NCERT Textbook - International Business - II Commerce Notes | EduRev

Business Studies (BST) Class 11

Commerce : NCERT Textbook - International Business - II Commerce Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


CHAPTER 12
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS-II
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• discuss important steps and documents involved in executing
export transactions;
? explain major steps and documents involved in carrying out
import transactions;
? identify various incentives and schemes available to international
firms;
? identify and state the role of various organisations that have been
set up in the country to promote foreign trade; and
? list major international institutions and agreements existing at
the global level and discuss their role in promoting international
trade and development.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


CHAPTER 12
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS-II
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• discuss important steps and documents involved in executing
export transactions;
? explain major steps and documents involved in carrying out
import transactions;
? identify various incentives and schemes available to international
firms;
? identify and state the role of various organisations that have been
set up in the country to promote foreign trade; and
? list major international institutions and agreements existing at
the global level and discuss their role in promoting international
trade and development.
© NCERT
not to be republished
279 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS- II
12.1 INTRODUCTION
Exporting goods to foreign countries is
quite different from marketing products
domestically. One needs to be familiar
with various procedural formalities that
need to be complied with before goods
are actually shipped to foreign
destinations or imported from overseas
suppliers. In order to facilitate and
promote trade, government provides
several incentives schemes for
international firms to import goods at
zero or concessional rates of customs
duty for use in manufacture of
products meant for exports; exempt
them from payment of various other
After deliberations with his friend and son, Mr. Sudhir Manchanda feels convinced
that this is the right time for him to step into international markets. This will
enable him not only to tide over the problems of demand saturation for his
automotive parts in the domestic market, but would also help him reap various
benefits that accrue to international firms.
Since he has limited capital available with him right now and does not have any
past experience of overseas operations, he has decided to opt for exporting as
the mode of entry into international markets.
But the problem with him is that he does not know as to how to get into export
business. His friend in the tyre business tells him that exporting and importing
is not that simple an activity as operating domestically.
A number of formalities are needed to be performed and documents to be filled
in before goods are finally dispatched to export markets. A similar and somewhat
tedious process is needed in case he desires to import some of the tools and raw
materials for producing export quality products. Mr. Manchanda is once again
in a fix. He does not have any idea of what the various formalities and documents
involved in exporting and importing are.
Mr. Manchanda is also wondering as to how he will protect himself against
export risks. He is, moreover, worried about the additional costs that he would
have to incur in making goods export worthy. He is contemplating making use of
some imported machines and raw materials.
But would not the import duties on such imports substantially increase his
product cost? In addition, he will be incurring additional costs on transportation,
packaging and insurance as required in connection with export to foreign
destinations.
Mr. Manchanda’s friend in the tyre business tells him he need not worry that
much about these problems. After all, so many firms from India are already
engaged in export business and have soaring exports.
He should have patience and not get disturbed by these hiccups. He can seek
advice from some trade expert for faimiliarising himself with the export import
procedures and documentation. He also tells him that though he does not have
any specific details with him, he is aware there exist various foreign trade
promotion measures and organisations that can be helpful to him in overcoming
his problem and making his products more competitive in the world markets!
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


CHAPTER 12
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS-II
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• discuss important steps and documents involved in executing
export transactions;
? explain major steps and documents involved in carrying out
import transactions;
? identify various incentives and schemes available to international
firms;
? identify and state the role of various organisations that have been
set up in the country to promote foreign trade; and
? list major international institutions and agreements existing at
the global level and discuss their role in promoting international
trade and development.
© NCERT
not to be republished
279 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS- II
12.1 INTRODUCTION
Exporting goods to foreign countries is
quite different from marketing products
domestically. One needs to be familiar
with various procedural formalities that
need to be complied with before goods
are actually shipped to foreign
destinations or imported from overseas
suppliers. In order to facilitate and
promote trade, government provides
several incentives schemes for
international firms to import goods at
zero or concessional rates of customs
duty for use in manufacture of
products meant for exports; exempt
them from payment of various other
After deliberations with his friend and son, Mr. Sudhir Manchanda feels convinced
that this is the right time for him to step into international markets. This will
enable him not only to tide over the problems of demand saturation for his
automotive parts in the domestic market, but would also help him reap various
benefits that accrue to international firms.
Since he has limited capital available with him right now and does not have any
past experience of overseas operations, he has decided to opt for exporting as
the mode of entry into international markets.
But the problem with him is that he does not know as to how to get into export
business. His friend in the tyre business tells him that exporting and importing
is not that simple an activity as operating domestically.
A number of formalities are needed to be performed and documents to be filled
in before goods are finally dispatched to export markets. A similar and somewhat
tedious process is needed in case he desires to import some of the tools and raw
materials for producing export quality products. Mr. Manchanda is once again
in a fix. He does not have any idea of what the various formalities and documents
involved in exporting and importing are.
Mr. Manchanda is also wondering as to how he will protect himself against
export risks. He is, moreover, worried about the additional costs that he would
have to incur in making goods export worthy. He is contemplating making use of
some imported machines and raw materials.
But would not the import duties on such imports substantially increase his
product cost? In addition, he will be incurring additional costs on transportation,
packaging and insurance as required in connection with export to foreign
destinations.
Mr. Manchanda’s friend in the tyre business tells him he need not worry that
much about these problems. After all, so many firms from India are already
engaged in export business and have soaring exports.
He should have patience and not get disturbed by these hiccups. He can seek
advice from some trade expert for faimiliarising himself with the export import
procedures and documentation. He also tells him that though he does not have
any specific details with him, he is aware there exist various foreign trade
promotion measures and organisations that can be helpful to him in overcoming
his problem and making his products more competitive in the world markets!
© NCERT
not to be republished
280 BUSINESS STUDIES
duties and taxes; and carry out their
import-export transactions in a less
cumbersome environment. The
government has also set up a wide
variety of organisations to collect and
disseminate information about
international markets, promote exports
of specific products, train executives of
international business firms, and
ensure proper quality and packaging
of export goods. At the international
level, various organisations such as the
World Bank, International Monetary
Fund (IMF) and World Trade
Organisation (WTO) exist for
accelerating the pace of development
and trade amongst the nations.
This chapter is devoted to the
discussion of major steps and
documents involved in foreign trade.
The chapter also identifies and
examines the role of various trade
promotion measures and organisations
set up for promotion of international
business. The concluding section of the
chapter is devoted to an analysis of
major international institutions that
operate at the global level to promote
world development and trade.
12.2 EXPORT-IMPORT PROCEDURES
AND DOCUMENTATION
A major distinction between domestic
and international operations is the
complexity of the latter. Export and
import of goods is not that straight
forward as buying and selling in the
domestic market. Since foreign trade
transactions involves movement of
goods across frontiers and use of
foreign exchange, a number of
formalities are needed to be performed
before the goods leave the boundaries
of a country and enter into that of
another. Following sections are devoted
to a discussion of major steps that need
to be undertaken for completing export
and import transactions.
12.2.1 Export Procedure
The number of steps and the sequence
in which these are taken vary from one
export transaction to another. Steps
involved in a typical export transaction
are as follows.
(i) Receipt of enquiry and sending
quotations: The prospective buyer of a
product sends an enquiry to different
exporters requesting them to send
information regarding price, quality and
terms and conditions for export of
goods. Exporters can be informed of
such an enquiry even by way of
advertisement in the press put in by the
importer. The exporter sends a reply to
the enquiry in the form of a quotation —
referred to as proforma invoice. The
proforma invoice contains information
about the price at which the exporter is
ready to sell the goods and also provides
information about the quality, grade,
size, weight, mode of delivery, type of
packing and payment terms.
(ii) Receipt of order or indent: In
case the prospective buyer (i.e.,
importing firm) finds the export price
and other terms and conditions
acceptable, it places an order for the
goods to be despatched. This order, also
known as indent, contains a description
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


CHAPTER 12
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS-II
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• discuss important steps and documents involved in executing
export transactions;
? explain major steps and documents involved in carrying out
import transactions;
? identify various incentives and schemes available to international
firms;
? identify and state the role of various organisations that have been
set up in the country to promote foreign trade; and
? list major international institutions and agreements existing at
the global level and discuss their role in promoting international
trade and development.
© NCERT
not to be republished
279 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS- II
12.1 INTRODUCTION
Exporting goods to foreign countries is
quite different from marketing products
domestically. One needs to be familiar
with various procedural formalities that
need to be complied with before goods
are actually shipped to foreign
destinations or imported from overseas
suppliers. In order to facilitate and
promote trade, government provides
several incentives schemes for
international firms to import goods at
zero or concessional rates of customs
duty for use in manufacture of
products meant for exports; exempt
them from payment of various other
After deliberations with his friend and son, Mr. Sudhir Manchanda feels convinced
that this is the right time for him to step into international markets. This will
enable him not only to tide over the problems of demand saturation for his
automotive parts in the domestic market, but would also help him reap various
benefits that accrue to international firms.
Since he has limited capital available with him right now and does not have any
past experience of overseas operations, he has decided to opt for exporting as
the mode of entry into international markets.
But the problem with him is that he does not know as to how to get into export
business. His friend in the tyre business tells him that exporting and importing
is not that simple an activity as operating domestically.
A number of formalities are needed to be performed and documents to be filled
in before goods are finally dispatched to export markets. A similar and somewhat
tedious process is needed in case he desires to import some of the tools and raw
materials for producing export quality products. Mr. Manchanda is once again
in a fix. He does not have any idea of what the various formalities and documents
involved in exporting and importing are.
Mr. Manchanda is also wondering as to how he will protect himself against
export risks. He is, moreover, worried about the additional costs that he would
have to incur in making goods export worthy. He is contemplating making use of
some imported machines and raw materials.
But would not the import duties on such imports substantially increase his
product cost? In addition, he will be incurring additional costs on transportation,
packaging and insurance as required in connection with export to foreign
destinations.
Mr. Manchanda’s friend in the tyre business tells him he need not worry that
much about these problems. After all, so many firms from India are already
engaged in export business and have soaring exports.
He should have patience and not get disturbed by these hiccups. He can seek
advice from some trade expert for faimiliarising himself with the export import
procedures and documentation. He also tells him that though he does not have
any specific details with him, he is aware there exist various foreign trade
promotion measures and organisations that can be helpful to him in overcoming
his problem and making his products more competitive in the world markets!
© NCERT
not to be republished
280 BUSINESS STUDIES
duties and taxes; and carry out their
import-export transactions in a less
cumbersome environment. The
government has also set up a wide
variety of organisations to collect and
disseminate information about
international markets, promote exports
of specific products, train executives of
international business firms, and
ensure proper quality and packaging
of export goods. At the international
level, various organisations such as the
World Bank, International Monetary
Fund (IMF) and World Trade
Organisation (WTO) exist for
accelerating the pace of development
and trade amongst the nations.
This chapter is devoted to the
discussion of major steps and
documents involved in foreign trade.
The chapter also identifies and
examines the role of various trade
promotion measures and organisations
set up for promotion of international
business. The concluding section of the
chapter is devoted to an analysis of
major international institutions that
operate at the global level to promote
world development and trade.
12.2 EXPORT-IMPORT PROCEDURES
AND DOCUMENTATION
A major distinction between domestic
and international operations is the
complexity of the latter. Export and
import of goods is not that straight
forward as buying and selling in the
domestic market. Since foreign trade
transactions involves movement of
goods across frontiers and use of
foreign exchange, a number of
formalities are needed to be performed
before the goods leave the boundaries
of a country and enter into that of
another. Following sections are devoted
to a discussion of major steps that need
to be undertaken for completing export
and import transactions.
12.2.1 Export Procedure
The number of steps and the sequence
in which these are taken vary from one
export transaction to another. Steps
involved in a typical export transaction
are as follows.
(i) Receipt of enquiry and sending
quotations: The prospective buyer of a
product sends an enquiry to different
exporters requesting them to send
information regarding price, quality and
terms and conditions for export of
goods. Exporters can be informed of
such an enquiry even by way of
advertisement in the press put in by the
importer. The exporter sends a reply to
the enquiry in the form of a quotation —
referred to as proforma invoice. The
proforma invoice contains information
about the price at which the exporter is
ready to sell the goods and also provides
information about the quality, grade,
size, weight, mode of delivery, type of
packing and payment terms.
(ii) Receipt of order or indent: In
case the prospective buyer (i.e.,
importing firm) finds the export price
and other terms and conditions
acceptable, it places an order for the
goods to be despatched. This order, also
known as indent, contains a description
© NCERT
not to be republished
281 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS- II
of the goods ordered, prices to be paid,
delivery terms, packing and marking
details and delivery instructions.
(iii) Assessing importer’s credit-
worthiness and securing a guarantee
for payments: After receipt of the
indent, the exporter makes necessary
enquiry about the creditworthiness of
the importer. The purpose underlying
the enquiry is to assess the risks of non
payment by the importer once the
goods reach the import destination. To
minimise such risks, most exporters
demand a letter of credit from the
importer. A letter of credit is a guarantee
issued by the importer’s bank that it
will honour payment up to a certain
amount of export bills to the bank of
the exporter. Letter of credit is the most
appropriate and secure method of
payment adopted to settle international
transactions
(iv) Obtaining export licence: Having
become assured about payments, the
exporting firm initiates the steps
relating to compliance of export
regulations. Export of goods in India
is subject to custom laws which
demand that the export firm must have
an export licence before it proceeds
with exports. Important pre-requisites
for getting an export licence are as
follows:
? Opening a bank account in any
bank authorised by the Reserve
Bank of India (RBI) and getting an
account number.
? Obtaining Import Export Code
(IEC) number from the Directorate
General Foreign Trade (DGFT) or
Regional Import Export Licensing
Authority.
? Registering with appropriate
export promotion council.
? Registering with Export Credit and
Guarantee Corporation (ECGC) in
order to safeguard against risks
of non payments.
An export firm needs to have the
Import Export Code (IEC) number as
it needs to be filled in various export/
import documents. For obtaining the
IEC number, a firm has to apply to the
Director General for Foreign Trade
(DGFT) with documents such as
exporter/importer profile, bank receipt
for requisite fee, certificate from the
banker on the prescribed form, two
copies of photographs attested by the
banker, details of the non-resident
interest and declaration about the
applicant’s non association with
caution listed firms.
It is obligatory for every exporter to
get registered with the appropriate
export promotion council. Various
export promotion councils such as
Engineering Export Promotion Council
(EEPC) and Apparel Export Promotion
Council (AEPC) have been set up by the
Government of India to promote and
develop exports of different categories
of products. We shall discuss about
export promotion councils in a later
section. But it may be mentioned here
that it is necessary for the exporter to
become a member of the appropriate
export promotion council and obtain
a Registration cum Membership
Certificate (RCMC) for availing benefits
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


CHAPTER 12
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS-II
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• discuss important steps and documents involved in executing
export transactions;
? explain major steps and documents involved in carrying out
import transactions;
? identify various incentives and schemes available to international
firms;
? identify and state the role of various organisations that have been
set up in the country to promote foreign trade; and
? list major international institutions and agreements existing at
the global level and discuss their role in promoting international
trade and development.
© NCERT
not to be republished
279 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS- II
12.1 INTRODUCTION
Exporting goods to foreign countries is
quite different from marketing products
domestically. One needs to be familiar
with various procedural formalities that
need to be complied with before goods
are actually shipped to foreign
destinations or imported from overseas
suppliers. In order to facilitate and
promote trade, government provides
several incentives schemes for
international firms to import goods at
zero or concessional rates of customs
duty for use in manufacture of
products meant for exports; exempt
them from payment of various other
After deliberations with his friend and son, Mr. Sudhir Manchanda feels convinced
that this is the right time for him to step into international markets. This will
enable him not only to tide over the problems of demand saturation for his
automotive parts in the domestic market, but would also help him reap various
benefits that accrue to international firms.
Since he has limited capital available with him right now and does not have any
past experience of overseas operations, he has decided to opt for exporting as
the mode of entry into international markets.
But the problem with him is that he does not know as to how to get into export
business. His friend in the tyre business tells him that exporting and importing
is not that simple an activity as operating domestically.
A number of formalities are needed to be performed and documents to be filled
in before goods are finally dispatched to export markets. A similar and somewhat
tedious process is needed in case he desires to import some of the tools and raw
materials for producing export quality products. Mr. Manchanda is once again
in a fix. He does not have any idea of what the various formalities and documents
involved in exporting and importing are.
Mr. Manchanda is also wondering as to how he will protect himself against
export risks. He is, moreover, worried about the additional costs that he would
have to incur in making goods export worthy. He is contemplating making use of
some imported machines and raw materials.
But would not the import duties on such imports substantially increase his
product cost? In addition, he will be incurring additional costs on transportation,
packaging and insurance as required in connection with export to foreign
destinations.
Mr. Manchanda’s friend in the tyre business tells him he need not worry that
much about these problems. After all, so many firms from India are already
engaged in export business and have soaring exports.
He should have patience and not get disturbed by these hiccups. He can seek
advice from some trade expert for faimiliarising himself with the export import
procedures and documentation. He also tells him that though he does not have
any specific details with him, he is aware there exist various foreign trade
promotion measures and organisations that can be helpful to him in overcoming
his problem and making his products more competitive in the world markets!
© NCERT
not to be republished
280 BUSINESS STUDIES
duties and taxes; and carry out their
import-export transactions in a less
cumbersome environment. The
government has also set up a wide
variety of organisations to collect and
disseminate information about
international markets, promote exports
of specific products, train executives of
international business firms, and
ensure proper quality and packaging
of export goods. At the international
level, various organisations such as the
World Bank, International Monetary
Fund (IMF) and World Trade
Organisation (WTO) exist for
accelerating the pace of development
and trade amongst the nations.
This chapter is devoted to the
discussion of major steps and
documents involved in foreign trade.
The chapter also identifies and
examines the role of various trade
promotion measures and organisations
set up for promotion of international
business. The concluding section of the
chapter is devoted to an analysis of
major international institutions that
operate at the global level to promote
world development and trade.
12.2 EXPORT-IMPORT PROCEDURES
AND DOCUMENTATION
A major distinction between domestic
and international operations is the
complexity of the latter. Export and
import of goods is not that straight
forward as buying and selling in the
domestic market. Since foreign trade
transactions involves movement of
goods across frontiers and use of
foreign exchange, a number of
formalities are needed to be performed
before the goods leave the boundaries
of a country and enter into that of
another. Following sections are devoted
to a discussion of major steps that need
to be undertaken for completing export
and import transactions.
12.2.1 Export Procedure
The number of steps and the sequence
in which these are taken vary from one
export transaction to another. Steps
involved in a typical export transaction
are as follows.
(i) Receipt of enquiry and sending
quotations: The prospective buyer of a
product sends an enquiry to different
exporters requesting them to send
information regarding price, quality and
terms and conditions for export of
goods. Exporters can be informed of
such an enquiry even by way of
advertisement in the press put in by the
importer. The exporter sends a reply to
the enquiry in the form of a quotation —
referred to as proforma invoice. The
proforma invoice contains information
about the price at which the exporter is
ready to sell the goods and also provides
information about the quality, grade,
size, weight, mode of delivery, type of
packing and payment terms.
(ii) Receipt of order or indent: In
case the prospective buyer (i.e.,
importing firm) finds the export price
and other terms and conditions
acceptable, it places an order for the
goods to be despatched. This order, also
known as indent, contains a description
© NCERT
not to be republished
281 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS- II
of the goods ordered, prices to be paid,
delivery terms, packing and marking
details and delivery instructions.
(iii) Assessing importer’s credit-
worthiness and securing a guarantee
for payments: After receipt of the
indent, the exporter makes necessary
enquiry about the creditworthiness of
the importer. The purpose underlying
the enquiry is to assess the risks of non
payment by the importer once the
goods reach the import destination. To
minimise such risks, most exporters
demand a letter of credit from the
importer. A letter of credit is a guarantee
issued by the importer’s bank that it
will honour payment up to a certain
amount of export bills to the bank of
the exporter. Letter of credit is the most
appropriate and secure method of
payment adopted to settle international
transactions
(iv) Obtaining export licence: Having
become assured about payments, the
exporting firm initiates the steps
relating to compliance of export
regulations. Export of goods in India
is subject to custom laws which
demand that the export firm must have
an export licence before it proceeds
with exports. Important pre-requisites
for getting an export licence are as
follows:
? Opening a bank account in any
bank authorised by the Reserve
Bank of India (RBI) and getting an
account number.
? Obtaining Import Export Code
(IEC) number from the Directorate
General Foreign Trade (DGFT) or
Regional Import Export Licensing
Authority.
? Registering with appropriate
export promotion council.
? Registering with Export Credit and
Guarantee Corporation (ECGC) in
order to safeguard against risks
of non payments.
An export firm needs to have the
Import Export Code (IEC) number as
it needs to be filled in various export/
import documents. For obtaining the
IEC number, a firm has to apply to the
Director General for Foreign Trade
(DGFT) with documents such as
exporter/importer profile, bank receipt
for requisite fee, certificate from the
banker on the prescribed form, two
copies of photographs attested by the
banker, details of the non-resident
interest and declaration about the
applicant’s non association with
caution listed firms.
It is obligatory for every exporter to
get registered with the appropriate
export promotion council. Various
export promotion councils such as
Engineering Export Promotion Council
(EEPC) and Apparel Export Promotion
Council (AEPC) have been set up by the
Government of India to promote and
develop exports of different categories
of products. We shall discuss about
export promotion councils in a later
section. But it may be mentioned here
that it is necessary for the exporter to
become a member of the appropriate
export promotion council and obtain
a Registration cum Membership
Certificate (RCMC) for availing benefits
© NCERT
not to be republished
282 BUSINESS STUDIES
available to export firms from the
Government.
Registration with the ECGC is
necessary in order to protect overseas
payments from political and
commercial risks. Such a registration
also helps the export firm in getting
financial assistance from commercial
banks and other financial institutions.
(v) Obtaining pre-shipment finance:
Once a confirmed order and also a letter
of credit have been received, the
exporter approaches his banker for
obtaining pre-shipment finance to
undertake export production. Pre-
shipment finance is the finance that the
exporter needs for procuring raw
materials and other components,
processing and packing of goods and
transportation of goods to the port of
shipment.
(vi) Production or procurement of
goods: Having obtained the pre-
shipment finance from the bank, the
exporter proceeds to get the goods
ready as per the specifications of the
importer. Either the firm itself goes in
for producing the goods or else it buys
from the market.
(vii) Pre-shipment inspection: The
Government of India has initiated many
steps to ensure that only good quality
products are exported from the
country. One such step is compulsory
inspection of certain products by a
competent agency as designated by the
government. The government has
passed Export Quality Control and
Inspection Act, 1963 for this purpose.
and has authorised some agencies to
act as inspection agencies. If the
product to be exported comes under
such a category, the exporter needs to
contact the Export Inspection Agency
(EIA) or the other designated agency for
obtaining inspection certificate. The
pre-shipment inspection report is
required to be submitted along with
other export documents at the time of
exports. Such an inspection is not
compulsory in case the goods are being
exported by star trading houses,
trading houses, export houses,
industrial units setup in export
processing zones/special economic
zones (EPZs/SEZs) and 100 per cent
export oriented units (EOUs). We shall
discuss about these special types of
export firms in a later section.
(viii) Excise clearance: As per the
Central Excise Tariff Act, excise duty is
payable on the materials used in
manufacturing goods. The exporter,
therefore, has to apply to the concerned
Excise Commissioner in the region with
an invoice. If the Excise Commissioner
is satisfied, he may issue the excise
clearance.  But in many cases the
government exempts payment of excise
duty or later on refunds it if the goods
so manufactured are meant for exports.
The idea underlying such exemption
or refund is to provide an incentive to
the exporters to export more and also
to make the export products more
competitive in the world markets. The
refund of excise duty is known as duty
drawback. This scheme of duty
drawback is presently administered by
the Directorate of Drawback under the
© NCERT
not to be republished
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NCERT Textbook - International Business - II Commerce Notes | EduRev

,

MCQs

,

Important questions

,

Semester Notes

,

ppt

,

mock tests for examination

,

NCERT Textbook - International Business - II Commerce Notes | EduRev

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video lectures

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study material

,

Free

,

pdf

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