NCERT Textbook - Our Changing Earth Class 7 Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

Created by: Rohini Seth

Class 7 : NCERT Textbook - Our Changing Earth Class 7 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Activity
Take a small coloured
paper pellet and put it
in a beaker
half filled
with water.
Place the
beaker on a
tripod stand
and heat it. As the
water warms up, you
will observe that the
paper pellet is moving
upward along with the
warm layers of water
and then
sinks back
along with
the cooler
layers of water. The
molten magma inside
the earth moves in a
similar manner.
The lithosphere is broken into a number of plates known
as the Lithospheric plates. You will be surprised to know
that these plates move around very slowly – just a few
millimetres each year. This is because of the movement
of the molten magma inside the earth. The molten magma
inside the earth moves in a circular manner as shown in
the activity.
The movement of these plates causes changes on the
surface of the earth. The earth movements are divided
on the basis of the forces which cause them. The forces
which act in the interior of the earth are called as
Endogenic forces and the forces that work on the surface
of the earth are called as Exogenic forces (Fig. 3.1).
3
Our Changing Earth
Glossary
Lithospheric plates:
The earth’s crust
consists of several
large and some small,
rigid, irregularly-
shaped plates (slabs)
which carry
continents and the
ocean floor.
Fig. 3.1: Evolution of Landforms
Earth movements
Endogenic forces Exogenic forces
Sudden forces Diastrophic forces Erosional and Depositional
Building mountains Earthquake
Volcano
Landslides
River
Wind
Sea-waves
Glaciers
Endogenic forces sometimes produce sudden movements
and at the other times produce slow movements. Sudden
movements like earthquakes and volcanoes cause mass
destruction over the surface of the earth.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


Activity
Take a small coloured
paper pellet and put it
in a beaker
half filled
with water.
Place the
beaker on a
tripod stand
and heat it. As the
water warms up, you
will observe that the
paper pellet is moving
upward along with the
warm layers of water
and then
sinks back
along with
the cooler
layers of water. The
molten magma inside
the earth moves in a
similar manner.
The lithosphere is broken into a number of plates known
as the Lithospheric plates. You will be surprised to know
that these plates move around very slowly – just a few
millimetres each year. This is because of the movement
of the molten magma inside the earth. The molten magma
inside the earth moves in a circular manner as shown in
the activity.
The movement of these plates causes changes on the
surface of the earth. The earth movements are divided
on the basis of the forces which cause them. The forces
which act in the interior of the earth are called as
Endogenic forces and the forces that work on the surface
of the earth are called as Exogenic forces (Fig. 3.1).
3
Our Changing Earth
Glossary
Lithospheric plates:
The earth’s crust
consists of several
large and some small,
rigid, irregularly-
shaped plates (slabs)
which carry
continents and the
ocean floor.
Fig. 3.1: Evolution of Landforms
Earth movements
Endogenic forces Exogenic forces
Sudden forces Diastrophic forces Erosional and Depositional
Building mountains Earthquake
Volcano
Landslides
River
Wind
Sea-waves
Glaciers
Endogenic forces sometimes produce sudden movements
and at the other times produce slow movements. Sudden
movements like earthquakes and volcanoes cause mass
destruction over the surface of the earth.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Crater
Lava
tube
Vent
Lava
Gases and ash
Crust
Mantle
Magma
Chamber
Word Origin
Fig. 3.2: A Volcano
Epicentre Seismic waves radiate
out in all directions
Plate boundary
Focus – this is where the
earthquake occurs. It is the
origin of the seismic energy
A volcano is a vent (opening) in the
earth’s crust through which molten
material erupts suddenly (Fig. 3.2).
Fig. 3.3: Origin of an Earthquake
Activity
Take a container, fill
it with water and
close it with a lid. Put
the water to boil. Now
put some peas, spoon
and beads on top on
the lid. What do you
notice? As the water
boils the lid begins to
shake. The things
which you have put
on the lid also
vibrate. The beads roll
down and the spoon
vibrates to make a
sound. In the same
manner, the earth
vibrates when an
earthquake occurs.
Do you know?
There are three types
of earthquake waves:
1. P waves or
longitudinal waves
2. S waves or
transverse waves
3. L waves or surface
waves
Try to find out the
properties of these
waves from an
encyclopedia.
Similarly, when the Lithospheric plates move, the
surface of the earth vibrates. The vibrations can travel
all round the earth. These vibrations are called
earthquakes (Fig. 3.3). The place in the crust where the
movement starts is called the focus. The place on the
surface above the focus is called the epicentre.
Vibrations travel outwards from the epicentre as waves.
Greatest damage is usually closest to the epicentre and
the strength of the earthquake decreases away from
the centre.
Endo
(inside)
Exo
(outside)
Endogenic
Exogenic
+
genic
(origin)
13 OUR CHANGING EARTH
.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


Activity
Take a small coloured
paper pellet and put it
in a beaker
half filled
with water.
Place the
beaker on a
tripod stand
and heat it. As the
water warms up, you
will observe that the
paper pellet is moving
upward along with the
warm layers of water
and then
sinks back
along with
the cooler
layers of water. The
molten magma inside
the earth moves in a
similar manner.
The lithosphere is broken into a number of plates known
as the Lithospheric plates. You will be surprised to know
that these plates move around very slowly – just a few
millimetres each year. This is because of the movement
of the molten magma inside the earth. The molten magma
inside the earth moves in a circular manner as shown in
the activity.
The movement of these plates causes changes on the
surface of the earth. The earth movements are divided
on the basis of the forces which cause them. The forces
which act in the interior of the earth are called as
Endogenic forces and the forces that work on the surface
of the earth are called as Exogenic forces (Fig. 3.1).
3
Our Changing Earth
Glossary
Lithospheric plates:
The earth’s crust
consists of several
large and some small,
rigid, irregularly-
shaped plates (slabs)
which carry
continents and the
ocean floor.
Fig. 3.1: Evolution of Landforms
Earth movements
Endogenic forces Exogenic forces
Sudden forces Diastrophic forces Erosional and Depositional
Building mountains Earthquake
Volcano
Landslides
River
Wind
Sea-waves
Glaciers
Endogenic forces sometimes produce sudden movements
and at the other times produce slow movements. Sudden
movements like earthquakes and volcanoes cause mass
destruction over the surface of the earth.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Crater
Lava
tube
Vent
Lava
Gases and ash
Crust
Mantle
Magma
Chamber
Word Origin
Fig. 3.2: A Volcano
Epicentre Seismic waves radiate
out in all directions
Plate boundary
Focus – this is where the
earthquake occurs. It is the
origin of the seismic energy
A volcano is a vent (opening) in the
earth’s crust through which molten
material erupts suddenly (Fig. 3.2).
Fig. 3.3: Origin of an Earthquake
Activity
Take a container, fill
it with water and
close it with a lid. Put
the water to boil. Now
put some peas, spoon
and beads on top on
the lid. What do you
notice? As the water
boils the lid begins to
shake. The things
which you have put
on the lid also
vibrate. The beads roll
down and the spoon
vibrates to make a
sound. In the same
manner, the earth
vibrates when an
earthquake occurs.
Do you know?
There are three types
of earthquake waves:
1. P waves or
longitudinal waves
2. S waves or
transverse waves
3. L waves or surface
waves
Try to find out the
properties of these
waves from an
encyclopedia.
Similarly, when the Lithospheric plates move, the
surface of the earth vibrates. The vibrations can travel
all round the earth. These vibrations are called
earthquakes (Fig. 3.3). The place in the crust where the
movement starts is called the focus. The place on the
surface above the focus is called the epicentre.
Vibrations travel outwards from the epicentre as waves.
Greatest damage is usually closest to the epicentre and
the strength of the earthquake decreases away from
the centre.
Endo
(inside)
Exo
(outside)
Endogenic
Exogenic
+
genic
(origin)
13 OUR CHANGING EARTH
.
© NCERT
not to be republished
14 OUR ENVIRONMENT
Activity
Do you know?
An earthquake is
measured with a
machine called a
seismograph. The
magnitude of the
earthquake is
measured on the
Richter scale. An
earthquake of 2.0 or
less can be felt only a
little. An earthquake
over 5.0 can cause
damage from things
falling. A 6.0 or
higher magnitude is
considered very
strong and 7.0 is
classified as a major
earthquake.
A Seismograph
EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS
Where to take shelter during an earthquake —
Safe Spot – Under a kitchen counter, table or desk,
against an inside corner or wall.
Stay Away from – Fire places, areas around chimneys,
windows that shatter including mirrors and picture
frames.
Be Prepared – Spread awareness amongst your friends
and family members and face any disaster confidently.
Fig. 3.3a: Destruction
caused by an Earthquake
in Gujarat
1. Read the ‘Earthquake – A case study’ given in the
form of headlines that appeared in the newspapers
after the quake. Arrange the events in the right
sequence of their happening.
2. Imagine if a quake suddenly shook in the middle of
the school day, where would you go for safety?
Although earthquakes cannot be predicted, the
impact can certainly be minimised if we are prepared
before-hand.
Some common earthquake prediction methods
adopted locally by people include studying animal
behaviour; fish in the ponds get agitated, snakes come
to the surface.
EARTHQUAKE HITS BHUJ
A massive earthquake measuring 6.9 on Richter
scale hit Bhuj Town on 26th January 2001.
Fire in the city
Hundreds of fires
started as charcoal,
cookers overturned.
Emergency declared
in quake zone
The President declares
a state of emergency.
Atleast 971 students
and 31 teachers are
feared to have lost
their lives following
the collapse of
school buildings.
School worst
affected
CM’S APPEAL TO THE CENTRE
Gujarat appeals for
financial help. The
Chief Minister of
Gujarat has launched
an appeal for the
Centre to deal with
the disaster.
Destruction of Bhuj
Phone lines, water
pipelines and power
stations transmission
lines were knocked out.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
BHUJ RELIEF EFFORT
BLIGHTED..
Three days after the
quake, concern rose
about food, blankets
and medical supplies
not reaching everyone.
Earthquake – A Case Study
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


Activity
Take a small coloured
paper pellet and put it
in a beaker
half filled
with water.
Place the
beaker on a
tripod stand
and heat it. As the
water warms up, you
will observe that the
paper pellet is moving
upward along with the
warm layers of water
and then
sinks back
along with
the cooler
layers of water. The
molten magma inside
the earth moves in a
similar manner.
The lithosphere is broken into a number of plates known
as the Lithospheric plates. You will be surprised to know
that these plates move around very slowly – just a few
millimetres each year. This is because of the movement
of the molten magma inside the earth. The molten magma
inside the earth moves in a circular manner as shown in
the activity.
The movement of these plates causes changes on the
surface of the earth. The earth movements are divided
on the basis of the forces which cause them. The forces
which act in the interior of the earth are called as
Endogenic forces and the forces that work on the surface
of the earth are called as Exogenic forces (Fig. 3.1).
3
Our Changing Earth
Glossary
Lithospheric plates:
The earth’s crust
consists of several
large and some small,
rigid, irregularly-
shaped plates (slabs)
which carry
continents and the
ocean floor.
Fig. 3.1: Evolution of Landforms
Earth movements
Endogenic forces Exogenic forces
Sudden forces Diastrophic forces Erosional and Depositional
Building mountains Earthquake
Volcano
Landslides
River
Wind
Sea-waves
Glaciers
Endogenic forces sometimes produce sudden movements
and at the other times produce slow movements. Sudden
movements like earthquakes and volcanoes cause mass
destruction over the surface of the earth.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Crater
Lava
tube
Vent
Lava
Gases and ash
Crust
Mantle
Magma
Chamber
Word Origin
Fig. 3.2: A Volcano
Epicentre Seismic waves radiate
out in all directions
Plate boundary
Focus – this is where the
earthquake occurs. It is the
origin of the seismic energy
A volcano is a vent (opening) in the
earth’s crust through which molten
material erupts suddenly (Fig. 3.2).
Fig. 3.3: Origin of an Earthquake
Activity
Take a container, fill
it with water and
close it with a lid. Put
the water to boil. Now
put some peas, spoon
and beads on top on
the lid. What do you
notice? As the water
boils the lid begins to
shake. The things
which you have put
on the lid also
vibrate. The beads roll
down and the spoon
vibrates to make a
sound. In the same
manner, the earth
vibrates when an
earthquake occurs.
Do you know?
There are three types
of earthquake waves:
1. P waves or
longitudinal waves
2. S waves or
transverse waves
3. L waves or surface
waves
Try to find out the
properties of these
waves from an
encyclopedia.
Similarly, when the Lithospheric plates move, the
surface of the earth vibrates. The vibrations can travel
all round the earth. These vibrations are called
earthquakes (Fig. 3.3). The place in the crust where the
movement starts is called the focus. The place on the
surface above the focus is called the epicentre.
Vibrations travel outwards from the epicentre as waves.
Greatest damage is usually closest to the epicentre and
the strength of the earthquake decreases away from
the centre.
Endo
(inside)
Exo
(outside)
Endogenic
Exogenic
+
genic
(origin)
13 OUR CHANGING EARTH
.
© NCERT
not to be republished
14 OUR ENVIRONMENT
Activity
Do you know?
An earthquake is
measured with a
machine called a
seismograph. The
magnitude of the
earthquake is
measured on the
Richter scale. An
earthquake of 2.0 or
less can be felt only a
little. An earthquake
over 5.0 can cause
damage from things
falling. A 6.0 or
higher magnitude is
considered very
strong and 7.0 is
classified as a major
earthquake.
A Seismograph
EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS
Where to take shelter during an earthquake —
Safe Spot – Under a kitchen counter, table or desk,
against an inside corner or wall.
Stay Away from – Fire places, areas around chimneys,
windows that shatter including mirrors and picture
frames.
Be Prepared – Spread awareness amongst your friends
and family members and face any disaster confidently.
Fig. 3.3a: Destruction
caused by an Earthquake
in Gujarat
1. Read the ‘Earthquake – A case study’ given in the
form of headlines that appeared in the newspapers
after the quake. Arrange the events in the right
sequence of their happening.
2. Imagine if a quake suddenly shook in the middle of
the school day, where would you go for safety?
Although earthquakes cannot be predicted, the
impact can certainly be minimised if we are prepared
before-hand.
Some common earthquake prediction methods
adopted locally by people include studying animal
behaviour; fish in the ponds get agitated, snakes come
to the surface.
EARTHQUAKE HITS BHUJ
A massive earthquake measuring 6.9 on Richter
scale hit Bhuj Town on 26th January 2001.
Fire in the city
Hundreds of fires
started as charcoal,
cookers overturned.
Emergency declared
in quake zone
The President declares
a state of emergency.
Atleast 971 students
and 31 teachers are
feared to have lost
their lives following
the collapse of
school buildings.
School worst
affected
CM’S APPEAL TO THE CENTRE
Gujarat appeals for
financial help. The
Chief Minister of
Gujarat has launched
an appeal for the
Centre to deal with
the disaster.
Destruction of Bhuj
Phone lines, water
pipelines and power
stations transmission
lines were knocked out.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
BHUJ RELIEF EFFORT
BLIGHTED..
Three days after the
quake, concern rose
about food, blankets
and medical supplies
not reaching everyone.
Earthquake – A Case Study
© NCERT
not to be republished
15 OUR CHANGING EARTH
Fig. 3.5: Features made by a river in a flood plain
Do you know?
MAJOR LAND FORMS
The landscape is being continuously worn away by two
processes – weathering and erosion. Weathering is the
breaking up of the rocks on the earth’s surface. Erosion
is the wearing away of the landscape by different agents
like water, wind and ice. The eroded material is carried
away or transported by water, wind, etc. and eventually
deposited. This process of erosion and deposition create
different landforms on the surface of the earth.
Work of a River
The running water in the river erodes the landscape. When
the river tumbles at steep angle over very hard rocks or
down a steep valley side it forms a waterfall (Fig. 3.4).
•  There are
thousands of small
waterfalls in the
world. The highest
waterfall is Angel
Falls of Venezuela
in South America.
The other waterfalls
are Niagara falls
located on the
border between
Canada and USA in
North America and
Victoria Falls on
the borders of
Zambia and
Zimbabwe in Africa.
The Niagra falls
Hard rock
Softer rock undercut
by the power of
the water
Fig. 3.4: Waterfall
As the river enters the plain it twists and turns forming
large bends known as meanders. Due to continuous
erosion and deposition along the sides of the meander,
the ends of the meander loop come closer
and closer. In due course of time the
meander loop cuts off from the river and
forms a cut-off lake, also called an ox-bow
lake. At times the river overflows its banks.
This leads to the flooding of the
neighbouring areas. As it floods, it
deposits layers of fine soil and other
material called sediments along its
banks. This leads to the formation
of a flat fertile floodplain. The raised
banks are called levees. As the river
approaches the sea, the speed of the
flowing water decreases and the
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


Activity
Take a small coloured
paper pellet and put it
in a beaker
half filled
with water.
Place the
beaker on a
tripod stand
and heat it. As the
water warms up, you
will observe that the
paper pellet is moving
upward along with the
warm layers of water
and then
sinks back
along with
the cooler
layers of water. The
molten magma inside
the earth moves in a
similar manner.
The lithosphere is broken into a number of plates known
as the Lithospheric plates. You will be surprised to know
that these plates move around very slowly – just a few
millimetres each year. This is because of the movement
of the molten magma inside the earth. The molten magma
inside the earth moves in a circular manner as shown in
the activity.
The movement of these plates causes changes on the
surface of the earth. The earth movements are divided
on the basis of the forces which cause them. The forces
which act in the interior of the earth are called as
Endogenic forces and the forces that work on the surface
of the earth are called as Exogenic forces (Fig. 3.1).
3
Our Changing Earth
Glossary
Lithospheric plates:
The earth’s crust
consists of several
large and some small,
rigid, irregularly-
shaped plates (slabs)
which carry
continents and the
ocean floor.
Fig. 3.1: Evolution of Landforms
Earth movements
Endogenic forces Exogenic forces
Sudden forces Diastrophic forces Erosional and Depositional
Building mountains Earthquake
Volcano
Landslides
River
Wind
Sea-waves
Glaciers
Endogenic forces sometimes produce sudden movements
and at the other times produce slow movements. Sudden
movements like earthquakes and volcanoes cause mass
destruction over the surface of the earth.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Crater
Lava
tube
Vent
Lava
Gases and ash
Crust
Mantle
Magma
Chamber
Word Origin
Fig. 3.2: A Volcano
Epicentre Seismic waves radiate
out in all directions
Plate boundary
Focus – this is where the
earthquake occurs. It is the
origin of the seismic energy
A volcano is a vent (opening) in the
earth’s crust through which molten
material erupts suddenly (Fig. 3.2).
Fig. 3.3: Origin of an Earthquake
Activity
Take a container, fill
it with water and
close it with a lid. Put
the water to boil. Now
put some peas, spoon
and beads on top on
the lid. What do you
notice? As the water
boils the lid begins to
shake. The things
which you have put
on the lid also
vibrate. The beads roll
down and the spoon
vibrates to make a
sound. In the same
manner, the earth
vibrates when an
earthquake occurs.
Do you know?
There are three types
of earthquake waves:
1. P waves or
longitudinal waves
2. S waves or
transverse waves
3. L waves or surface
waves
Try to find out the
properties of these
waves from an
encyclopedia.
Similarly, when the Lithospheric plates move, the
surface of the earth vibrates. The vibrations can travel
all round the earth. These vibrations are called
earthquakes (Fig. 3.3). The place in the crust where the
movement starts is called the focus. The place on the
surface above the focus is called the epicentre.
Vibrations travel outwards from the epicentre as waves.
Greatest damage is usually closest to the epicentre and
the strength of the earthquake decreases away from
the centre.
Endo
(inside)
Exo
(outside)
Endogenic
Exogenic
+
genic
(origin)
13 OUR CHANGING EARTH
.
© NCERT
not to be republished
14 OUR ENVIRONMENT
Activity
Do you know?
An earthquake is
measured with a
machine called a
seismograph. The
magnitude of the
earthquake is
measured on the
Richter scale. An
earthquake of 2.0 or
less can be felt only a
little. An earthquake
over 5.0 can cause
damage from things
falling. A 6.0 or
higher magnitude is
considered very
strong and 7.0 is
classified as a major
earthquake.
A Seismograph
EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS
Where to take shelter during an earthquake —
Safe Spot – Under a kitchen counter, table or desk,
against an inside corner or wall.
Stay Away from – Fire places, areas around chimneys,
windows that shatter including mirrors and picture
frames.
Be Prepared – Spread awareness amongst your friends
and family members and face any disaster confidently.
Fig. 3.3a: Destruction
caused by an Earthquake
in Gujarat
1. Read the ‘Earthquake – A case study’ given in the
form of headlines that appeared in the newspapers
after the quake. Arrange the events in the right
sequence of their happening.
2. Imagine if a quake suddenly shook in the middle of
the school day, where would you go for safety?
Although earthquakes cannot be predicted, the
impact can certainly be minimised if we are prepared
before-hand.
Some common earthquake prediction methods
adopted locally by people include studying animal
behaviour; fish in the ponds get agitated, snakes come
to the surface.
EARTHQUAKE HITS BHUJ
A massive earthquake measuring 6.9 on Richter
scale hit Bhuj Town on 26th January 2001.
Fire in the city
Hundreds of fires
started as charcoal,
cookers overturned.
Emergency declared
in quake zone
The President declares
a state of emergency.
Atleast 971 students
and 31 teachers are
feared to have lost
their lives following
the collapse of
school buildings.
School worst
affected
CM’S APPEAL TO THE CENTRE
Gujarat appeals for
financial help. The
Chief Minister of
Gujarat has launched
an appeal for the
Centre to deal with
the disaster.
Destruction of Bhuj
Phone lines, water
pipelines and power
stations transmission
lines were knocked out.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
BHUJ RELIEF EFFORT
BLIGHTED..
Three days after the
quake, concern rose
about food, blankets
and medical supplies
not reaching everyone.
Earthquake – A Case Study
© NCERT
not to be republished
15 OUR CHANGING EARTH
Fig. 3.5: Features made by a river in a flood plain
Do you know?
MAJOR LAND FORMS
The landscape is being continuously worn away by two
processes – weathering and erosion. Weathering is the
breaking up of the rocks on the earth’s surface. Erosion
is the wearing away of the landscape by different agents
like water, wind and ice. The eroded material is carried
away or transported by water, wind, etc. and eventually
deposited. This process of erosion and deposition create
different landforms on the surface of the earth.
Work of a River
The running water in the river erodes the landscape. When
the river tumbles at steep angle over very hard rocks or
down a steep valley side it forms a waterfall (Fig. 3.4).
•  There are
thousands of small
waterfalls in the
world. The highest
waterfall is Angel
Falls of Venezuela
in South America.
The other waterfalls
are Niagara falls
located on the
border between
Canada and USA in
North America and
Victoria Falls on
the borders of
Zambia and
Zimbabwe in Africa.
The Niagra falls
Hard rock
Softer rock undercut
by the power of
the water
Fig. 3.4: Waterfall
As the river enters the plain it twists and turns forming
large bends known as meanders. Due to continuous
erosion and deposition along the sides of the meander,
the ends of the meander loop come closer
and closer. In due course of time the
meander loop cuts off from the river and
forms a cut-off lake, also called an ox-bow
lake. At times the river overflows its banks.
This leads to the flooding of the
neighbouring areas. As it floods, it
deposits layers of fine soil and other
material called sediments along its
banks. This leads to the formation
of a flat fertile floodplain. The raised
banks are called levees. As the river
approaches the sea, the speed of the
flowing water decreases and the
© NCERT
not to be republished
16 OUR ENVIRONMENT
river begins to break up
into a number of streams
called distributaries. The
river becomes so slow that
it begins to deposit its load.
Each distributary forms its
own mouth. The collection
of sediments from all the
mouths forms a delta.
Work of Sea Waves
The erosion and deposition of
the sea waves gives rise to
coastal landforms. Seawaves
continuously strike at the
rocks. Cracks develop. Over
time they become larger and
wider. Thus, hollow like caves
are formed on the rocks. They
are called sea caves. As these
cavities become bigger and
bigger only the roof of the
caves remain, thus forming sea
arches. Further, erosion
breaks the roof and only walls
are left. These wall like features are called stacks.
The steep rocky coast rising almost vertically above
sea water is called sea cliff. The sea waves deposit
sediments along the shores forming beaches.
Work of Ice
Glaciers are “rivers” of ice which
too erode the landscape by
bulldozing soil and stones to
expose the solid rock below.
Glaciers carve out deep hollows.
As the ice melts they get filled
up with water and become
beautiful lakes in the
mountains. The material carried
by the glacier such as rocks big
and small, sand and silt gets
deposited. These deposits form
glacial moraines.
Let’s do
Find out the names of
a few rivers of the
world that form a
delta.
Fig. 3.8: A Glacier
Main river Distributary
Fig. 3.6: A Delta
Sea Cave
Sea Arch
Stack
Fig. 3.7: Features made by sea waves
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