NCERT Textbook - Business Services Commerce Notes | EduRev

Business Studies (BST) Class 11

Commerce : NCERT Textbook - Business Services Commerce Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


CHAPTER 4
BUSINESS SERVICES
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• state the characteristics of services;
• distinguish services from goods;
• classify different types of business services;
• explain the concept of e-banking;
• identify and classify different types of insurance policies; and
• describe different types of warehouses.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


CHAPTER 4
BUSINESS SERVICES
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• state the characteristics of services;
• distinguish services from goods;
• classify different types of business services;
• explain the concept of e-banking;
• identify and classify different types of insurance policies; and
• describe different types of warehouses.
© NCERT
not to be republished
78 BUSINESS STUDIES
4.1 INTRODUCTION
You must all have, at some time or the
other experienced the effect of business
activities on your lives. Let us examine
few examples of business activity i.e.,
purchasing ice cream from a store and
eating ice cream in a restaurant,
watching a movie in a cinema hall or
purchasing a video cassette/CD,
purchasing a school bus and leasing it
from a transporter. If you analyse all
these activities, you will observe that
there is a difference between purchasing
and eating, purchasing and watching
and purchasing and leasing. What is
common in all of them is that one is
purchasing an item and the other is
experiencing a service. But there is
definitely a difference between the item
or good and the service performed.
For a layperson, services are
essentially intangibles. Their purchase
does not result in the ownership of
anything physical. For example, you can
only seek advice from the doctor, you
cannot purchase him. Services are all
those economic activities that are
intangible and imply an interaction to
be realised between the service provider
and the consumer.
Services are those separately
identifiable, essentially intangible
activities that provides satisfaction of
wants, and are not necessarily linked to
the sale of a product or another service.
All of us have seen a petrol pump. Have your ever thought how a petrol pump
owner does his business in a village? How he gets the petrol and diesel to the
villages in the interior? How he gets the money to purchase large quantities of
petrol and diesel? How he communicates to petrol depots for requirement and
also to customers? How he safeguards himself from various risks associated
with this business? The answer to all the above questions lies in the
understanding of business services. The transportation of petrol and diesel
from oil refineries to petrol pumps is carried out by train and tankers (transport
services).  They are then stored at various depots of oil companies situated in
all major towns across India (warehousing services). Petrol pump owners use
postal, mail and telephone facilities to be in touch with customers, banks and
the depots for the availability of their requirements on regular basis
(communication services). As oil companies always sell the petrol and diesel
on advance payment, the owners have to take loans and advances from banks
to fund their purchases (banking services). Petrol and diesel being highly risky
products, the owners have to safeguard themselves from various risks by getting
the business, the products, the life of people working there, etc., insure
(insurance services). Thus, we see that a single business of providing petrol
and diesel at a petrol pump is actually a collective outcome of various business
services. These services are being utilised in the entire process of shipment of
petrol and diesel from oil refineries to the point of sale at petrol pumps, spread
across the length and breath of India.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


CHAPTER 4
BUSINESS SERVICES
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• state the characteristics of services;
• distinguish services from goods;
• classify different types of business services;
• explain the concept of e-banking;
• identify and classify different types of insurance policies; and
• describe different types of warehouses.
© NCERT
not to be republished
78 BUSINESS STUDIES
4.1 INTRODUCTION
You must all have, at some time or the
other experienced the effect of business
activities on your lives. Let us examine
few examples of business activity i.e.,
purchasing ice cream from a store and
eating ice cream in a restaurant,
watching a movie in a cinema hall or
purchasing a video cassette/CD,
purchasing a school bus and leasing it
from a transporter. If you analyse all
these activities, you will observe that
there is a difference between purchasing
and eating, purchasing and watching
and purchasing and leasing. What is
common in all of them is that one is
purchasing an item and the other is
experiencing a service. But there is
definitely a difference between the item
or good and the service performed.
For a layperson, services are
essentially intangibles. Their purchase
does not result in the ownership of
anything physical. For example, you can
only seek advice from the doctor, you
cannot purchase him. Services are all
those economic activities that are
intangible and imply an interaction to
be realised between the service provider
and the consumer.
Services are those separately
identifiable, essentially intangible
activities that provides satisfaction of
wants, and are not necessarily linked to
the sale of a product or another service.
All of us have seen a petrol pump. Have your ever thought how a petrol pump
owner does his business in a village? How he gets the petrol and diesel to the
villages in the interior? How he gets the money to purchase large quantities of
petrol and diesel? How he communicates to petrol depots for requirement and
also to customers? How he safeguards himself from various risks associated
with this business? The answer to all the above questions lies in the
understanding of business services. The transportation of petrol and diesel
from oil refineries to petrol pumps is carried out by train and tankers (transport
services).  They are then stored at various depots of oil companies situated in
all major towns across India (warehousing services). Petrol pump owners use
postal, mail and telephone facilities to be in touch with customers, banks and
the depots for the availability of their requirements on regular basis
(communication services). As oil companies always sell the petrol and diesel
on advance payment, the owners have to take loans and advances from banks
to fund their purchases (banking services). Petrol and diesel being highly risky
products, the owners have to safeguard themselves from various risks by getting
the business, the products, the life of people working there, etc., insure
(insurance services). Thus, we see that a single business of providing petrol
and diesel at a petrol pump is actually a collective outcome of various business
services. These services are being utilised in the entire process of shipment of
petrol and diesel from oil refineries to the point of sale at petrol pumps, spread
across the length and breath of India.
© NCERT
not to be republished
79 BUSINESS SERVICES
A good is a physical product
capable of being delivered to a
purchaser and involves the transfer of
ownership from seller to customer.
Goods are also generally used to refer
to commodities or items of all types,
except services, involved in trade or
commerce.
4.2 NATURE OF SERVICES
There are five basic features of services.
These features also distinguish them
from goods and are known as the five Is
of services. These are discussed as
below:
(i) Intangibility: Services are
intangible, i.e., they cannot be touched.
They are experiential in nature. One
cannot taste a doctor’s treatment, or
touch entertainment. One can only
experience it. An important implication
of this is that quality of the offer can
often not be determined before
consumption and, therefore, purchase.
It is, therefore, important for the service
providers that they consciously work
on creating a desired service so that the
customer undergoes a favourable
experience. For example, treatment by a
doctor should be a favourable experience.
(ii) Inconsistency: The second
important characteristic of services is
inconsistency. Since there is no
standard tangible product, services
have to be performed exclusively each
time. Different customers have different
demands and expectations. Service
providers need to have an opportunity
to alter their offer to closely meet the
requirements of the customers. This is
happening, for example, in the case of
mobile services.
(iii) Inseparability: Another
important characteristic of services is
the simultaneous activity of production
and consumption being performed.
This makes the production and
consumption of services seem to be
inseparable. While we can manufacture
a car today and sell it after, say, a
month; this is often not possible with
services that have to be consumed as
and when they are produced. Service
providers may design a substitute for
the person by using appropriate
technology but the interaction with the
customer remains a key feature of
services. Automated Teller Machines
(ATMs) may replace the banking clerk
for the front office activities like cash
withdrawal and cheque deposit. But,
at the same time, the presence of the
customer, is required and his/her
interaction with the process has to be
managed.
(iv) Inventory (Less): Services have
little or no tangible components and,
therefore, cannot be stored for a future
use. That is, services are perishable
and providers can, at best, store some
associated goods but not the service
itself. This means that the demand and
supply needs to be managed as the
service has to be performed as and
when the customer asks for it. They
cannot be performed earlier to be
consumed at a later date. For example,
a railway ticket can be stored but the
railway journey will be experienced
only when the railways provides it.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


CHAPTER 4
BUSINESS SERVICES
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• state the characteristics of services;
• distinguish services from goods;
• classify different types of business services;
• explain the concept of e-banking;
• identify and classify different types of insurance policies; and
• describe different types of warehouses.
© NCERT
not to be republished
78 BUSINESS STUDIES
4.1 INTRODUCTION
You must all have, at some time or the
other experienced the effect of business
activities on your lives. Let us examine
few examples of business activity i.e.,
purchasing ice cream from a store and
eating ice cream in a restaurant,
watching a movie in a cinema hall or
purchasing a video cassette/CD,
purchasing a school bus and leasing it
from a transporter. If you analyse all
these activities, you will observe that
there is a difference between purchasing
and eating, purchasing and watching
and purchasing and leasing. What is
common in all of them is that one is
purchasing an item and the other is
experiencing a service. But there is
definitely a difference between the item
or good and the service performed.
For a layperson, services are
essentially intangibles. Their purchase
does not result in the ownership of
anything physical. For example, you can
only seek advice from the doctor, you
cannot purchase him. Services are all
those economic activities that are
intangible and imply an interaction to
be realised between the service provider
and the consumer.
Services are those separately
identifiable, essentially intangible
activities that provides satisfaction of
wants, and are not necessarily linked to
the sale of a product or another service.
All of us have seen a petrol pump. Have your ever thought how a petrol pump
owner does his business in a village? How he gets the petrol and diesel to the
villages in the interior? How he gets the money to purchase large quantities of
petrol and diesel? How he communicates to petrol depots for requirement and
also to customers? How he safeguards himself from various risks associated
with this business? The answer to all the above questions lies in the
understanding of business services. The transportation of petrol and diesel
from oil refineries to petrol pumps is carried out by train and tankers (transport
services).  They are then stored at various depots of oil companies situated in
all major towns across India (warehousing services). Petrol pump owners use
postal, mail and telephone facilities to be in touch with customers, banks and
the depots for the availability of their requirements on regular basis
(communication services). As oil companies always sell the petrol and diesel
on advance payment, the owners have to take loans and advances from banks
to fund their purchases (banking services). Petrol and diesel being highly risky
products, the owners have to safeguard themselves from various risks by getting
the business, the products, the life of people working there, etc., insure
(insurance services). Thus, we see that a single business of providing petrol
and diesel at a petrol pump is actually a collective outcome of various business
services. These services are being utilised in the entire process of shipment of
petrol and diesel from oil refineries to the point of sale at petrol pumps, spread
across the length and breath of India.
© NCERT
not to be republished
79 BUSINESS SERVICES
A good is a physical product
capable of being delivered to a
purchaser and involves the transfer of
ownership from seller to customer.
Goods are also generally used to refer
to commodities or items of all types,
except services, involved in trade or
commerce.
4.2 NATURE OF SERVICES
There are five basic features of services.
These features also distinguish them
from goods and are known as the five Is
of services. These are discussed as
below:
(i) Intangibility: Services are
intangible, i.e., they cannot be touched.
They are experiential in nature. One
cannot taste a doctor’s treatment, or
touch entertainment. One can only
experience it. An important implication
of this is that quality of the offer can
often not be determined before
consumption and, therefore, purchase.
It is, therefore, important for the service
providers that they consciously work
on creating a desired service so that the
customer undergoes a favourable
experience. For example, treatment by a
doctor should be a favourable experience.
(ii) Inconsistency: The second
important characteristic of services is
inconsistency. Since there is no
standard tangible product, services
have to be performed exclusively each
time. Different customers have different
demands and expectations. Service
providers need to have an opportunity
to alter their offer to closely meet the
requirements of the customers. This is
happening, for example, in the case of
mobile services.
(iii) Inseparability: Another
important characteristic of services is
the simultaneous activity of production
and consumption being performed.
This makes the production and
consumption of services seem to be
inseparable. While we can manufacture
a car today and sell it after, say, a
month; this is often not possible with
services that have to be consumed as
and when they are produced. Service
providers may design a substitute for
the person by using appropriate
technology but the interaction with the
customer remains a key feature of
services. Automated Teller Machines
(ATMs) may replace the banking clerk
for the front office activities like cash
withdrawal and cheque deposit. But,
at the same time, the presence of the
customer, is required and his/her
interaction with the process has to be
managed.
(iv) Inventory (Less): Services have
little or no tangible components and,
therefore, cannot be stored for a future
use. That is, services are perishable
and providers can, at best, store some
associated goods but not the service
itself. This means that the demand and
supply needs to be managed as the
service has to be performed as and
when the customer asks for it. They
cannot be performed earlier to be
consumed at a later date. For example,
a railway ticket can be stored but the
railway journey will be experienced
only when the railways provides it.
© NCERT
not to be republished
80 BUSINESS STUDIES
(v) Involvement: One of the most
important characteristics of services is
the participation of the customer in the
service delivery process. A customer
has the opportunity to get the services
modified according to specific
requirements.
4.2.1 Difference between Services
and Goods
From the above, it is clear that the two
main differentiating characteristics of
services and goods are non-
transferability of ownership and
presence of both provider as well as
consumer. While goods are produced,
services are performed. A service is an
act which cannot be taken home. What
we can take home is the effect of the
services. And as the services are sold
at the consumption point, there are no
inventories. On the basis of above
features, we can have following
points of distinction between goods
and services.
4.3 TYPES OF SERVICES
When speaking of the service sector,
services can be classified into three
broad categories, viz., business
services, social services and personal
services. These have been explained in
the following pages.
(i) Business Services: Business
services are those services which are
used by business enterprises for the
conduct of their activities. For
example, banking, insurance,
transportation, warehousing  and
communication services.
s i s aBs e c i v r eSs d o o G
e r u t a N
, . g . e . s s e c o r p r o y t i v i t c a n A
l l a h a m e n i c a n i e i v o m a g n i h c t a w
, . g . e . t c e j b o l a c i s y h p A
e i v o m f o e t t e s s a c o e d i v
e p yTs u o e n e g o r e t eHs u o n e g o m o H
y t i l i b i g n a t nIt n e m t a e r t r o t c o d , . g . e e l b i g n a t nIe n i c i d e m , . g . e e l b i g n a T
y c n e t s i s n o c n I
t n e r e f f i d g n i v a h s r e m o t s u c t n e r e f f i D
s e c i v r e s e l i b o m , . g . e s d n a m e d
g n i t t e g s r e m o t s u c t n e r e f f i D
. d e l l i f l u f s d n a m e d d e s i d r a d n a t s
s e n o h p e l i b o m , . g . e
y t i l i b a r a p e s n I
d n a n o i t c u d o r p s u o e n a t l u m i S
g n i t a e , . g . e . n o i t p m u s n o c
t n a r u a t s e r a n i m a e r c - e c i
d n a n o i t c u d o r p f o n o i t a r a p e S
g n i s a h c r u p , . g . e . n o i t p m u s n o c
e r o t s a m o r f m a e r c e c i
y r o t n e v n I
, . g . e . k c o t s n i t p e k e b t o n n a C
y e n r u o j n i a r t a f o e c n e i r e p x e
n i a r t , . g . e . k c o t s n i t p e k e b n a C
t e k c i t y e n r u o j
t n e m e v l o v n I
e h t t a s r e m o t s u c f o n o i t a p i c i t r a P
, . g . e . y r e v i l e d e c i v r e s f o e m i t
t n i o j d o o f t s a f a n i e c i v r e s - f l e s
f o e m i t e h t t a t n e m e v l o v n I
, . g . e . e l b i s s o p t o n y r e v i l e d
e l c i h e v a g n i r u t c a f u n a m
Difference between Services and Goods
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


CHAPTER 4
BUSINESS SERVICES
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• state the characteristics of services;
• distinguish services from goods;
• classify different types of business services;
• explain the concept of e-banking;
• identify and classify different types of insurance policies; and
• describe different types of warehouses.
© NCERT
not to be republished
78 BUSINESS STUDIES
4.1 INTRODUCTION
You must all have, at some time or the
other experienced the effect of business
activities on your lives. Let us examine
few examples of business activity i.e.,
purchasing ice cream from a store and
eating ice cream in a restaurant,
watching a movie in a cinema hall or
purchasing a video cassette/CD,
purchasing a school bus and leasing it
from a transporter. If you analyse all
these activities, you will observe that
there is a difference between purchasing
and eating, purchasing and watching
and purchasing and leasing. What is
common in all of them is that one is
purchasing an item and the other is
experiencing a service. But there is
definitely a difference between the item
or good and the service performed.
For a layperson, services are
essentially intangibles. Their purchase
does not result in the ownership of
anything physical. For example, you can
only seek advice from the doctor, you
cannot purchase him. Services are all
those economic activities that are
intangible and imply an interaction to
be realised between the service provider
and the consumer.
Services are those separately
identifiable, essentially intangible
activities that provides satisfaction of
wants, and are not necessarily linked to
the sale of a product or another service.
All of us have seen a petrol pump. Have your ever thought how a petrol pump
owner does his business in a village? How he gets the petrol and diesel to the
villages in the interior? How he gets the money to purchase large quantities of
petrol and diesel? How he communicates to petrol depots for requirement and
also to customers? How he safeguards himself from various risks associated
with this business? The answer to all the above questions lies in the
understanding of business services. The transportation of petrol and diesel
from oil refineries to petrol pumps is carried out by train and tankers (transport
services).  They are then stored at various depots of oil companies situated in
all major towns across India (warehousing services). Petrol pump owners use
postal, mail and telephone facilities to be in touch with customers, banks and
the depots for the availability of their requirements on regular basis
(communication services). As oil companies always sell the petrol and diesel
on advance payment, the owners have to take loans and advances from banks
to fund their purchases (banking services). Petrol and diesel being highly risky
products, the owners have to safeguard themselves from various risks by getting
the business, the products, the life of people working there, etc., insure
(insurance services). Thus, we see that a single business of providing petrol
and diesel at a petrol pump is actually a collective outcome of various business
services. These services are being utilised in the entire process of shipment of
petrol and diesel from oil refineries to the point of sale at petrol pumps, spread
across the length and breath of India.
© NCERT
not to be republished
79 BUSINESS SERVICES
A good is a physical product
capable of being delivered to a
purchaser and involves the transfer of
ownership from seller to customer.
Goods are also generally used to refer
to commodities or items of all types,
except services, involved in trade or
commerce.
4.2 NATURE OF SERVICES
There are five basic features of services.
These features also distinguish them
from goods and are known as the five Is
of services. These are discussed as
below:
(i) Intangibility: Services are
intangible, i.e., they cannot be touched.
They are experiential in nature. One
cannot taste a doctor’s treatment, or
touch entertainment. One can only
experience it. An important implication
of this is that quality of the offer can
often not be determined before
consumption and, therefore, purchase.
It is, therefore, important for the service
providers that they consciously work
on creating a desired service so that the
customer undergoes a favourable
experience. For example, treatment by a
doctor should be a favourable experience.
(ii) Inconsistency: The second
important characteristic of services is
inconsistency. Since there is no
standard tangible product, services
have to be performed exclusively each
time. Different customers have different
demands and expectations. Service
providers need to have an opportunity
to alter their offer to closely meet the
requirements of the customers. This is
happening, for example, in the case of
mobile services.
(iii) Inseparability: Another
important characteristic of services is
the simultaneous activity of production
and consumption being performed.
This makes the production and
consumption of services seem to be
inseparable. While we can manufacture
a car today and sell it after, say, a
month; this is often not possible with
services that have to be consumed as
and when they are produced. Service
providers may design a substitute for
the person by using appropriate
technology but the interaction with the
customer remains a key feature of
services. Automated Teller Machines
(ATMs) may replace the banking clerk
for the front office activities like cash
withdrawal and cheque deposit. But,
at the same time, the presence of the
customer, is required and his/her
interaction with the process has to be
managed.
(iv) Inventory (Less): Services have
little or no tangible components and,
therefore, cannot be stored for a future
use. That is, services are perishable
and providers can, at best, store some
associated goods but not the service
itself. This means that the demand and
supply needs to be managed as the
service has to be performed as and
when the customer asks for it. They
cannot be performed earlier to be
consumed at a later date. For example,
a railway ticket can be stored but the
railway journey will be experienced
only when the railways provides it.
© NCERT
not to be republished
80 BUSINESS STUDIES
(v) Involvement: One of the most
important characteristics of services is
the participation of the customer in the
service delivery process. A customer
has the opportunity to get the services
modified according to specific
requirements.
4.2.1 Difference between Services
and Goods
From the above, it is clear that the two
main differentiating characteristics of
services and goods are non-
transferability of ownership and
presence of both provider as well as
consumer. While goods are produced,
services are performed. A service is an
act which cannot be taken home. What
we can take home is the effect of the
services. And as the services are sold
at the consumption point, there are no
inventories. On the basis of above
features, we can have following
points of distinction between goods
and services.
4.3 TYPES OF SERVICES
When speaking of the service sector,
services can be classified into three
broad categories, viz., business
services, social services and personal
services. These have been explained in
the following pages.
(i) Business Services: Business
services are those services which are
used by business enterprises for the
conduct of their activities. For
example, banking, insurance,
transportation, warehousing  and
communication services.
s i s aBs e c i v r eSs d o o G
e r u t a N
, . g . e . s s e c o r p r o y t i v i t c a n A
l l a h a m e n i c a n i e i v o m a g n i h c t a w
, . g . e . t c e j b o l a c i s y h p A
e i v o m f o e t t e s s a c o e d i v
e p yTs u o e n e g o r e t eHs u o n e g o m o H
y t i l i b i g n a t nIt n e m t a e r t r o t c o d , . g . e e l b i g n a t nIe n i c i d e m , . g . e e l b i g n a T
y c n e t s i s n o c n I
t n e r e f f i d g n i v a h s r e m o t s u c t n e r e f f i D
s e c i v r e s e l i b o m , . g . e s d n a m e d
g n i t t e g s r e m o t s u c t n e r e f f i D
. d e l l i f l u f s d n a m e d d e s i d r a d n a t s
s e n o h p e l i b o m , . g . e
y t i l i b a r a p e s n I
d n a n o i t c u d o r p s u o e n a t l u m i S
g n i t a e , . g . e . n o i t p m u s n o c
t n a r u a t s e r a n i m a e r c - e c i
d n a n o i t c u d o r p f o n o i t a r a p e S
g n i s a h c r u p , . g . e . n o i t p m u s n o c
e r o t s a m o r f m a e r c e c i
y r o t n e v n I
, . g . e . k c o t s n i t p e k e b t o n n a C
y e n r u o j n i a r t a f o e c n e i r e p x e
n i a r t , . g . e . k c o t s n i t p e k e b n a C
t e k c i t y e n r u o j
t n e m e v l o v n I
e h t t a s r e m o t s u c f o n o i t a p i c i t r a P
, . g . e . y r e v i l e d e c i v r e s f o e m i t
t n i o j d o o f t s a f a n i e c i v r e s - f l e s
f o e m i t e h t t a t n e m e v l o v n I
, . g . e . e l b i s s o p t o n y r e v i l e d
e l c i h e v a g n i r u t c a f u n a m
Difference between Services and Goods
© NCERT
not to be republished
81 BUSINESS SERVICES
An Introduction to the GATS
The agreement on trade in services reached in the Uruguay Round is perhaps
the most important single development in the multilateral trading system. The
new General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) for the first time framed
internationally agreed rules and commitments, broadly comparable with those
of the General Agreement on Tarrif and Trade (GATT). The most important element
of GATS is the classification of services used in making commitments. The GATS
schedule largely follows a classification, which identifies 11 basic service sectors
(plus a twelfth category for miscellaneous services). These sectors are subdivided
into some 160 subsectors or separate service activities. As an example, the
tourism category breaks down into subsectors for hotel and restaurants.
The twelve sectors are:
1. Business services (including professional and computer)
2. Communication services
3. Construction and related engineering services
4. Distribution services
5. Educational services
6. Environmental services
7. Financial services (Insurance and Banking)
8. Health related and social services
9. Tourism and travel related services
10. Recreational, cultural and sporting services
11. Transport services and
12. Other services not included elsewhere
(ii) Social Services: Social services
are those services that are generally
provided voluntarily in pursuit of
certain social goals. These social goals
may be to improve the standard of
living for weaker sections of society, to
provide educational services to their
children, or to provide health care and
hygienic conditions in slum areas.
These services are usually provided
voluntarily but for some consideration
to cover their costs. For example,
health care and education services
provided by certain Non-government
organisations (NGOs) and government
agencies.
(iii) Personal Services: Personal
services are those services which are
experienced differently by different
customers. These services cannot be
consistent in nature. They will differ
depending upon the service provider.
They will also depend upon
customer’s preferences and demands.
For example, tourism, recreational
services, restaurants.
In the context of better
understanding of the business
world, we will be limiting our
further discussions to the first
category of the service sector i.e.,
business services.
© NCERT
not to be republished
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