NCERT Textbook- हुदहुद Class 4 Notes | EduRev

Hindi for Class 4

Class 4 : NCERT Textbook- हुदहुद Class 4 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


106
g
q
ng
q
n dks dyxh oSQls feyh
,d ckj lqyseku uke osQ ckn'kkg
vkdk'k esa mM+us okys vius mM+u[kVksys
ij cSBs dgha tk jgs FksA cM+ h xehZ FkhA
èkwi ls og ijs'kku gks jgs FksA vkdk'k
esa mM+ us okys fx¼ksa ls mUgksaus dgk fd
vius ia[kksa ls rqe yksx esjs flj ij
Nk;k dj nksA ij fx¼ksa us ,slk djus ls euk dj
fn;kA mUgksaus cgkuk cukrs gq, dgk] ¶ge rks brus NksVs&NksVs gSaA gekjh
xnZu ij ia[k Hkh ugha gSaA ge Nk;k oSQls dj ldrs gSa!¸
lqyseku vkxs c<+ x,A oqQN nwj tkus ij mudh HksaV g
q
ng
q
nksa osQ
eqf[k;k ls g
q
bZA lqyseku us mlls Hkh enn ek¡xhA og prqj FkkA mlus
I
+
kQkSju vius ny osQ lHkh g
q
ng
q
nksa dks bdêòk djosQ ckn'kkg lqyseku osQ
mQij Nk;k dj nhA lqyseku cksys] ¶eSaus fx¼ksa ls Hkh enn ek¡xh FkhA os
esjh enn dj ldrs Fks ij mUgksaus esjh enn ugha dhA rqe fx¼ksa ls NksVs
rks gks ij prqj vf/d gksA rqe lcus feydj esjh lgk;rk dh gSA eSa
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? g
q
ng
q
n
 2019-20
Page 2


106
g
q
ng
q
n dks dyxh oSQls feyh
,d ckj lqyseku uke osQ ckn'kkg
vkdk'k esa mM+us okys vius mM+u[kVksys
ij cSBs dgha tk jgs FksA cM+ h xehZ FkhA
èkwi ls og ijs'kku gks jgs FksA vkdk'k
esa mM+ us okys fx¼ksa ls mUgksaus dgk fd
vius ia[kksa ls rqe yksx esjs flj ij
Nk;k dj nksA ij fx¼ksa us ,slk djus ls euk dj
fn;kA mUgksaus cgkuk cukrs gq, dgk] ¶ge rks brus NksVs&NksVs gSaA gekjh
xnZu ij ia[k Hkh ugha gSaA ge Nk;k oSQls dj ldrs gSa!¸
lqyseku vkxs c<+ x,A oqQN nwj tkus ij mudh HksaV g
q
ng
q
nksa osQ
eqf[k;k ls g
q
bZA lqyseku us mlls Hkh enn ek¡xhA og prqj FkkA mlus
I
+
kQkSju vius ny osQ lHkh g
q
ng
q
nksa dks bdêòk djosQ ckn'kkg lqyseku osQ
mQij Nk;k dj nhA lqyseku cksys] ¶eSaus fx¼ksa ls Hkh enn ek¡xh FkhA os
esjh enn dj ldrs Fks ij mUgksaus esjh enn ugha dhA rqe fx¼ksa ls NksVs
rks gks ij prqj vf/d gksA rqe lcus feydj esjh lgk;rk dh gSA eSa
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? g
q
ng
q
n
 2019-20
107 107
rqels cgqr çlUu gw¡A eSa rqEgkjh dksbZ bPNk iwjh d: ¡ xkA crkvks] rqEgkjh
D;k bPNk gS\¸
eqf[k;k us dgk] ¶egkjkt] eSa vius lHkh lkfFk;ksa ls lykg djus osQ
ckn viuh bPNk crkÅ ¡ xkA¸
eqf[k;k us lkfFk;ksa ls lykg djus osQ ckn dgk] ¶egkjkt! ;g
ojnku nhft, fd gekjs flj ij vkt ls lksus dh dyxh fudy vk,A¸
ckn'kkg g¡ls vkSj cksys&¶eqf[k;k] bldk iQy D;k gksxk] ;g rqeus
lksp fy;k gS\¸
eqf[k;k cksyk ¶gk¡] egkjkt! eSaus [kwc ijke'kZ djosQ ;g oj ek¡xk gSA¸
lqyseku us izkFkZuk Lohdkj dj yhA lHkh g
q
ng
q
nksa osQ flj ij lksus dh
dyxh fudy vkbZA yksxksa us lksus dh dyxh dks ns[kk] rks os g
q
ng
q
nksa osQ
ihNs iM+ x,A rhj ls mUgsa ekj&ekjdj lksuk bdêòk djus yxsA
g
q
ng
q
nksa dk oa'k lekIr gksus ij vk x;kA rc eqf[k;k ?kcjkdj
ckn'kkg lqyseku osQ ikl ig
q
¡pk vkSj cksyk ¶bl lksus dh dyxh osQ
dkj.k rks gekjk oa'k gh lekIr gks tk,xkA¸
lqyseku us dgk ¶eSaus rks 'kq: esa gh
rqEgsa psrkouh nh FkhA [kSj] tkvks] vkt
ls rqEgkjs flj dk rkt lksus dk ugha]
lqanj ijksa dk g
q
vk djsxkA¸ vkSj rHkh
ls g
q
ng
q
nksa d s flj ij ijksa dk ;g rkt
(dyxh) 'kksHkk ik jgk gSA
 2019-20
Page 3


106
g
q
ng
q
n dks dyxh oSQls feyh
,d ckj lqyseku uke osQ ckn'kkg
vkdk'k esa mM+us okys vius mM+u[kVksys
ij cSBs dgha tk jgs FksA cM+ h xehZ FkhA
èkwi ls og ijs'kku gks jgs FksA vkdk'k
esa mM+ us okys fx¼ksa ls mUgksaus dgk fd
vius ia[kksa ls rqe yksx esjs flj ij
Nk;k dj nksA ij fx¼ksa us ,slk djus ls euk dj
fn;kA mUgksaus cgkuk cukrs gq, dgk] ¶ge rks brus NksVs&NksVs gSaA gekjh
xnZu ij ia[k Hkh ugha gSaA ge Nk;k oSQls dj ldrs gSa!¸
lqyseku vkxs c<+ x,A oqQN nwj tkus ij mudh HksaV g
q
ng
q
nksa osQ
eqf[k;k ls g
q
bZA lqyseku us mlls Hkh enn ek¡xhA og prqj FkkA mlus
I
+
kQkSju vius ny osQ lHkh g
q
ng
q
nksa dks bdêòk djosQ ckn'kkg lqyseku osQ
mQij Nk;k dj nhA lqyseku cksys] ¶eSaus fx¼ksa ls Hkh enn ek¡xh FkhA os
esjh enn dj ldrs Fks ij mUgksaus esjh enn ugha dhA rqe fx¼ksa ls NksVs
rks gks ij prqj vf/d gksA rqe lcus feydj esjh lgk;rk dh gSA eSa
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? g
q
ng
q
n
 2019-20
107 107
rqels cgqr çlUu gw¡A eSa rqEgkjh dksbZ bPNk iwjh d: ¡ xkA crkvks] rqEgkjh
D;k bPNk gS\¸
eqf[k;k us dgk] ¶egkjkt] eSa vius lHkh lkfFk;ksa ls lykg djus osQ
ckn viuh bPNk crkÅ ¡ xkA¸
eqf[k;k us lkfFk;ksa ls lykg djus osQ ckn dgk] ¶egkjkt! ;g
ojnku nhft, fd gekjs flj ij vkt ls lksus dh dyxh fudy vk,A¸
ckn'kkg g¡ls vkSj cksys&¶eqf[k;k] bldk iQy D;k gksxk] ;g rqeus
lksp fy;k gS\¸
eqf[k;k cksyk ¶gk¡] egkjkt! eSaus [kwc ijke'kZ djosQ ;g oj ek¡xk gSA¸
lqyseku us izkFkZuk Lohdkj dj yhA lHkh g
q
ng
q
nksa osQ flj ij lksus dh
dyxh fudy vkbZA yksxksa us lksus dh dyxh dks ns[kk] rks os g
q
ng
q
nksa osQ
ihNs iM+ x,A rhj ls mUgsa ekj&ekjdj lksuk bdêòk djus yxsA
g
q
ng
q
nksa dk oa'k lekIr gksus ij vk x;kA rc eqf[k;k ?kcjkdj
ckn'kkg lqyseku osQ ikl ig
q
¡pk vkSj cksyk ¶bl lksus dh dyxh osQ
dkj.k rks gekjk oa'k gh lekIr gks tk,xkA¸
lqyseku us dgk ¶eSaus rks 'kq: esa gh
rqEgsa psrkouh nh FkhA [kSj] tkvks] vkt
ls rqEgkjs flj dk rkt lksus dk ugha]
lqanj ijksa dk g
q
vk djsxkA¸ vkSj rHkh
ls g
q
ng
q
nksa d s flj ij ijksa dk ;g rkt
(dyxh) 'kksHkk ik jgk gSA
 2019-20
108
g
q
ng
q
n ,d cg
q
r gh lqa nj
i{kh gSA blosQ 'kjhj dk lcls
lqanj Hkkx blosQ flj dh
dyxh gksrh gSA oSls rks ;g
bls lesVs jgrk gSA ij tSls
gh fdlh rjg dh vkokT
+
k gksrh
gS] ;g pkSdUuk gksdj ijksa dks
iSQyk ysrk gSA rc ;g dyxh ns[kus
esa g
w
&c&g
w
 fdlh lqanj ia [kh tSlh
yxus yxrh gSA blh dyxh osQ ckjs esa rqeus vHkh ,d lqanj dgkuh Hkh
i<+h gSA
g
q
ng
q
n dk lkjk 'kjhj jax&fcjaxk vkSj pVdhyk gksrk gSA ia[k dkys&dkys
gksrs gSa ftu ij eksVh lI
+
ksQn èkkfj;k¡ cuh gksrh gSaA xnZu dk vxyk fgLlk
cknkeh jax dk gksrk gSA pksVh Hkh cknkeh jax dh gksrh gS] exj mlosQ fljs
dkys vkSj lI
+
ksQn gksrs gSaA nqe dk Hkhrjh fgLlk lI
+
ksQn vkSj ckgjh fgLlk
dkys jax dk gksrk gSA pksap iryh] yach rFkk rh[kh gksrh gSA bl pksap ls
;g vklkuh ls ”kehu osQ Hkhrj fNis g
q
, dhM+ss edksM+ksa dks <w¡<+  fudkyrk
gSA bldh pksap uk[kwu dkVus okyh ^ugjuh* ls cg
q
r feyrh gS vkSj 'kk;n
blhfy, dgha&dgha bls ^gtkfeu* fpfM+ ;k osQ uke ls Hkh iqdkjrs gSaA
g
q
ng
q
n gekjs ns'k osQ lHkh Hkkxksa esa ik, tkrs gSaA
 2019-20
Page 4


106
g
q
ng
q
n dks dyxh oSQls feyh
,d ckj lqyseku uke osQ ckn'kkg
vkdk'k esa mM+us okys vius mM+u[kVksys
ij cSBs dgha tk jgs FksA cM+ h xehZ FkhA
èkwi ls og ijs'kku gks jgs FksA vkdk'k
esa mM+ us okys fx¼ksa ls mUgksaus dgk fd
vius ia[kksa ls rqe yksx esjs flj ij
Nk;k dj nksA ij fx¼ksa us ,slk djus ls euk dj
fn;kA mUgksaus cgkuk cukrs gq, dgk] ¶ge rks brus NksVs&NksVs gSaA gekjh
xnZu ij ia[k Hkh ugha gSaA ge Nk;k oSQls dj ldrs gSa!¸
lqyseku vkxs c<+ x,A oqQN nwj tkus ij mudh HksaV g
q
ng
q
nksa osQ
eqf[k;k ls g
q
bZA lqyseku us mlls Hkh enn ek¡xhA og prqj FkkA mlus
I
+
kQkSju vius ny osQ lHkh g
q
ng
q
nksa dks bdêòk djosQ ckn'kkg lqyseku osQ
mQij Nk;k dj nhA lqyseku cksys] ¶eSaus fx¼ksa ls Hkh enn ek¡xh FkhA os
esjh enn dj ldrs Fks ij mUgksaus esjh enn ugha dhA rqe fx¼ksa ls NksVs
rks gks ij prqj vf/d gksA rqe lcus feydj esjh lgk;rk dh gSA eSa
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? g
q
ng
q
n
 2019-20
107 107
rqels cgqr çlUu gw¡A eSa rqEgkjh dksbZ bPNk iwjh d: ¡ xkA crkvks] rqEgkjh
D;k bPNk gS\¸
eqf[k;k us dgk] ¶egkjkt] eSa vius lHkh lkfFk;ksa ls lykg djus osQ
ckn viuh bPNk crkÅ ¡ xkA¸
eqf[k;k us lkfFk;ksa ls lykg djus osQ ckn dgk] ¶egkjkt! ;g
ojnku nhft, fd gekjs flj ij vkt ls lksus dh dyxh fudy vk,A¸
ckn'kkg g¡ls vkSj cksys&¶eqf[k;k] bldk iQy D;k gksxk] ;g rqeus
lksp fy;k gS\¸
eqf[k;k cksyk ¶gk¡] egkjkt! eSaus [kwc ijke'kZ djosQ ;g oj ek¡xk gSA¸
lqyseku us izkFkZuk Lohdkj dj yhA lHkh g
q
ng
q
nksa osQ flj ij lksus dh
dyxh fudy vkbZA yksxksa us lksus dh dyxh dks ns[kk] rks os g
q
ng
q
nksa osQ
ihNs iM+ x,A rhj ls mUgsa ekj&ekjdj lksuk bdêòk djus yxsA
g
q
ng
q
nksa dk oa'k lekIr gksus ij vk x;kA rc eqf[k;k ?kcjkdj
ckn'kkg lqyseku osQ ikl ig
q
¡pk vkSj cksyk ¶bl lksus dh dyxh osQ
dkj.k rks gekjk oa'k gh lekIr gks tk,xkA¸
lqyseku us dgk ¶eSaus rks 'kq: esa gh
rqEgsa psrkouh nh FkhA [kSj] tkvks] vkt
ls rqEgkjs flj dk rkt lksus dk ugha]
lqanj ijksa dk g
q
vk djsxkA¸ vkSj rHkh
ls g
q
ng
q
nksa d s flj ij ijksa dk ;g rkt
(dyxh) 'kksHkk ik jgk gSA
 2019-20
108
g
q
ng
q
n ,d cg
q
r gh lqa nj
i{kh gSA blosQ 'kjhj dk lcls
lqanj Hkkx blosQ flj dh
dyxh gksrh gSA oSls rks ;g
bls lesVs jgrk gSA ij tSls
gh fdlh rjg dh vkokT
+
k gksrh
gS] ;g pkSdUuk gksdj ijksa dks
iSQyk ysrk gSA rc ;g dyxh ns[kus
esa g
w
&c&g
w
 fdlh lqanj ia [kh tSlh
yxus yxrh gSA blh dyxh osQ ckjs esa rqeus vHkh ,d lqanj dgkuh Hkh
i<+h gSA
g
q
ng
q
n dk lkjk 'kjhj jax&fcjaxk vkSj pVdhyk gksrk gSA ia[k dkys&dkys
gksrs gSa ftu ij eksVh lI
+
ksQn èkkfj;k¡ cuh gksrh gSaA xnZu dk vxyk fgLlk
cknkeh jax dk gksrk gSA pksVh Hkh cknkeh jax dh gksrh gS] exj mlosQ fljs
dkys vkSj lI
+
ksQn gksrs gSaA nqe dk Hkhrjh fgLlk lI
+
ksQn vkSj ckgjh fgLlk
dkys jax dk gksrk gSA pksap iryh] yach rFkk rh[kh gksrh gSA bl pksap ls
;g vklkuh ls ”kehu osQ Hkhrj fNis g
q
, dhM+ss edksM+ksa dks <w¡<+  fudkyrk
gSA bldh pksap uk[kwu dkVus okyh ^ugjuh* ls cg
q
r feyrh gS vkSj 'kk;n
blhfy, dgha&dgha bls ^gtkfeu* fpfM+ ;k osQ uke ls Hkh iqdkjrs gSaA
g
q
ng
q
n gekjs ns'k osQ lHkh Hkkxksa esa ik, tkrs gSaA
 2019-20
109
rqeus bls vius ?kj osQ vklikl viuh rh[kh pksap ls T
+
kehu [kksnrs g
q
, vo';
ns[kk gksxkA cksyrs le; ;g rhu ckj ^g
q
i&g
q
i&g
q
i* lk oqQN dgrk gS] blhfy,
bls vaxzs”kh esa ^gwi Å* dgk tkrk gSA ¯gnh esa bls g
q
ng
q
n dgrs gSaA nwc esa dhM+k
<w¡<+us ds dkj.k gekjs ns'k esa dgha&dgha bls ^inqc;k* Hkh dgrs gSa vkSj lqanj dyxh
dh otg ls oqQN ns'kksa esa yksx bls ^'kkg lqyseku* dgdj iqdkjrs gSaA
eknk g
q
ng
q
n rhu ls nl rd vaMs nsrh gSA tc rd cPps vaMs ls ckgj ugha
fudy tkrs] og vaMksa ij cSBh
jgrh gS] gVrh ughaA uj ogha
Hkkstu ykdj mls f[kyk tkrk
gSA ij nksuksa esa ls dksbZ Hkh
?kksalys dh lI
+
kQkbZ ugha djrkA
lalkj osQ fo[;kr if{k;ksa esa
ls ,d gS ;g g
q
ng
q
nA ;g viuh
lqanjrk osQ fy, rks e'kgwj gS] ij bls
ikyrw ugha cuk;k tk ldrk vkSj u gh
bldh cksyh esa feBkl gSA
 2019-20
Page 5


106
g
q
ng
q
n dks dyxh oSQls feyh
,d ckj lqyseku uke osQ ckn'kkg
vkdk'k esa mM+us okys vius mM+u[kVksys
ij cSBs dgha tk jgs FksA cM+ h xehZ FkhA
èkwi ls og ijs'kku gks jgs FksA vkdk'k
esa mM+ us okys fx¼ksa ls mUgksaus dgk fd
vius ia[kksa ls rqe yksx esjs flj ij
Nk;k dj nksA ij fx¼ksa us ,slk djus ls euk dj
fn;kA mUgksaus cgkuk cukrs gq, dgk] ¶ge rks brus NksVs&NksVs gSaA gekjh
xnZu ij ia[k Hkh ugha gSaA ge Nk;k oSQls dj ldrs gSa!¸
lqyseku vkxs c<+ x,A oqQN nwj tkus ij mudh HksaV g
q
ng
q
nksa osQ
eqf[k;k ls g
q
bZA lqyseku us mlls Hkh enn ek¡xhA og prqj FkkA mlus
I
+
kQkSju vius ny osQ lHkh g
q
ng
q
nksa dks bdêòk djosQ ckn'kkg lqyseku osQ
mQij Nk;k dj nhA lqyseku cksys] ¶eSaus fx¼ksa ls Hkh enn ek¡xh FkhA os
esjh enn dj ldrs Fks ij mUgksaus esjh enn ugha dhA rqe fx¼ksa ls NksVs
rks gks ij prqj vf/d gksA rqe lcus feydj esjh lgk;rk dh gSA eSa
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? g
q
ng
q
n
 2019-20
107 107
rqels cgqr çlUu gw¡A eSa rqEgkjh dksbZ bPNk iwjh d: ¡ xkA crkvks] rqEgkjh
D;k bPNk gS\¸
eqf[k;k us dgk] ¶egkjkt] eSa vius lHkh lkfFk;ksa ls lykg djus osQ
ckn viuh bPNk crkÅ ¡ xkA¸
eqf[k;k us lkfFk;ksa ls lykg djus osQ ckn dgk] ¶egkjkt! ;g
ojnku nhft, fd gekjs flj ij vkt ls lksus dh dyxh fudy vk,A¸
ckn'kkg g¡ls vkSj cksys&¶eqf[k;k] bldk iQy D;k gksxk] ;g rqeus
lksp fy;k gS\¸
eqf[k;k cksyk ¶gk¡] egkjkt! eSaus [kwc ijke'kZ djosQ ;g oj ek¡xk gSA¸
lqyseku us izkFkZuk Lohdkj dj yhA lHkh g
q
ng
q
nksa osQ flj ij lksus dh
dyxh fudy vkbZA yksxksa us lksus dh dyxh dks ns[kk] rks os g
q
ng
q
nksa osQ
ihNs iM+ x,A rhj ls mUgsa ekj&ekjdj lksuk bdêòk djus yxsA
g
q
ng
q
nksa dk oa'k lekIr gksus ij vk x;kA rc eqf[k;k ?kcjkdj
ckn'kkg lqyseku osQ ikl ig
q
¡pk vkSj cksyk ¶bl lksus dh dyxh osQ
dkj.k rks gekjk oa'k gh lekIr gks tk,xkA¸
lqyseku us dgk ¶eSaus rks 'kq: esa gh
rqEgsa psrkouh nh FkhA [kSj] tkvks] vkt
ls rqEgkjs flj dk rkt lksus dk ugha]
lqanj ijksa dk g
q
vk djsxkA¸ vkSj rHkh
ls g
q
ng
q
nksa d s flj ij ijksa dk ;g rkt
(dyxh) 'kksHkk ik jgk gSA
 2019-20
108
g
q
ng
q
n ,d cg
q
r gh lqa nj
i{kh gSA blosQ 'kjhj dk lcls
lqanj Hkkx blosQ flj dh
dyxh gksrh gSA oSls rks ;g
bls lesVs jgrk gSA ij tSls
gh fdlh rjg dh vkokT
+
k gksrh
gS] ;g pkSdUuk gksdj ijksa dks
iSQyk ysrk gSA rc ;g dyxh ns[kus
esa g
w
&c&g
w
 fdlh lqanj ia [kh tSlh
yxus yxrh gSA blh dyxh osQ ckjs esa rqeus vHkh ,d lqanj dgkuh Hkh
i<+h gSA
g
q
ng
q
n dk lkjk 'kjhj jax&fcjaxk vkSj pVdhyk gksrk gSA ia[k dkys&dkys
gksrs gSa ftu ij eksVh lI
+
ksQn èkkfj;k¡ cuh gksrh gSaA xnZu dk vxyk fgLlk
cknkeh jax dk gksrk gSA pksVh Hkh cknkeh jax dh gksrh gS] exj mlosQ fljs
dkys vkSj lI
+
ksQn gksrs gSaA nqe dk Hkhrjh fgLlk lI
+
ksQn vkSj ckgjh fgLlk
dkys jax dk gksrk gSA pksap iryh] yach rFkk rh[kh gksrh gSA bl pksap ls
;g vklkuh ls ”kehu osQ Hkhrj fNis g
q
, dhM+ss edksM+ksa dks <w¡<+  fudkyrk
gSA bldh pksap uk[kwu dkVus okyh ^ugjuh* ls cg
q
r feyrh gS vkSj 'kk;n
blhfy, dgha&dgha bls ^gtkfeu* fpfM+ ;k osQ uke ls Hkh iqdkjrs gSaA
g
q
ng
q
n gekjs ns'k osQ lHkh Hkkxksa esa ik, tkrs gSaA
 2019-20
109
rqeus bls vius ?kj osQ vklikl viuh rh[kh pksap ls T
+
kehu [kksnrs g
q
, vo';
ns[kk gksxkA cksyrs le; ;g rhu ckj ^g
q
i&g
q
i&g
q
i* lk oqQN dgrk gS] blhfy,
bls vaxzs”kh esa ^gwi Å* dgk tkrk gSA ¯gnh esa bls g
q
ng
q
n dgrs gSaA nwc esa dhM+k
<w¡<+us ds dkj.k gekjs ns'k esa dgha&dgha bls ^inqc;k* Hkh dgrs gSa vkSj lqanj dyxh
dh otg ls oqQN ns'kksa esa yksx bls ^'kkg lqyseku* dgdj iqdkjrs gSaA
eknk g
q
ng
q
n rhu ls nl rd vaMs nsrh gSA tc rd cPps vaMs ls ckgj ugha
fudy tkrs] og vaMksa ij cSBh
jgrh gS] gVrh ughaA uj ogha
Hkkstu ykdj mls f[kyk tkrk
gSA ij nksuksa esa ls dksbZ Hkh
?kksalys dh lI
+
kQkbZ ugha djrkA
lalkj osQ fo[;kr if{k;ksa esa
ls ,d gS ;g g
q
ng
q
nA ;g viuh
lqanjrk osQ fy, rks e'kgwj gS] ij bls
ikyrw ugha cuk;k tk ldrk vkSj u gh
bldh cksyh esa feBkl gSA
 2019-20
110
rqEgkjh le>
(d) g
q
ng
q
n dks dgha ^gtkfeu* fpfM+ ;k vkSj dgha ^inqc;k* osQ uke
ls iqdkjrs gSaA D;ksa\
([k) g
q
ng
q
n dh pksap iryh] yach vkSj rh[kh gksrh gSA bl ckr dks
è;ku esa j[kdj crkvks&
• os oSQlk Hkkstu [kkrs gksaxs\
• pksap ls os D;k&D;k dke ys ldrs gksaxs\
eSaus tkuk
ikB esa ls ,sls 'kCnksa dh lwph cukvks tks if{k;ksa osQ fy, bLrseky
gksrs gSaA
tkurh Fkh i<+dj ekywe g
q
vk tkuuk pkgrh g¡
 w
oSQls@dgk¡ ls irk
yxkm¡Qxh\
ikB i<+us osQ ckn viuh dkWih esa ,d rkfydk rS;kj djks vkSj ml
rkfydk esa ekywe dh xbZ tkudkjh fy[kksA
 2019-20
Read More
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