NCERT Textbook: People as Resource Notes | Study Economy and Indian Economy (Prelims) by Shahid Ali - Teaching

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 Page 1


16     Economics
Overview
The chapter 'People as Resource' is an
effort to explain population as an asset
for the economy rather than a liability.
Population becomes human capital when
there is investment made in the form of
education, training and medical care.
In fact, human capital is the stock of
skill and productive knowledge embodied
in them.
'People as Resource' is a way of
referring to a country’s working people
in terms of their existing productive
skills and abilities. Looking at the
population from this productive aspect
emphasises its ability to contribute to
the creation of the Gross National
Product. Like other resources population
also is a resource — a 'human resource'.
This is the positive side of a large
population that is often overlooked when
we look only at the negative side,
considering only the problems of
providing the population with food,
education and access to health facilities.
When the existing 'human resource' is
further developed by becoming more
educated and healthy, we call it 'human
capital formation' that adds to the
productive power of the country just like
'physical capital formation'.
Investment in human capital
(through education, training, medical
care) yields a return just like investment
in physical capital. This can be seen
directly in the form of higher incomes
earned because of higher productivity
of the more educated or the better trained
persons, as well as the higher
productivity of healthier people.
People as Resource
2
Chapter
India’s Green Revolution is a
dramatic example of how the input
of greater knowledge in the form of
improved production technologies can
rapidly increase the productivity of
scarce land resources. India’s IT
revolution is a striking instance of
how the importance of human capital
has come to acquire a higher position
than that of material, plant and
machinery.
Source: Planning Commission, Govt. of India.
People as Resource
2
2020-21
Page 2


16     Economics
Overview
The chapter 'People as Resource' is an
effort to explain population as an asset
for the economy rather than a liability.
Population becomes human capital when
there is investment made in the form of
education, training and medical care.
In fact, human capital is the stock of
skill and productive knowledge embodied
in them.
'People as Resource' is a way of
referring to a country’s working people
in terms of their existing productive
skills and abilities. Looking at the
population from this productive aspect
emphasises its ability to contribute to
the creation of the Gross National
Product. Like other resources population
also is a resource — a 'human resource'.
This is the positive side of a large
population that is often overlooked when
we look only at the negative side,
considering only the problems of
providing the population with food,
education and access to health facilities.
When the existing 'human resource' is
further developed by becoming more
educated and healthy, we call it 'human
capital formation' that adds to the
productive power of the country just like
'physical capital formation'.
Investment in human capital
(through education, training, medical
care) yields a return just like investment
in physical capital. This can be seen
directly in the form of higher incomes
earned because of higher productivity
of the more educated or the better trained
persons, as well as the higher
productivity of healthier people.
People as Resource
2
Chapter
India’s Green Revolution is a
dramatic example of how the input
of greater knowledge in the form of
improved production technologies can
rapidly increase the productivity of
scarce land resources. India’s IT
revolution is a striking instance of
how the importance of human capital
has come to acquire a higher position
than that of material, plant and
machinery.
Source: Planning Commission, Govt. of India.
People as Resource
2
2020-21
People as Resource   17
Not only do the more educated and the
healthier people gain through higher
incomes, society also gains in other
indirect ways because the advantages of a
more educated or a healthier population
spreads to those also who themselves were
not directly educated or given health care.
In fact, human capital is in one way
superior to other resources like land and
physical capital: human resource can
make use of land and capital. Land and
capital cannot become useful on its own!
For many decades in India, a large
population has been considered a liability
rather than an asset. But a large
Let’s Discuss
• Looking at the photograph can you
explain how a doctor, teacher, engineer
and a tailor are an asset to the
economy?
population need not be a burden for the
economy. It can be turned into a
productive asset by investment in human
capital (for example, by spending
resources on education and health for all,
training of industrial and agricultural
workers in the use of modern technology,
useful scientific researches and so on).
The two following cases illustrate how
people can try to become a more productive
resource:
Story of Sakal
There were two friends Vilas and
Sakal living in the same village
Semapur. Sakal was a twelve-year-
old boy. His mother Sheela looked
after domestic chores. His father Buta
Chaudhary worked in an agricultural
field. Sakal helped his mother in
domestic chores. He also looked after
his younger brother Jeetu and sister
Seetu. His uncle Shyam had passed
the matriculation examination, but,
was sitting idle in the house as he
had no job. Buta and Sheela were
eager to teach Sakal. They forced him
to join the village school which he
soon joined. He started studying and
completed his higher secondary
examination. His father persuaded
him to continue his studies. He raised
a loan for Sakal to study a vocational
course in computers. Sakal was
meritorious and interested in studies
from the beginning. With great vigour
and enthusiasm he completed his
course. After some time he got a job
in a private firm. He even designed a
new kind of software. This software
helped him increase the sale of the
firm. His boss acknowledged his
services and rewarded him with a
promotion.
Picture 2.1
2020-21
Page 3


16     Economics
Overview
The chapter 'People as Resource' is an
effort to explain population as an asset
for the economy rather than a liability.
Population becomes human capital when
there is investment made in the form of
education, training and medical care.
In fact, human capital is the stock of
skill and productive knowledge embodied
in them.
'People as Resource' is a way of
referring to a country’s working people
in terms of their existing productive
skills and abilities. Looking at the
population from this productive aspect
emphasises its ability to contribute to
the creation of the Gross National
Product. Like other resources population
also is a resource — a 'human resource'.
This is the positive side of a large
population that is often overlooked when
we look only at the negative side,
considering only the problems of
providing the population with food,
education and access to health facilities.
When the existing 'human resource' is
further developed by becoming more
educated and healthy, we call it 'human
capital formation' that adds to the
productive power of the country just like
'physical capital formation'.
Investment in human capital
(through education, training, medical
care) yields a return just like investment
in physical capital. This can be seen
directly in the form of higher incomes
earned because of higher productivity
of the more educated or the better trained
persons, as well as the higher
productivity of healthier people.
People as Resource
2
Chapter
India’s Green Revolution is a
dramatic example of how the input
of greater knowledge in the form of
improved production technologies can
rapidly increase the productivity of
scarce land resources. India’s IT
revolution is a striking instance of
how the importance of human capital
has come to acquire a higher position
than that of material, plant and
machinery.
Source: Planning Commission, Govt. of India.
People as Resource
2
2020-21
People as Resource   17
Not only do the more educated and the
healthier people gain through higher
incomes, society also gains in other
indirect ways because the advantages of a
more educated or a healthier population
spreads to those also who themselves were
not directly educated or given health care.
In fact, human capital is in one way
superior to other resources like land and
physical capital: human resource can
make use of land and capital. Land and
capital cannot become useful on its own!
For many decades in India, a large
population has been considered a liability
rather than an asset. But a large
Let’s Discuss
• Looking at the photograph can you
explain how a doctor, teacher, engineer
and a tailor are an asset to the
economy?
population need not be a burden for the
economy. It can be turned into a
productive asset by investment in human
capital (for example, by spending
resources on education and health for all,
training of industrial and agricultural
workers in the use of modern technology,
useful scientific researches and so on).
The two following cases illustrate how
people can try to become a more productive
resource:
Story of Sakal
There were two friends Vilas and
Sakal living in the same village
Semapur. Sakal was a twelve-year-
old boy. His mother Sheela looked
after domestic chores. His father Buta
Chaudhary worked in an agricultural
field. Sakal helped his mother in
domestic chores. He also looked after
his younger brother Jeetu and sister
Seetu. His uncle Shyam had passed
the matriculation examination, but,
was sitting idle in the house as he
had no job. Buta and Sheela were
eager to teach Sakal. They forced him
to join the village school which he
soon joined. He started studying and
completed his higher secondary
examination. His father persuaded
him to continue his studies. He raised
a loan for Sakal to study a vocational
course in computers. Sakal was
meritorious and interested in studies
from the beginning. With great vigour
and enthusiasm he completed his
course. After some time he got a job
in a private firm. He even designed a
new kind of software. This software
helped him increase the sale of the
firm. His boss acknowledged his
services and rewarded him with a
promotion.
Picture 2.1
2020-21
18     Economics
Story of Vilas
Vilas was an eleven-year old boy
residing in the same village as Sakal.
Vilas’s father Mahesh was a
fisherman. His father passed away
when he was only two years old. His
mother Geeta sold fish to earn money
to feed the family. She bought fish
from the landowner’s pond and sold
it in the nearby mandi. She could
earn only Rs 150 a day by selling fish.
Vilas became a patient of arthritis.
His mother could not afford to take
him to the doctor. He could not go to
school either. He was not interested
in studies. He helped his mother in
cooking and also looked after his
younger brother Mohan. After some
time his mother fell sick and there
was no one to look after her. There
was no one in the family to support
them. Vilas, too, was forced to sell
fish in the same village. He like his
mother earned only a meagre
income.
  Let’s Discuss
• Do you notice any difference between
the two friends? What are those?
Picture 2.2  Stories of Vilas and Sakal
Activity
Visit a nearby village or a slum area
and write down a case study of a boy
or girl of your age facing the same
condition as Vilas or Sakal.
In the two case studies we saw Sakal
went to school and Vilas did not go. Sakal
was physically strong and healthy. There
was no need for him to visit the doctor
frequently. Vilas was a patient of
arthritis. He lacked the means to visit
the doctor. Sakal acquired a degree in
computer programming. Sakal found a
job in a private firm while Vilas
continued with the same work as his
mother. He earned a meagre income like
his mother to support a family.
In the case of Sakal, several years of
education added to the quality of labour.
This enhanced his total productivity.
Total productivity adds to the growth of
the economy. This in turn pays an
2020-21
Page 4


16     Economics
Overview
The chapter 'People as Resource' is an
effort to explain population as an asset
for the economy rather than a liability.
Population becomes human capital when
there is investment made in the form of
education, training and medical care.
In fact, human capital is the stock of
skill and productive knowledge embodied
in them.
'People as Resource' is a way of
referring to a country’s working people
in terms of their existing productive
skills and abilities. Looking at the
population from this productive aspect
emphasises its ability to contribute to
the creation of the Gross National
Product. Like other resources population
also is a resource — a 'human resource'.
This is the positive side of a large
population that is often overlooked when
we look only at the negative side,
considering only the problems of
providing the population with food,
education and access to health facilities.
When the existing 'human resource' is
further developed by becoming more
educated and healthy, we call it 'human
capital formation' that adds to the
productive power of the country just like
'physical capital formation'.
Investment in human capital
(through education, training, medical
care) yields a return just like investment
in physical capital. This can be seen
directly in the form of higher incomes
earned because of higher productivity
of the more educated or the better trained
persons, as well as the higher
productivity of healthier people.
People as Resource
2
Chapter
India’s Green Revolution is a
dramatic example of how the input
of greater knowledge in the form of
improved production technologies can
rapidly increase the productivity of
scarce land resources. India’s IT
revolution is a striking instance of
how the importance of human capital
has come to acquire a higher position
than that of material, plant and
machinery.
Source: Planning Commission, Govt. of India.
People as Resource
2
2020-21
People as Resource   17
Not only do the more educated and the
healthier people gain through higher
incomes, society also gains in other
indirect ways because the advantages of a
more educated or a healthier population
spreads to those also who themselves were
not directly educated or given health care.
In fact, human capital is in one way
superior to other resources like land and
physical capital: human resource can
make use of land and capital. Land and
capital cannot become useful on its own!
For many decades in India, a large
population has been considered a liability
rather than an asset. But a large
Let’s Discuss
• Looking at the photograph can you
explain how a doctor, teacher, engineer
and a tailor are an asset to the
economy?
population need not be a burden for the
economy. It can be turned into a
productive asset by investment in human
capital (for example, by spending
resources on education and health for all,
training of industrial and agricultural
workers in the use of modern technology,
useful scientific researches and so on).
The two following cases illustrate how
people can try to become a more productive
resource:
Story of Sakal
There were two friends Vilas and
Sakal living in the same village
Semapur. Sakal was a twelve-year-
old boy. His mother Sheela looked
after domestic chores. His father Buta
Chaudhary worked in an agricultural
field. Sakal helped his mother in
domestic chores. He also looked after
his younger brother Jeetu and sister
Seetu. His uncle Shyam had passed
the matriculation examination, but,
was sitting idle in the house as he
had no job. Buta and Sheela were
eager to teach Sakal. They forced him
to join the village school which he
soon joined. He started studying and
completed his higher secondary
examination. His father persuaded
him to continue his studies. He raised
a loan for Sakal to study a vocational
course in computers. Sakal was
meritorious and interested in studies
from the beginning. With great vigour
and enthusiasm he completed his
course. After some time he got a job
in a private firm. He even designed a
new kind of software. This software
helped him increase the sale of the
firm. His boss acknowledged his
services and rewarded him with a
promotion.
Picture 2.1
2020-21
18     Economics
Story of Vilas
Vilas was an eleven-year old boy
residing in the same village as Sakal.
Vilas’s father Mahesh was a
fisherman. His father passed away
when he was only two years old. His
mother Geeta sold fish to earn money
to feed the family. She bought fish
from the landowner’s pond and sold
it in the nearby mandi. She could
earn only Rs 150 a day by selling fish.
Vilas became a patient of arthritis.
His mother could not afford to take
him to the doctor. He could not go to
school either. He was not interested
in studies. He helped his mother in
cooking and also looked after his
younger brother Mohan. After some
time his mother fell sick and there
was no one to look after her. There
was no one in the family to support
them. Vilas, too, was forced to sell
fish in the same village. He like his
mother earned only a meagre
income.
  Let’s Discuss
• Do you notice any difference between
the two friends? What are those?
Picture 2.2  Stories of Vilas and Sakal
Activity
Visit a nearby village or a slum area
and write down a case study of a boy
or girl of your age facing the same
condition as Vilas or Sakal.
In the two case studies we saw Sakal
went to school and Vilas did not go. Sakal
was physically strong and healthy. There
was no need for him to visit the doctor
frequently. Vilas was a patient of
arthritis. He lacked the means to visit
the doctor. Sakal acquired a degree in
computer programming. Sakal found a
job in a private firm while Vilas
continued with the same work as his
mother. He earned a meagre income like
his mother to support a family.
In the case of Sakal, several years of
education added to the quality of labour.
This enhanced his total productivity.
Total productivity adds to the growth of
the economy. This in turn pays an
2020-21
People as Resource  19
individual through salary or in some other
form of his choice. In case of Vilas, there
could not be any education or health care
in the early part of his life. He spends
his life selling fish like his mother.
Henceforth, he draws the same salary of
unskilled labourer as his mother.
Investment in human resource (via
education and medical care) can give high
rates of return in future. This investment
on people is the same as investment in
land and capital.
A child, too, with investments made
on her education and health, can yield
a high return in future in the form of
higher earnings and greater
contribution to the society. Educated
parents are found to invest more heavily
on the education of their child. This is
because they have realised the
importance of education for themselves.
They are also conscious of proper
nutrition and hygiene. They accordingly
look after their children’s needs for
education at school and good health. A
virtuous cycle is, thus, created in this
case. In contrast, a vicious cycle may
be created by disadvantaged parents,
who themselves uneducated and lacking
in hygiene, keep their children in a
similarly disadvantaged state.
Countries, like Japan, have invested
in human resource. They did not have any
natural resource. These countries are
developed/rich. They import the natural
resource needed in their country. How did
they become rich/developed? They have
invested on people, especially in the field
of education and health. These people
have made efficient use of other resources,
like land and capital. Efficiency and the
technology evolved by people have made
these countries rich/developed.
Economic Activities by Men and Women
Like Vilas and Sakal, people have been
engaged in various activities. We saw that
Vilas sold fish and Sakal got a job in the
firm. The various activities have been
classified into three main sectors i.e.,
primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary
sector includes agriculture, forestry,
animal husbandry, fishing, poultry
farming, mining and quarrying.
Manufacturing is included in the
secondary sector. Trade, transport,
communication, banking, education,
health, tourism, services, insurance, etc.
are included in the tertiary sector. The
activities in this sector result in the
production of goods and services. These
activities add value to the national
income. These activities are called
economic activities. Economic activities
have two parts — market activities and
non-market activities. Market activities
involve remuneration to anyone who
performs i.e., activity performed for pay
or profit. These include production of goods
or services, including government service.
Non-market activities are the production
for self-consumption. These can be
Picture 2.3 Based on the picture can you classify
  these activities into three sectors?
2020-21
Page 5


16     Economics
Overview
The chapter 'People as Resource' is an
effort to explain population as an asset
for the economy rather than a liability.
Population becomes human capital when
there is investment made in the form of
education, training and medical care.
In fact, human capital is the stock of
skill and productive knowledge embodied
in them.
'People as Resource' is a way of
referring to a country’s working people
in terms of their existing productive
skills and abilities. Looking at the
population from this productive aspect
emphasises its ability to contribute to
the creation of the Gross National
Product. Like other resources population
also is a resource — a 'human resource'.
This is the positive side of a large
population that is often overlooked when
we look only at the negative side,
considering only the problems of
providing the population with food,
education and access to health facilities.
When the existing 'human resource' is
further developed by becoming more
educated and healthy, we call it 'human
capital formation' that adds to the
productive power of the country just like
'physical capital formation'.
Investment in human capital
(through education, training, medical
care) yields a return just like investment
in physical capital. This can be seen
directly in the form of higher incomes
earned because of higher productivity
of the more educated or the better trained
persons, as well as the higher
productivity of healthier people.
People as Resource
2
Chapter
India’s Green Revolution is a
dramatic example of how the input
of greater knowledge in the form of
improved production technologies can
rapidly increase the productivity of
scarce land resources. India’s IT
revolution is a striking instance of
how the importance of human capital
has come to acquire a higher position
than that of material, plant and
machinery.
Source: Planning Commission, Govt. of India.
People as Resource
2
2020-21
People as Resource   17
Not only do the more educated and the
healthier people gain through higher
incomes, society also gains in other
indirect ways because the advantages of a
more educated or a healthier population
spreads to those also who themselves were
not directly educated or given health care.
In fact, human capital is in one way
superior to other resources like land and
physical capital: human resource can
make use of land and capital. Land and
capital cannot become useful on its own!
For many decades in India, a large
population has been considered a liability
rather than an asset. But a large
Let’s Discuss
• Looking at the photograph can you
explain how a doctor, teacher, engineer
and a tailor are an asset to the
economy?
population need not be a burden for the
economy. It can be turned into a
productive asset by investment in human
capital (for example, by spending
resources on education and health for all,
training of industrial and agricultural
workers in the use of modern technology,
useful scientific researches and so on).
The two following cases illustrate how
people can try to become a more productive
resource:
Story of Sakal
There were two friends Vilas and
Sakal living in the same village
Semapur. Sakal was a twelve-year-
old boy. His mother Sheela looked
after domestic chores. His father Buta
Chaudhary worked in an agricultural
field. Sakal helped his mother in
domestic chores. He also looked after
his younger brother Jeetu and sister
Seetu. His uncle Shyam had passed
the matriculation examination, but,
was sitting idle in the house as he
had no job. Buta and Sheela were
eager to teach Sakal. They forced him
to join the village school which he
soon joined. He started studying and
completed his higher secondary
examination. His father persuaded
him to continue his studies. He raised
a loan for Sakal to study a vocational
course in computers. Sakal was
meritorious and interested in studies
from the beginning. With great vigour
and enthusiasm he completed his
course. After some time he got a job
in a private firm. He even designed a
new kind of software. This software
helped him increase the sale of the
firm. His boss acknowledged his
services and rewarded him with a
promotion.
Picture 2.1
2020-21
18     Economics
Story of Vilas
Vilas was an eleven-year old boy
residing in the same village as Sakal.
Vilas’s father Mahesh was a
fisherman. His father passed away
when he was only two years old. His
mother Geeta sold fish to earn money
to feed the family. She bought fish
from the landowner’s pond and sold
it in the nearby mandi. She could
earn only Rs 150 a day by selling fish.
Vilas became a patient of arthritis.
His mother could not afford to take
him to the doctor. He could not go to
school either. He was not interested
in studies. He helped his mother in
cooking and also looked after his
younger brother Mohan. After some
time his mother fell sick and there
was no one to look after her. There
was no one in the family to support
them. Vilas, too, was forced to sell
fish in the same village. He like his
mother earned only a meagre
income.
  Let’s Discuss
• Do you notice any difference between
the two friends? What are those?
Picture 2.2  Stories of Vilas and Sakal
Activity
Visit a nearby village or a slum area
and write down a case study of a boy
or girl of your age facing the same
condition as Vilas or Sakal.
In the two case studies we saw Sakal
went to school and Vilas did not go. Sakal
was physically strong and healthy. There
was no need for him to visit the doctor
frequently. Vilas was a patient of
arthritis. He lacked the means to visit
the doctor. Sakal acquired a degree in
computer programming. Sakal found a
job in a private firm while Vilas
continued with the same work as his
mother. He earned a meagre income like
his mother to support a family.
In the case of Sakal, several years of
education added to the quality of labour.
This enhanced his total productivity.
Total productivity adds to the growth of
the economy. This in turn pays an
2020-21
People as Resource  19
individual through salary or in some other
form of his choice. In case of Vilas, there
could not be any education or health care
in the early part of his life. He spends
his life selling fish like his mother.
Henceforth, he draws the same salary of
unskilled labourer as his mother.
Investment in human resource (via
education and medical care) can give high
rates of return in future. This investment
on people is the same as investment in
land and capital.
A child, too, with investments made
on her education and health, can yield
a high return in future in the form of
higher earnings and greater
contribution to the society. Educated
parents are found to invest more heavily
on the education of their child. This is
because they have realised the
importance of education for themselves.
They are also conscious of proper
nutrition and hygiene. They accordingly
look after their children’s needs for
education at school and good health. A
virtuous cycle is, thus, created in this
case. In contrast, a vicious cycle may
be created by disadvantaged parents,
who themselves uneducated and lacking
in hygiene, keep their children in a
similarly disadvantaged state.
Countries, like Japan, have invested
in human resource. They did not have any
natural resource. These countries are
developed/rich. They import the natural
resource needed in their country. How did
they become rich/developed? They have
invested on people, especially in the field
of education and health. These people
have made efficient use of other resources,
like land and capital. Efficiency and the
technology evolved by people have made
these countries rich/developed.
Economic Activities by Men and Women
Like Vilas and Sakal, people have been
engaged in various activities. We saw that
Vilas sold fish and Sakal got a job in the
firm. The various activities have been
classified into three main sectors i.e.,
primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary
sector includes agriculture, forestry,
animal husbandry, fishing, poultry
farming, mining and quarrying.
Manufacturing is included in the
secondary sector. Trade, transport,
communication, banking, education,
health, tourism, services, insurance, etc.
are included in the tertiary sector. The
activities in this sector result in the
production of goods and services. These
activities add value to the national
income. These activities are called
economic activities. Economic activities
have two parts — market activities and
non-market activities. Market activities
involve remuneration to anyone who
performs i.e., activity performed for pay
or profit. These include production of goods
or services, including government service.
Non-market activities are the production
for self-consumption. These can be
Picture 2.3 Based on the picture can you classify
  these activities into three sectors?
2020-21
20     Economics
consumption and processing of primary
product and own account production of
fixed assets.
Education helps individual to make better
use of the economic opportunities
available before him. Education and skill
are the major determinants of the earning
of any individual in the market. A majority
of women have meagre education and low
skill formation. Women are paid low
compared to men. Most women work
where job security is not there. Various
activities relating to legal protection is
meagre. Employment in this sector is
characterised by irregular and low
income. In this sector there is an absence
of basic facilities like maternity leave,
childcare and other social security
systems. However, women with high
education and skill formation are paid at
par with the men. Among the organised
sector, teaching and medicine attract
them the most. Some women have entered
administrative and other services
including job, that need high levels of
scientific and technological competence.
Ask your sister or your classmate what
she would like to take up as a career?
Quality of Population
The quality of population depends upon
the literacy rate, health of a person
indicated by life expectancy and skill
formation acquired by the people of the
country. The quality of the poulation
ultimately decides the growth rate of the
country. Literate and healthy population
are an asset.
Education
Sakal’s education in the initial years of
his life bore him the fruits in the later
years in terms of a good job and salary.
We saw education was an important  input
for the growth of Sakal. It opened new
horizon for him, provided new aspiration
and developed values of life. Not only for
Sakal, education contributes towards the
growth of society also. It enhances the
Due to historical and cultural reasons
there is a division of labour between men
and women in the family. Women
generally look after domestic chores and
men work in the fields. Sakal’s mother
Sheela cooks food, cleans utensils, washes
clothes, cleans the house and looks after
her children. Sakal’s father Buta
cultivates the field, sells the produce in
the market and earns money for the family.
Sheela is not paid for the services
delivered for upbringing of the family.
Buta earns money, which he spends on
rearing his family. Women are not paid
for their service delivered in the family.
The household work done by women is
not recognised in the National Income.
Geeta, mother of Vilas, earned an
income by selling fish. Thus women are
paid for their work when they enter the
labour market. Their earning like that of
their male counterpart is determined on
the basis of education and skill.
Activity
Visit a village or colony located near
to your residential area and note
down the various activities
undertaken by the people of that
village or colony.
If this is not possible, ask your
neighbour what is their profession?
In which of the three sectors will you
categorise their work?
Say whether these activities are
economic or non-economic activities:
Vilas sells fish in the village market.
Vilas cooks food for his family.
Sakal works in the private firm.
Sakal looks after his younger brother
and sister.
2020-21
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