVsu ls vk”kkn gksus osQ ckn] yksdrkaf=kd
O;oLFkk liQyrkiwoZd dk;e gSA Hkkjr esa
yksdra=k osQ fodkl osQ ckjs esa vki ,d vkSj
fO+kQrkc esa foLrkj ls i<+saxsA bl fO+kQrkc esa
vk”kknh osQ ckn osQ fnuksa dh Hkkjrh; jktuhfr
dh ppkZ dh xbZ gSA Hkkjr osQ yksdra=k dh
cgqr lkjh lhekvksa dh rjiQ bafxr fd;k tk
ldrk gS ysfdu gesa ;kn j[kuk pkfg, fd
,d jk"Vª osQ :i esa Hkkjr ges'kk yksdrkaf=kd
jgk gSA ;gh ckr Jhyadk ij ykxw gksrh gSA
ikfdLrku vkSj ckaXykns'k esa yksdrkaf=kd
vkSj lSfud nksuksa rjg osQ usrkvksa dk 'kklu
jgk gSA 'khr;q¼ osQ ckn osQ lkyksa esa ckaXykns'k
esa yksdra=k dk;e jgkA ikfdLrku esa 'khr;q¼
osQ ckn osQ lkyksa esa yxkrkj nks yksdrkaf=kd
ljdkjsa cuhaA igyh ljdkj csu”khj HkqV~Vks
vkSj nwljh uok”k 'kjhI
+
kQ osQ usr`Ro esa dk;e
gqbZA ysfdu blosQ ckn 1999 esa ikfdLrku esa
lSfud r[rkiyV gqvkA rc ls ;gk¡
lSfud&'kklu gSA 2006 rd usiky esa
laoSèkkfud jktra=k Fkk vkSj bl ckr dk [krjk
cjkcj cuk gqvk Fkk fd jktk vius gkFk esa
dk;Zikfydk dh lkjh 'kfDr;k¡ ys ysxkA
ysfdu] 2006 esa ,d liQy tu&foæksg
gqvk vkSj ;gk¡ yksdra=k dh cgkyh gqbZA jktk
dh gSfl;r u osQ cjkcj jg xbZA ckaXykns'k
vkSj usiky osQ vuqHkoksa osQ vk/kj ij ge
dg ldrs gSa fd iwjs nf{k.k ,f'k;k esa
yksdra=k ,d LohÑr ewY; cu pyk gSA
nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ nks lcls NksVs ns'kksa esa
Hkh ,sls gh cnyko dh c;kj cg jgh gSA
HkwVku esa vc Hkh jktra=k gS ysfdu ;gk¡ osQ
jktk us HkwVku esa cgqnyh; yksdra=k LFkkfir
djus dh ;kstuk dh 'kq#vkr dj nh gSA
nwljk }hih; ns'k ekynho 1968 rd lYrur
nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa
dh oqQN ,slh
fo'ks"krkvksa dh igpku
djsa tks bl {ks=k osQ
ns'kksa esa rks leku :i
ls ykxw gksrh gSa ijarq
if'pe ,f'k;k vFkok
nf{k.k iwoZ ,f'k;k osQ
ns'kksa ij ykxw ugha
gksrhaA
D;k bu ns'kksa dh dksbZ
lqfuf'pr ifjHkk"kk gS\
;g ifjHkk"kk
cukrk dkSu gS\
2018-19
67 ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k
gqvk djrk FkkA 1968 esa ;g ,d x.kra=k cuk vkSj ;gk¡ 'kklu
dh vè;{kkRed ç.kkyh viuk;h x;hA 2005 osQ twu esa
ekynho dh laln us cgqnyh; ç.kkyh dks viukus osQ i{k esa
,der ls ernku fd;kA ekynhfo;u MseksozsQfVd ikVhZ (,eMhih)
dk ns'k osQ jktuhfrd ekeyksa esa ncnck gSA 2005 osQ pqukoksa
osQ ckn ekynho esa yksdra=k etcwr gqvk gS D;ksafd bl pquko
esa foi{kh nyksa dks dkuwuh ekU;rk ns nh xbZA
nf{k.k ,f'k;k esas yksdra=k dk fjdkMZ feyk&tqyk jgk gSA
blosQ ckotwn nf{k.k ,f'k;kbZ ns'kksa dh turk yksdra=k dh
vkdka{kkvksa esa lgHkkxh gSA bl {ks=k osQ ik¡p cM+s ns'kksa esa gky
gh esa ,d losZ{k.k fd;k x;k FkkA losZ{k.k ls ;g ckr ”kkfgj
gqbZ fd bu ik¡pksa ns'kksa esa yksdra=k dks O;kid tu&leFkZu
gkfly gSA bu ns'kksa esa gj oxZ vkSj /eZ osQ vke ukxfjd µ
yksdra=k dks vPNk ekurs gSa vkSj izfrfuf/ewyd yksdra=k dh
laLFkkvksa dk leFkZu djrs gSaA bu ns'kksa osQ yksx 'kklu dh fdlh
vkSj ç.kkyh dh vis{kk yksdra=k dks ojh;rk nsrs gSa vkSj ekurs
gSa fd muosQ ns'k osQ fy, yksdra=k gh Bhd gSA ;s fu"d"kZ cM+s
egÙoiw.kZ gSa D;ksafd igys ls ekuk tkrk jgk gS fd yksdra=k
fliQZ fo'o osQ /uh ns'kksa esa iQy&iwQy ldrk gSA bl fygkt
ls ns[ksa rks nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ yksdra=k osQ vuqHkoksa ls yksdra=k dh
oSf'od dYiuk dk nk;jk c<+k gSA
vkb,] ge ns[ksa fd Hkkjr dks NksM+dj nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ
vU; pkj cM+s ns'kksa esa yksdra=k dk vuqHko oSQlk jgk\
;s nksuksa vkjs[k nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ ik¡p cM+s ns'kksa osQ 19 gtkj ls vf/d
ukxfjdksa ls fy, x, lk{kkRdkj ij vk/kfjr gSaA
lzksr µ ,l Mh ,l , Vhe µ LVsV vkWo MseksØslh bu lkÅFk ,f'k;k]
u;h fnYyh] vkWDliQksMZ ;wfuoflZVh çsl] 2007
fo'o 71.6 84.3 76 14,600 31.6 15.5 – –
fodkl'khy 70.0 83.3 71 9,376 34.4 18.4 – –
ns'k
nf{k.k ,f'k;k 68.7 70.3 65 5,806 40.7 20.7 – –
ckaXykns'k 72.0 61.5 58 3,137 30.7 51.0 18.5 139
Hkkjr 68.3 72.1 69 5,730 37.9 17.0 21.2 131
usiky 70.0 64.7 67 2,313 29.4 17.0 15.0 144
ikfdLrku 66.4 58.7 42 4,745 65.8 26.0 6.1 147
Jhyadk 75.0 92.6 100 11,048 8.4 6.1 – 73
lzksr % ;w,uMhih] ekuo fodkl fjiksVZ] 2016
ns'k
tUe osQ le;
vk;q çR;k'kk
(o"kks± esa)
2015
O;Ld lk{kjrk
nj (% vk;q 15
vkSj vfèkd)
2015
fo|ky;h
ukekadu vuqikr
(ekè;fed)
2010&15
thMhih (2011
rqyukRed ozQ;
'kfDr] $ esa)
2015
cky e`R;q nj
(izfr g”kkj
cPps)
2015
Vh-ch- dk
iSQyko (izfr
yk[k) tula[;k
2014
1-90 MkWyj izfrfnu ls
de esa thus okyh
tula[;k
2005&2014
ekuo
fodkl
lwph esa
LFkku
2018-19
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr 68
ikfdLrku esa lsuk vkSj yksdra=k
ikfdLrku esa igys lafo/ku osQ cuus osQ ckn
ns'k osQ 'kklu dh ckX+kMksj tujy v;wc [kku
us vius gkFkksa esa ys yh vkSj tYnh gh viuk
fuokZpu Hkh djk fy;kA muosQ 'kklu osQ
f[kykI
+
kQ turk dk xqLlk HkM+dk vkSj ,sls esa
mUgsa viuk in NksM+uk iM+kA blls ,d ckj
fiQj lSfud 'kklu dk jkLrk lkiQ gqvk  vkSj
tujy ;kfg;k [kku us 'kklu dh ckxMksj
laHkkyhA ;kfg;k [kku osQ lSfud&'kklu osQ
nkSjku ikfdLrku dks ckaXykns'k&ladV dk
lkeuk djuk iM+k vkSj 1971 esa Hkkjr osQ
lkFk ikfdLrku dk ;q¼ gqvkA ;q¼ osQ
ifj.kkeLo:i iwohZ ikfdLrku VwVdj ,d
Lora=k ns'k cuk vkSj ckaXykns'k dgyk;kA
blosQ ckn ikfdLrku esa tqfYI
+
kQdkj vyh
HkqV~Vks osQ usr`Ro esa ,d fuokZfpr ljdkj cuh
tks 1971 ls 1977 rd dk;e jghA 1977 esaa
tsujy ft;kmy&gd us bl ljdkj dks fxjk
fn;kA 1982 osQ ckn tsujy ft;kmy&gd
dks yksdra=k&leFkZd vkanksyu dk lkeuk
djuk iM+k vkSj 1988 esa ,d ckj fiQj
csu”khj HkqV~Vks osQ usr`Ro esa yksdrkaf=kd ljdkj
cuhA ikfdLrku esa blosQ ckn dh jktuhfr
csu”khj HkqV~Vks dh ikfdLrku ihiqYl ikVhZ
vkSj eqfLye yhx osQ vkilh gksM+ osQ bnZ&fxnZ
?kwerh jghA fuokZfpr yksdra=k dh ;g voLFkk
1999 rd dk;e jghA 1999 esa ,d ckj
fiQj lsuk us n[ky nh vkSj tsujy ijos”k
eq'kjZiQ us ç/kuea=kh uok”k 'kjhI
+
kQ dks gVk
fn;kA 2001 esa ijos”k eq'kjZiQ us viuk
fuokZpu jk"Vªifr osQ :i esa djk;kA ikfdLrku
ij lsuk dh gqowQer Fkh gkyk¡fd lSfud
'kkldksa us vius 'kklu dks yksdrkaf=kd trkus
osQ fy, pquko djk, gSaA 2008 ls ikfdLrku
esa yksdrkaf=kd rjhosQ ls pqus x, usrk 'kklu
dj jgs gSaA
nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk ?kVukØe (1947 ls)
1947 % fczfV'k&jkt dh lekfIr osQ ckn Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku dk
Lora=k jk"Vª osQ :i esa mn;A
1948 % Jhyadk (rRdkyhu flyksu) dks vk”kknh feyh_ d'ehj dks
ysdj Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku osQ chp yM+kbZA
1954&55 % ikfdLrku 'khr;q¼dkyhu lSU; xqV ^fl,Vks* vkSj ^lsaVks* esa
'kkfey gqvkA
flracj 1960 % Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku us fla/q unh ty le>kSrs ij gLrk{kj fd,A
1962 % Hkkjr vkSj phu osQ chp lhek&fooknA
1965 % Hkkjr&ikd ;q¼_ la;qDr jk"Vªla?k dk Hkkjr&ikd i;Zos{k.k fe'kuA
1966 % Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku osQ chp rk'kdan le>kSrkA 'ks[k eqthcqjZgeku
us iwohZ ikfdLrku dks ”;knk Lok;Ùkrk nsus osQ fy, N% lw=kh
çLrko j[kkA
ekpZ 1971 % ckaXykns'k osQ usrkvksa }kjk vk”kknh dh mn~?kks"k.kkA
vxLr 1971 % Hkkjr vkSj lksfo;r la?k us 20 lkyksa osQ fy, eS=kh laf/ ij
nLr[+kr fd,A
fnlacj 1971 % Hkkjr&ikd ;q¼_ ckaXykns'k dh eqfDrA
tqykbZ 1972 % Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku osQ chp f'keyk&le>kSrkA
ebZ 1974 % Hkkjr us ijek.kq&ijh{k.k fd,A
1976 % ikfdLrku vkSj ckaXykns'k osQ chp owQVuf;d laca/ cgky gq,A
fnlacj 1985 % ^n{ksl* osQ igys lEesyu (<kdk) esa nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa
us ^n{ksl* osQ ?kks"k.kk i=k ij gLrk{kj fd,A
1987 % Hkkjr&Jhyadk le>kSrk_ Hkkjrh; 'kkafr lsuk dk Jhyadk esa
vfHk;ku (1987&90)A
1988 % ekynho esa HkkM+s osQ lSfudksa }kjk fd, x, "kM~;a=k dks ukdke
djus osQ fy, Hkkjr us ogk¡ lsuk HksthA Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku osQ
chp ,d&nwljs osQ ijek.kq fBdkuksa vkSj lqfo/kvksa ij geyk
u djus osQ le>kSrs ij gLrk{kj gq,A
1988&91 % ikfdLrku] ckaXykns'k vkSj usiky esa yksdra=k dh cgkyhA
1993 % ^n{ksl* osQ lkrosa lEesyu (<kdk) esa vkilh O;kikj esa n{ksl
osQ ns'kksa dks ojh;rk nsus dh laf/ (SAPTA) ij gLrk{kjA
fnlacj 1996 % xaxk unh osQ ikuh esa fgLlsnkjh osQ elys ij Hkkjr vkSj
ckaXykns'k osQ chp iQjDdk laf/ ij gLrk{kj gq,A
ebZ 1998 % Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku us ijek.kq ijh{k.k fd,A
fnlacj 1998 % Hkkjr vkSj Jhyadk us eqDr O;kikj laf/ ij gLrk{kj fd,A
iQjojh 1999 % Hkkjr osQ ç/kuea=kh vVy fcgkjh oktis;h cl&;k=kk dj ykgkSj x,
rFkk 'kkafr osQ ,d ?kks"k.kki=k ij gLrk{kj fd,A
twu&tqykbZ 1999% Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku osQ chp djfxy&;q¼A
tqykbZ 2001 % oktis;h&eq'kjZiQ osQ chp vkxjk&cSBd vliQyA
iQjojh 2004 % 12osa n{ksl lEesyu esa ^eqDr O;kikj laf/ (SAFTA)* ij
gLrk{kj gq,A
2007 % vi
+
QxkfuLrku n{ksl dk lnL; cukA
uoacj 2014 % 18oka n{ksl lEesyu dkBekaMw] usiky esa gqvkA
2018-19
Page 5


ifjp;
vkb,] vc ge 'khr ;q¼ osQ nkSj esa fo'o osQ
,d cM+s I
+
kQyd ij gq, cnykoksa ls u”kj gVk
dj viuk è;ku vius {ks=k ;kuh nf{k.k ,f'k;k
dh vksj eksM+saA chloha lnh osQ vkf[+kjh lkyksa
esa tc Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku us [kqn dks ijek.kq
'kfDr&laiUu jk"Vªksa dh fcjknjh esa cSBk fy;k rks
;g {ks=k vpkud iwjs fo'o dh u”kj esa
egÙoiw.kZ gks mBkA Li"V gh fo'o dk è;ku bl
bykosQ esa py jgs dbZ rjg osQ la?k"kks± ij x;kA
bl {ks=k osQ ns'kksa osQ chp lhek vkSj unh ty
osQ c¡Vokjs dks ysdj fookn dk;e gSA blosQ
vfrfjDr foæksg] tkrh; la?k"kZ vkSj lalk/uksa osQ
c¡Vokjs dks ysdj gksus okys >xM+s Hkh gSaA bu
otgksa ls nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk bykdk cM+k
laosnu'khy gS vkSj vusd fo'ks"kKksa dk ekuuk gS
fd vkt fo'o esa ;g {ks=k lqj{kk osQ fygkt ls
[krjs dh vk'kadk okyk {ks=k gSA lkFk gh ,d
ckr vkSj gSA bl bykosQ osQ cgqr ls yksx bl
rF; dh fu'kkunsgh djrs gSa fd nf{k.k ,f'k;k
osQ ns'k vxj vkil esa lg;ksx djsa rks ;g {ks=k
fodkl djosQ le`¼ cu ldrk gSA bl vè;k;
esa ge nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa osQ chp ekStwn
la?k"kks± dh çÑfr vkSj bu ns'kksa osQ vkilh
lg;ksx dks le>us dh dksf'k'k djsaxsA nf{k.k
,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa dh ?kjsyw jktuhfr ls bu >xM+ksa
;k lg;ksx dk fe”kkt r; gksrk gS vFkok og
buosQ ewy esa gSaA bl otg ls vè;k; esa igys
nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk ifjp; fn;k tk,xk vkSj oqQN
ns'kksa dh ?kjsyw jktuhfr dh ppkZ dh tk,xhA
vè;k; 5
ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k
ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k
;sxsuh MsykØks us lu~ 1830 esa ,d isafVax cuk;h FkhA bldk 'kh"kZd
Fkkµ^fycVhZ yhfMax n ihiy*A isafVax esa Lora=krk dh nsoh dks turk dh
vxqvkbZ djrs gq, fpf=kr fd;k x;k FkkA ;gk¡ fn;k x;k fp=k mlh isafVax dk
lqHkk"k jk; Ñr :ikarj.k gSA
fgeky lkmFk ,f'k;u (tuojh] 2007)] n lkmFk ,f'k;u VªLV] usiky
ls lkHkkj
2018-19
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr 66
D;k gS nf{k.k ,f'k;k\
Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku osQ chp fØosQV&eSp
fdruk rukoiw.kZ gksrk gSµ ;g ge c[kwch
tkurs gSaA geus ;g Hkh ns[kk gS fd fØosQV
eSp ns[kus osQ fy, ikfdLrkuh vFkok Hkkjrh;
^iSQUl* tc ,d&nwljs osQ ns'kksa esa igq¡prs gSa
rks mudk cM+k vknj&lRdkj gksrk gS_ xeZtks'kh
ls estckuh dh tkrh gSA ;gh gky nf{k.k
,f'k;kbZ ekeyksa dk Hkh gSA ;g ,d ,slk {ks=k
gS tgk¡ ln~Hkko vkSj 'k=kqrk] vk'kk vkSj
fujk'kk rFkk ikjLifjd 'kadk vkSj fo'okl
lkFk&lkFk clrs gSaA
'kq#vkr ge ,d cqfu;knh loky ls djsa
fd nf{k.k ,f'k;k gS D;k\ veweu ckaXykns'k]
HkwVku] Hkkjr] ekynho] usiky] ikfdLrku
vkSj Jhyadk dks bafxr djus osQ fy, ^nf{k.k
,f'k;k* in dk O;ogkj fd;k tkrk gSA mÙkj
dh fo'kky fgeky; ioZr&J`a[kyk] nf{k.k
dk ¯gn egklkxj] if'pe  dk vjc lkxj
vkSj iwjc esa ekStwn caxky dh [kkM+h ls ;g
bykdk ,d fof'k"V çkÑfrd {ks=k osQ :i esa
u”kj vkrk gSA ;g HkkSxksfyd fof'k"Vrk gh
bl mi&egk}hih; {ks=k osQ Hkk"kkbZ] lkekftd
rFkk lkaLÑfrd vuwBsiu osQ fy, ftEesnkj
gSA bl {ks=k dh ppkZ esa tc&rc vI
+
kQxkfuLrku
vkSj E;kaekj dks Hkh 'kkfey fd;k tkrk gSA
phu bl {ks=k dk ,d çeq[k ns'k gS ysfdu
phu dks nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk vax ugha ekuk
tkrkA bl vè;k; esa ge ^nf{k.k ,f'k;k* in
dk bLrseky mi;qZDr lkr ns'kksa osQ fy,
djsaxsA bl rjg ifjHkkf"kr nf{k.k ,f'k;k gj
vFkZ esa fofo/rkvksa ls Hkjk&iwjk bykdk gS
fiQj Hkh Hkw&jktuhfrd èkjkry ij ;g ,d
{ks=k gSA
nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ fofHkUu ns'kksa esa ,d&lh
jktuhfrd ç.kkyh ugha gSA vusd leL;kvksa
vkSj lhekvksa osQ ckotwn Hkkjr vkSj Jhyadk
esa fczVsu ls vk”kkn gksus osQ ckn] yksdrkaf=kd
O;oLFkk liQyrkiwoZd dk;e gSA Hkkjr esa
yksdra=k osQ fodkl osQ ckjs esa vki ,d vkSj
fO+kQrkc esa foLrkj ls i<+saxsA bl fO+kQrkc esa
vk”kknh osQ ckn osQ fnuksa dh Hkkjrh; jktuhfr
dh ppkZ dh xbZ gSA Hkkjr osQ yksdra=k dh
cgqr lkjh lhekvksa dh rjiQ bafxr fd;k tk
ldrk gS ysfdu gesa ;kn j[kuk pkfg, fd
,d jk"Vª osQ :i esa Hkkjr ges'kk yksdrkaf=kd
jgk gSA ;gh ckr Jhyadk ij ykxw gksrh gSA
ikfdLrku vkSj ckaXykns'k esa yksdrkaf=kd
vkSj lSfud nksuksa rjg osQ usrkvksa dk 'kklu
jgk gSA 'khr;q¼ osQ ckn osQ lkyksa esa ckaXykns'k
esa yksdra=k dk;e jgkA ikfdLrku esa 'khr;q¼
osQ ckn osQ lkyksa esa yxkrkj nks yksdrkaf=kd
ljdkjsa cuhaA igyh ljdkj csu”khj HkqV~Vks
vkSj nwljh uok”k 'kjhI
+
kQ osQ usr`Ro esa dk;e
gqbZA ysfdu blosQ ckn 1999 esa ikfdLrku esa
lSfud r[rkiyV gqvkA rc ls ;gk¡
lSfud&'kklu gSA 2006 rd usiky esa
laoSèkkfud jktra=k Fkk vkSj bl ckr dk [krjk
cjkcj cuk gqvk Fkk fd jktk vius gkFk esa
dk;Zikfydk dh lkjh 'kfDr;k¡ ys ysxkA
ysfdu] 2006 esa ,d liQy tu&foæksg
gqvk vkSj ;gk¡ yksdra=k dh cgkyh gqbZA jktk
dh gSfl;r u osQ cjkcj jg xbZA ckaXykns'k
vkSj usiky osQ vuqHkoksa osQ vk/kj ij ge
dg ldrs gSa fd iwjs nf{k.k ,f'k;k esa
yksdra=k ,d LohÑr ewY; cu pyk gSA
nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ nks lcls NksVs ns'kksa esa
Hkh ,sls gh cnyko dh c;kj cg jgh gSA
HkwVku esa vc Hkh jktra=k gS ysfdu ;gk¡ osQ
jktk us HkwVku esa cgqnyh; yksdra=k LFkkfir
djus dh ;kstuk dh 'kq#vkr dj nh gSA
nwljk }hih; ns'k ekynho 1968 rd lYrur
nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa
dh oqQN ,slh
fo'ks"krkvksa dh igpku
djsa tks bl {ks=k osQ
ns'kksa esa rks leku :i
ls ykxw gksrh gSa ijarq
if'pe ,f'k;k vFkok
nf{k.k iwoZ ,f'k;k osQ
ns'kksa ij ykxw ugha
gksrhaA
D;k bu ns'kksa dh dksbZ
lqfuf'pr ifjHkk"kk gS\
;g ifjHkk"kk
cukrk dkSu gS\
2018-19
67 ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k
gqvk djrk FkkA 1968 esa ;g ,d x.kra=k cuk vkSj ;gk¡ 'kklu
dh vè;{kkRed ç.kkyh viuk;h x;hA 2005 osQ twu esa
ekynho dh laln us cgqnyh; ç.kkyh dks viukus osQ i{k esa
,der ls ernku fd;kA ekynhfo;u MseksozsQfVd ikVhZ (,eMhih)
dk ns'k osQ jktuhfrd ekeyksa esa ncnck gSA 2005 osQ pqukoksa
osQ ckn ekynho esa yksdra=k etcwr gqvk gS D;ksafd bl pquko
esa foi{kh nyksa dks dkuwuh ekU;rk ns nh xbZA
nf{k.k ,f'k;k esas yksdra=k dk fjdkMZ feyk&tqyk jgk gSA
blosQ ckotwn nf{k.k ,f'k;kbZ ns'kksa dh turk yksdra=k dh
vkdka{kkvksa esa lgHkkxh gSA bl {ks=k osQ ik¡p cM+s ns'kksa esa gky
gh esa ,d losZ{k.k fd;k x;k FkkA losZ{k.k ls ;g ckr ”kkfgj
gqbZ fd bu ik¡pksa ns'kksa esa yksdra=k dks O;kid tu&leFkZu
gkfly gSA bu ns'kksa esa gj oxZ vkSj /eZ osQ vke ukxfjd µ
yksdra=k dks vPNk ekurs gSa vkSj izfrfuf/ewyd yksdra=k dh
laLFkkvksa dk leFkZu djrs gSaA bu ns'kksa osQ yksx 'kklu dh fdlh
vkSj ç.kkyh dh vis{kk yksdra=k dks ojh;rk nsrs gSa vkSj ekurs
gSa fd muosQ ns'k osQ fy, yksdra=k gh Bhd gSA ;s fu"d"kZ cM+s
egÙoiw.kZ gSa D;ksafd igys ls ekuk tkrk jgk gS fd yksdra=k
fliQZ fo'o osQ /uh ns'kksa esa iQy&iwQy ldrk gSA bl fygkt
ls ns[ksa rks nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ yksdra=k osQ vuqHkoksa ls yksdra=k dh
oSf'od dYiuk dk nk;jk c<+k gSA
vkb,] ge ns[ksa fd Hkkjr dks NksM+dj nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ
vU; pkj cM+s ns'kksa esa yksdra=k dk vuqHko oSQlk jgk\
;s nksuksa vkjs[k nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ ik¡p cM+s ns'kksa osQ 19 gtkj ls vf/d
ukxfjdksa ls fy, x, lk{kkRdkj ij vk/kfjr gSaA
lzksr µ ,l Mh ,l , Vhe µ LVsV vkWo MseksØslh bu lkÅFk ,f'k;k]
u;h fnYyh] vkWDliQksMZ ;wfuoflZVh çsl] 2007
fo'o 71.6 84.3 76 14,600 31.6 15.5 – –
fodkl'khy 70.0 83.3 71 9,376 34.4 18.4 – –
ns'k
nf{k.k ,f'k;k 68.7 70.3 65 5,806 40.7 20.7 – –
ckaXykns'k 72.0 61.5 58 3,137 30.7 51.0 18.5 139
Hkkjr 68.3 72.1 69 5,730 37.9 17.0 21.2 131
usiky 70.0 64.7 67 2,313 29.4 17.0 15.0 144
ikfdLrku 66.4 58.7 42 4,745 65.8 26.0 6.1 147
Jhyadk 75.0 92.6 100 11,048 8.4 6.1 – 73
lzksr % ;w,uMhih] ekuo fodkl fjiksVZ] 2016
ns'k
tUe osQ le;
vk;q çR;k'kk
(o"kks± esa)
2015
O;Ld lk{kjrk
nj (% vk;q 15
vkSj vfèkd)
2015
fo|ky;h
ukekadu vuqikr
(ekè;fed)
2010&15
thMhih (2011
rqyukRed ozQ;
'kfDr] $ esa)
2015
cky e`R;q nj
(izfr g”kkj
cPps)
2015
Vh-ch- dk
iSQyko (izfr
yk[k) tula[;k
2014
1-90 MkWyj izfrfnu ls
de esa thus okyh
tula[;k
2005&2014
ekuo
fodkl
lwph esa
LFkku
2018-19
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr 68
ikfdLrku esa lsuk vkSj yksdra=k
ikfdLrku esa igys lafo/ku osQ cuus osQ ckn
ns'k osQ 'kklu dh ckX+kMksj tujy v;wc [kku
us vius gkFkksa esa ys yh vkSj tYnh gh viuk
fuokZpu Hkh djk fy;kA muosQ 'kklu osQ
f[kykI
+
kQ turk dk xqLlk HkM+dk vkSj ,sls esa
mUgsa viuk in NksM+uk iM+kA blls ,d ckj
fiQj lSfud 'kklu dk jkLrk lkiQ gqvk  vkSj
tujy ;kfg;k [kku us 'kklu dh ckxMksj
laHkkyhA ;kfg;k [kku osQ lSfud&'kklu osQ
nkSjku ikfdLrku dks ckaXykns'k&ladV dk
lkeuk djuk iM+k vkSj 1971 esa Hkkjr osQ
lkFk ikfdLrku dk ;q¼ gqvkA ;q¼ osQ
ifj.kkeLo:i iwohZ ikfdLrku VwVdj ,d
Lora=k ns'k cuk vkSj ckaXykns'k dgyk;kA
blosQ ckn ikfdLrku esa tqfYI
+
kQdkj vyh
HkqV~Vks osQ usr`Ro esa ,d fuokZfpr ljdkj cuh
tks 1971 ls 1977 rd dk;e jghA 1977 esaa
tsujy ft;kmy&gd us bl ljdkj dks fxjk
fn;kA 1982 osQ ckn tsujy ft;kmy&gd
dks yksdra=k&leFkZd vkanksyu dk lkeuk
djuk iM+k vkSj 1988 esa ,d ckj fiQj
csu”khj HkqV~Vks osQ usr`Ro esa yksdrkaf=kd ljdkj
cuhA ikfdLrku esa blosQ ckn dh jktuhfr
csu”khj HkqV~Vks dh ikfdLrku ihiqYl ikVhZ
vkSj eqfLye yhx osQ vkilh gksM+ osQ bnZ&fxnZ
?kwerh jghA fuokZfpr yksdra=k dh ;g voLFkk
1999 rd dk;e jghA 1999 esa ,d ckj
fiQj lsuk us n[ky nh vkSj tsujy ijos”k
eq'kjZiQ us ç/kuea=kh uok”k 'kjhI
+
kQ dks gVk
fn;kA 2001 esa ijos”k eq'kjZiQ us viuk
fuokZpu jk"Vªifr osQ :i esa djk;kA ikfdLrku
ij lsuk dh gqowQer Fkh gkyk¡fd lSfud
'kkldksa us vius 'kklu dks yksdrkaf=kd trkus
osQ fy, pquko djk, gSaA 2008 ls ikfdLrku
esa yksdrkaf=kd rjhosQ ls pqus x, usrk 'kklu
dj jgs gSaA
nf{k.k ,f'k;k dk ?kVukØe (1947 ls)
1947 % fczfV'k&jkt dh lekfIr osQ ckn Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku dk
Lora=k jk"Vª osQ :i esa mn;A
1948 % Jhyadk (rRdkyhu flyksu) dks vk”kknh feyh_ d'ehj dks
ysdj Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku osQ chp yM+kbZA
1954&55 % ikfdLrku 'khr;q¼dkyhu lSU; xqV ^fl,Vks* vkSj ^lsaVks* esa
'kkfey gqvkA
flracj 1960 % Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku us fla/q unh ty le>kSrs ij gLrk{kj fd,A
1962 % Hkkjr vkSj phu osQ chp lhek&fooknA
1965 % Hkkjr&ikd ;q¼_ la;qDr jk"Vªla?k dk Hkkjr&ikd i;Zos{k.k fe'kuA
1966 % Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku osQ chp rk'kdan le>kSrkA 'ks[k eqthcqjZgeku
us iwohZ ikfdLrku dks ”;knk Lok;Ùkrk nsus osQ fy, N% lw=kh
çLrko j[kkA
ekpZ 1971 % ckaXykns'k osQ usrkvksa }kjk vk”kknh dh mn~?kks"k.kkA
vxLr 1971 % Hkkjr vkSj lksfo;r la?k us 20 lkyksa osQ fy, eS=kh laf/ ij
nLr[+kr fd,A
fnlacj 1971 % Hkkjr&ikd ;q¼_ ckaXykns'k dh eqfDrA
tqykbZ 1972 % Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku osQ chp f'keyk&le>kSrkA
ebZ 1974 % Hkkjr us ijek.kq&ijh{k.k fd,A
1976 % ikfdLrku vkSj ckaXykns'k osQ chp owQVuf;d laca/ cgky gq,A
fnlacj 1985 % ^n{ksl* osQ igys lEesyu (<kdk) esa nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ ns'kksa
us ^n{ksl* osQ ?kks"k.kk i=k ij gLrk{kj fd,A
1987 % Hkkjr&Jhyadk le>kSrk_ Hkkjrh; 'kkafr lsuk dk Jhyadk esa
vfHk;ku (1987&90)A
1988 % ekynho esa HkkM+s osQ lSfudksa }kjk fd, x, "kM~;a=k dks ukdke
djus osQ fy, Hkkjr us ogk¡ lsuk HksthA Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku osQ
chp ,d&nwljs osQ ijek.kq fBdkuksa vkSj lqfo/kvksa ij geyk
u djus osQ le>kSrs ij gLrk{kj gq,A
1988&91 % ikfdLrku] ckaXykns'k vkSj usiky esa yksdra=k dh cgkyhA
1993 % ^n{ksl* osQ lkrosa lEesyu (<kdk) esa vkilh O;kikj esa n{ksl
osQ ns'kksa dks ojh;rk nsus dh laf/ (SAPTA) ij gLrk{kjA
fnlacj 1996 % xaxk unh osQ ikuh esa fgLlsnkjh osQ elys ij Hkkjr vkSj
ckaXykns'k osQ chp iQjDdk laf/ ij gLrk{kj gq,A
ebZ 1998 % Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku us ijek.kq ijh{k.k fd,A
fnlacj 1998 % Hkkjr vkSj Jhyadk us eqDr O;kikj laf/ ij gLrk{kj fd,A
iQjojh 1999 % Hkkjr osQ ç/kuea=kh vVy fcgkjh oktis;h cl&;k=kk dj ykgkSj x,
rFkk 'kkafr osQ ,d ?kks"k.kki=k ij gLrk{kj fd,A
twu&tqykbZ 1999% Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku osQ chp djfxy&;q¼A
tqykbZ 2001 % oktis;h&eq'kjZiQ osQ chp vkxjk&cSBd vliQyA
iQjojh 2004 % 12osa n{ksl lEesyu esa ^eqDr O;kikj laf/ (SAFTA)* ij
gLrk{kj gq,A
2007 % vi
+
QxkfuLrku n{ksl dk lnL; cukA
uoacj 2014 % 18oka n{ksl lEesyu dkBekaMw] usiky esa gqvkA
2018-19
69 ledkyhu nf{k.k ,f'k;k
ikfdLrku esa yksdra=k osQ LFkk;h u
cu ikus osQ dbZ dkj.k gSaA ;gk¡ lsuk]
/eZxq# vkSj HkwLokeh vfHktuksa dk lkekftd
ncnck gSA bldh o”kg ls dbZ ckj fuokZfpr
ljdkjksa dks fxjkdj lSfud 'kklu dk;e
gqvkA ikfdLrku dh Hkkjr osQ lkFk rukruh
jgrh gSA bl o”kg ls lsuk&leFkZd lewg
T;knk etcwr gSa vkSj vDlj ;s lewg
nyhy nsrs gSa fd ikfdLrku osQ jktuhfrd
nyksa vkSj yksdra=k esa [kksV gSA jktuhfrd
nyksa osQ LokFkZ lk/u rFkk yksdra=k dh
/ekpkSdM+h ls ikfdLrku dh lqj{kk [krjs
esa iM+sxhA bl rjg ;s rkdrsa lSfud 'kklu
dks tk;”k Bgjkrh gSaA yksdra=k rks [kSj
ikfdLrku esa iwjh rjg liQy ugha gks
ldk gS ysfdu bl ns'k esa yksdra=k dk
t”ck cgqr e”kcwrh osQ lkFk dk;e jgk
gSA ikfdLrku esa vis{kkÑr Lora=k vkSj
lkglh çsl ekStwn gS vkSj ogk¡ ekuokf/dkj
vkanksyu Hkh dkiQh etcwr gSA
ikfdLrku esa yksdrkaf=kd 'kklu pys&
blosQ fy, dksbZ [kkl varjkZ"Vªh; leFkZu
ugha feyrkA bl o”kg ls Hkh lsuk dks
viuk çHkqRo dk;e djus osQ fy, c<+kok
feyk gSA vejhdk rFkk vU; if'peh ns'kksa
us vius&vius LokFkks± ls xq”kjs oDr esa
ikfdLrku esa lSfud 'kklu dks c<+kok fn;kA
bu ns'kksa dks ml vkradokn ls Mj yxrk gS
ftls ;s ns'k ^fo'oO;kih bLykeh vkradokn*
dgrs gSaA bu ns'kksa dks ;g Hkh Mj lrkrk gS
fd ikfdLrku osQ ijekf.od gfFk;kj dgha
bu vkradoknh lewgksa osQ gkFk u yx tk,¡A
bu ckrksa osQ eísu”kj ikfdLrku dks ;s ns'k
^if'pe* rFkk nf{k.k ,f'k;k esa if'peh
fgrksa dk j[kokyk ekurs gSaA
ckaXykns'k esa yksdra=k
1947 ls 1971 rd ckaXykns'k ikfdLrku dk
vax FkkA vaxzsth jkt osQ le; osQ caxky vkSj
vle osQ foHkkftr fgLlksa ls iwohZ ikfdLrku
dk ;g {ks=k cuk FkkA bl {ks=k osQ yksx
if'peh ikfdLrku osQ ncncs vkSj vius
Åij mnwZ Hkk"kk dks yknus osQ f[+kykI
+
kQ FksA
ikfdLrku osQ fuekZ.k osQ rqjar ckn gh ;gk¡ osQ
yksxksa us caxkyh laLÑfr vkSj  Hkk"kk osQ lkFk
fd, tk jgs nqO;Zogkj osQ f[kykI
+
kQ fojks/
trkuk 'kq: dj fn;kA bl {ks=k dh turk us
ç'kklu esa vius U;k;ksfpr çfrfuf/Ro rFkk
jktuhfrd lÙkk esa leqfpr fgLlsnkjh dh
ek¡x Hkh mBk;hA if'peh ikfdLrku osQ çHkqRo
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eqthcqjZgeku us fd;kA mUgksaus iwohZ {ks=k osQ
fy, Lok;Ùkrk dh ek¡x dhA 'ks[k eqthcqjZgeku
lsuk osQ tsujy vkSj ikfdLrku osQ jk"Vªifr osQ :i esa ikfdLrku osQ 'kkld
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fn, x, lehdj.k dks è;ku ls i<+sa vkSj dkVwZu osQ lans'k dks fy[ksaA
,d vksj iwohZ vkSj
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feydj ,d gks x,_
nwljh vksj Hkkjr vkSj
ikfdLrku gSa] tgk¡ yksxksa
dk ,d&nwljs ns'k esa
tkuk Hkh vklku ugha gSA
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2018-19
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