NCERT Textbook Chapter 4 - Landscape of the Soul, Class 11, English Hornbill | EduRev Notes

English Class 11

Class 11 : NCERT Textbook Chapter 4 - Landscape of the Soul, Class 11, English Hornbill | EduRev Notes

 Page 1


34 HORNBILL
4 .  Landscape of the Soul
Nathalie Trouveroy
Notice these expressions in the text.
Infer their meaning from the context.
³ anecdote ³ illusionistic likeness
³ delicate realism ³ conceptual space
³ figurative painting
A WONDERFUL old tale is told about the painter Wu Daozi, who
lived in the eighth century. His last painting was a landscape
commissioned by the Tang Emperor Xuanzong, to decorate a
palace wall. The master had hidden his work behind a screen, so
only the Emperor would see it. For a long while, the Emperor
admired the wonderful scene, discovering forests, high mountains,
waterfalls, clouds floating in an immense sky, men on hilly paths,
birds in flight. “Look, Sire”, said the painter, “in this cave, at the
foot of the mountain, dwells a spirit.” The painter clapped his
hands, and the entrance to the cave opened. “The inside is splendid,
beyond anything words can convey. Please let me show Your
Majesty the way.” The painter entered the cave; but the entrance
closed behind him, and before the astonished Emperor could move
or utter a word, the painting had vanished from the wall. Not a
trace of Wu Daozi’s brush was left — and the artist was never
seen again in this world.
Such stories played an important part in China’s classical
education. The books of Confucius and Zhuangzi are full of them;
they helped the master to guide his disciple in the right direction.
Beyond the anecdote, they are deeply revealing of the spirit in
2019-20
Page 2


34 HORNBILL
4 .  Landscape of the Soul
Nathalie Trouveroy
Notice these expressions in the text.
Infer their meaning from the context.
³ anecdote ³ illusionistic likeness
³ delicate realism ³ conceptual space
³ figurative painting
A WONDERFUL old tale is told about the painter Wu Daozi, who
lived in the eighth century. His last painting was a landscape
commissioned by the Tang Emperor Xuanzong, to decorate a
palace wall. The master had hidden his work behind a screen, so
only the Emperor would see it. For a long while, the Emperor
admired the wonderful scene, discovering forests, high mountains,
waterfalls, clouds floating in an immense sky, men on hilly paths,
birds in flight. “Look, Sire”, said the painter, “in this cave, at the
foot of the mountain, dwells a spirit.” The painter clapped his
hands, and the entrance to the cave opened. “The inside is splendid,
beyond anything words can convey. Please let me show Your
Majesty the way.” The painter entered the cave; but the entrance
closed behind him, and before the astonished Emperor could move
or utter a word, the painting had vanished from the wall. Not a
trace of Wu Daozi’s brush was left — and the artist was never
seen again in this world.
Such stories played an important part in China’s classical
education. The books of Confucius and Zhuangzi are full of them;
they helped the master to guide his disciple in the right direction.
Beyond the anecdote, they are deeply revealing of the spirit in
2019-20
LANDSCAPE OF THE SOUL 35
which art was considered. Contrast this story — or another famous
one about a painter who wouldn’t draw the eye of a dragon he
had painted, for fear it would fly out of the painting — with an old
story from my native Flanders that I find most representative of
Western painting.
In fifteenth century Antwerp, a master blacksmith called
Quinten Metsys fell in love with a painter’s daughter. The father
would not accept a son-in-law in such a profession. So Quinten
sneaked into the painter’s studio and painted a fly on his latest
panel, with such delicate realism that the master tried to swat
it away before he realised what had happened. Quinten was
immediately admitted as an apprentice into his studio. He married
his beloved and went on to become one of the most famous
painters of his age. These two stories illustrate what each form
of art is trying to achieve: a perfect, illusionistic likeness in
Europe, the essence of inner life and spirit in Asia.
In the Chinese story, the Emperor commissions a painting
and appreciates its outer appearance. But the artist reveals to
him the true meaning of his work. The Emperor may rule over
the territory he has conquered, but only the artist knows the
way within. “Let me show the Way”, the ‘Dao’, a word that means
both the path or the method, and the mysterious works of the
Universe. The painting is gone, but the artist has reached his goal —
beyond any material appearance.
A classical Chinese landscape is not meant to reproduce an
actual view, as would a Western figurative painting. Whereas
the European painter wants you to borrow his eyes and look at
a particular landscape exactly as he saw it, from a specific angle,
the Chinese painter does not choose a single viewpoint. His
landscape is not a ‘real’ one, and you can enter it from any point,
then travel in it; the artist creates a path for your eyes to travel
up and down, then back again, in a leisurely movement. This is
even more true in the case of the horizontal scroll, in which the
action of slowly opening one section of the painting, then rolling
it up to move on to the other, adds a dimension of time which is
unknown in any other form of painting. It also requires the active
participation of the viewer, who decides at what pace he will travel
through the painting — a participation which is physical as well
as mental. The Chinese painter does not want you to borrow his
eyes; he wants you to enter his mind. The landscape is an inner
one, a spiritual and conceptual space.
2019-20
Page 3


34 HORNBILL
4 .  Landscape of the Soul
Nathalie Trouveroy
Notice these expressions in the text.
Infer their meaning from the context.
³ anecdote ³ illusionistic likeness
³ delicate realism ³ conceptual space
³ figurative painting
A WONDERFUL old tale is told about the painter Wu Daozi, who
lived in the eighth century. His last painting was a landscape
commissioned by the Tang Emperor Xuanzong, to decorate a
palace wall. The master had hidden his work behind a screen, so
only the Emperor would see it. For a long while, the Emperor
admired the wonderful scene, discovering forests, high mountains,
waterfalls, clouds floating in an immense sky, men on hilly paths,
birds in flight. “Look, Sire”, said the painter, “in this cave, at the
foot of the mountain, dwells a spirit.” The painter clapped his
hands, and the entrance to the cave opened. “The inside is splendid,
beyond anything words can convey. Please let me show Your
Majesty the way.” The painter entered the cave; but the entrance
closed behind him, and before the astonished Emperor could move
or utter a word, the painting had vanished from the wall. Not a
trace of Wu Daozi’s brush was left — and the artist was never
seen again in this world.
Such stories played an important part in China’s classical
education. The books of Confucius and Zhuangzi are full of them;
they helped the master to guide his disciple in the right direction.
Beyond the anecdote, they are deeply revealing of the spirit in
2019-20
LANDSCAPE OF THE SOUL 35
which art was considered. Contrast this story — or another famous
one about a painter who wouldn’t draw the eye of a dragon he
had painted, for fear it would fly out of the painting — with an old
story from my native Flanders that I find most representative of
Western painting.
In fifteenth century Antwerp, a master blacksmith called
Quinten Metsys fell in love with a painter’s daughter. The father
would not accept a son-in-law in such a profession. So Quinten
sneaked into the painter’s studio and painted a fly on his latest
panel, with such delicate realism that the master tried to swat
it away before he realised what had happened. Quinten was
immediately admitted as an apprentice into his studio. He married
his beloved and went on to become one of the most famous
painters of his age. These two stories illustrate what each form
of art is trying to achieve: a perfect, illusionistic likeness in
Europe, the essence of inner life and spirit in Asia.
In the Chinese story, the Emperor commissions a painting
and appreciates its outer appearance. But the artist reveals to
him the true meaning of his work. The Emperor may rule over
the territory he has conquered, but only the artist knows the
way within. “Let me show the Way”, the ‘Dao’, a word that means
both the path or the method, and the mysterious works of the
Universe. The painting is gone, but the artist has reached his goal —
beyond any material appearance.
A classical Chinese landscape is not meant to reproduce an
actual view, as would a Western figurative painting. Whereas
the European painter wants you to borrow his eyes and look at
a particular landscape exactly as he saw it, from a specific angle,
the Chinese painter does not choose a single viewpoint. His
landscape is not a ‘real’ one, and you can enter it from any point,
then travel in it; the artist creates a path for your eyes to travel
up and down, then back again, in a leisurely movement. This is
even more true in the case of the horizontal scroll, in which the
action of slowly opening one section of the painting, then rolling
it up to move on to the other, adds a dimension of time which is
unknown in any other form of painting. It also requires the active
participation of the viewer, who decides at what pace he will travel
through the painting — a participation which is physical as well
as mental. The Chinese painter does not want you to borrow his
eyes; he wants you to enter his mind. The landscape is an inner
one, a spiritual and conceptual space.
2019-20
36 HORNBILL
This concept is expressed as shanshui, literally ‘mountain-
water’ which used together represent the word ‘landscape’. More
than two elements of an image, these represent two
complementary poles, reflecting the Daoist view of the universe.
The mountain is Yang — reaching vertically towards Heaven,
stable, warm, and dry in the sun, while the water is Yin — horizontal
and resting on the earth, fluid, moist and cool. The interaction of
Yin, the receptive, feminine aspect of universal energy, and its
counterpart Yang, active and masculine, is of course a
fundamental notion of Daoism.  What is often overlooked is an
essential third element, the Middle Void where their interaction
takes place. This can be compared with the yogic practice of
pranayama; breathe in, retain, breathe out — the suspension of
breath is the Void where meditation occurs. The Middle Void is
essential — nothing can happen without it; hence the importance
of the white, unpainted space in Chinese landscape.
This is also where Man finds a fundamental role. In that space
between Heaven and Earth, he becomes the conduit of
communication between both poles of the Universe. His presence
is essential, even if it’s only suggested; far from being lost or
oppressed by the lofty peaks, he is, in Francois Cheng’s wonderful
expression, “the eye of the landscape”.
[excerpt from ‘Landscape of the Soul:
Ethics and Spirituality in Chinese
Painting’, slightly edited]
Getting Inside ‘Outsider Art’
When French painter Jean  Dubuffet mooted the concept of
‘art brut’ in the 1940s, the art of the untrained visionary
was of minority interest. From its almost veiled beginnings,
‘outsider art’ has gradually become the fastest growing area
of interest in contemporary art internationally.
This genre is described as the art of those who have ‘no
right’ to be artists as they have received no formal training,
yet show talent and artistic insight. Their works are a
stimulating contrast to a lot of mainstream offerings.
Around the time Dubuffet was propounding his
concept, in India “an untutored genius was creating
paradise”. Years ago the little patch of jungle that he began
clearing to make himself a garden sculpted with stone and
2019-20
Page 4


34 HORNBILL
4 .  Landscape of the Soul
Nathalie Trouveroy
Notice these expressions in the text.
Infer their meaning from the context.
³ anecdote ³ illusionistic likeness
³ delicate realism ³ conceptual space
³ figurative painting
A WONDERFUL old tale is told about the painter Wu Daozi, who
lived in the eighth century. His last painting was a landscape
commissioned by the Tang Emperor Xuanzong, to decorate a
palace wall. The master had hidden his work behind a screen, so
only the Emperor would see it. For a long while, the Emperor
admired the wonderful scene, discovering forests, high mountains,
waterfalls, clouds floating in an immense sky, men on hilly paths,
birds in flight. “Look, Sire”, said the painter, “in this cave, at the
foot of the mountain, dwells a spirit.” The painter clapped his
hands, and the entrance to the cave opened. “The inside is splendid,
beyond anything words can convey. Please let me show Your
Majesty the way.” The painter entered the cave; but the entrance
closed behind him, and before the astonished Emperor could move
or utter a word, the painting had vanished from the wall. Not a
trace of Wu Daozi’s brush was left — and the artist was never
seen again in this world.
Such stories played an important part in China’s classical
education. The books of Confucius and Zhuangzi are full of them;
they helped the master to guide his disciple in the right direction.
Beyond the anecdote, they are deeply revealing of the spirit in
2019-20
LANDSCAPE OF THE SOUL 35
which art was considered. Contrast this story — or another famous
one about a painter who wouldn’t draw the eye of a dragon he
had painted, for fear it would fly out of the painting — with an old
story from my native Flanders that I find most representative of
Western painting.
In fifteenth century Antwerp, a master blacksmith called
Quinten Metsys fell in love with a painter’s daughter. The father
would not accept a son-in-law in such a profession. So Quinten
sneaked into the painter’s studio and painted a fly on his latest
panel, with such delicate realism that the master tried to swat
it away before he realised what had happened. Quinten was
immediately admitted as an apprentice into his studio. He married
his beloved and went on to become one of the most famous
painters of his age. These two stories illustrate what each form
of art is trying to achieve: a perfect, illusionistic likeness in
Europe, the essence of inner life and spirit in Asia.
In the Chinese story, the Emperor commissions a painting
and appreciates its outer appearance. But the artist reveals to
him the true meaning of his work. The Emperor may rule over
the territory he has conquered, but only the artist knows the
way within. “Let me show the Way”, the ‘Dao’, a word that means
both the path or the method, and the mysterious works of the
Universe. The painting is gone, but the artist has reached his goal —
beyond any material appearance.
A classical Chinese landscape is not meant to reproduce an
actual view, as would a Western figurative painting. Whereas
the European painter wants you to borrow his eyes and look at
a particular landscape exactly as he saw it, from a specific angle,
the Chinese painter does not choose a single viewpoint. His
landscape is not a ‘real’ one, and you can enter it from any point,
then travel in it; the artist creates a path for your eyes to travel
up and down, then back again, in a leisurely movement. This is
even more true in the case of the horizontal scroll, in which the
action of slowly opening one section of the painting, then rolling
it up to move on to the other, adds a dimension of time which is
unknown in any other form of painting. It also requires the active
participation of the viewer, who decides at what pace he will travel
through the painting — a participation which is physical as well
as mental. The Chinese painter does not want you to borrow his
eyes; he wants you to enter his mind. The landscape is an inner
one, a spiritual and conceptual space.
2019-20
36 HORNBILL
This concept is expressed as shanshui, literally ‘mountain-
water’ which used together represent the word ‘landscape’. More
than two elements of an image, these represent two
complementary poles, reflecting the Daoist view of the universe.
The mountain is Yang — reaching vertically towards Heaven,
stable, warm, and dry in the sun, while the water is Yin — horizontal
and resting on the earth, fluid, moist and cool. The interaction of
Yin, the receptive, feminine aspect of universal energy, and its
counterpart Yang, active and masculine, is of course a
fundamental notion of Daoism.  What is often overlooked is an
essential third element, the Middle Void where their interaction
takes place. This can be compared with the yogic practice of
pranayama; breathe in, retain, breathe out — the suspension of
breath is the Void where meditation occurs. The Middle Void is
essential — nothing can happen without it; hence the importance
of the white, unpainted space in Chinese landscape.
This is also where Man finds a fundamental role. In that space
between Heaven and Earth, he becomes the conduit of
communication between both poles of the Universe. His presence
is essential, even if it’s only suggested; far from being lost or
oppressed by the lofty peaks, he is, in Francois Cheng’s wonderful
expression, “the eye of the landscape”.
[excerpt from ‘Landscape of the Soul:
Ethics and Spirituality in Chinese
Painting’, slightly edited]
Getting Inside ‘Outsider Art’
When French painter Jean  Dubuffet mooted the concept of
‘art brut’ in the 1940s, the art of the untrained visionary
was of minority interest. From its almost veiled beginnings,
‘outsider art’ has gradually become the fastest growing area
of interest in contemporary art internationally.
This genre is described as the art of those who have ‘no
right’ to be artists as they have received no formal training,
yet show talent and artistic insight. Their works are a
stimulating contrast to a lot of mainstream offerings.
Around the time Dubuffet was propounding his
concept, in India “an untutored genius was creating
paradise”. Years ago the little patch of jungle that he began
clearing to make himself a garden sculpted with stone and
2019-20
LANDSCAPE OF THE SOUL 37
recycled material is known to the world today as the Rock
Garden, at Chandigarh.
Its 80-year-old creator– director, Nek Chand, is now hailed
as India’s biggest contributor to outsider art. The fiftieth issue
(Spring 2005) of Raw Vision, a UK-based magazine pioneer
in outsider art publications, features Nek Chand, and his
Rock Garden sculpture ‘Women by the Waterfall’ on its
anniversary issue’s cover.
The notion of ‘art brut’ or ‘raw art’, was of works that
were in their raw state as regards cultural and artistic
influences. Anything and everything from a tin to a sink to a
broken down car could be material for a work of art,
something Nek Chand has taken to dizzying heights.
Recognising his art as “an outstanding testimony of the
difference a single man can make when he lives his dream”,
the Swiss Commission for UNESCO will be honouring him
by way of a European exposition of his works. The five-month
interactive show, ‘Realm of Nek Chand’, beginning October
will be held at leading museums in Switzerland,  Belgium,
France and Italy. “The biggest reward is walking through the
garden and seeing people enjoy my creation,” Nek Chand says.
BRINDA SURI
Hindustan Times, 28 August 2005
A Rock Garden sculpture made of broken bangles by Nek Chand
2019-20
Page 5


34 HORNBILL
4 .  Landscape of the Soul
Nathalie Trouveroy
Notice these expressions in the text.
Infer their meaning from the context.
³ anecdote ³ illusionistic likeness
³ delicate realism ³ conceptual space
³ figurative painting
A WONDERFUL old tale is told about the painter Wu Daozi, who
lived in the eighth century. His last painting was a landscape
commissioned by the Tang Emperor Xuanzong, to decorate a
palace wall. The master had hidden his work behind a screen, so
only the Emperor would see it. For a long while, the Emperor
admired the wonderful scene, discovering forests, high mountains,
waterfalls, clouds floating in an immense sky, men on hilly paths,
birds in flight. “Look, Sire”, said the painter, “in this cave, at the
foot of the mountain, dwells a spirit.” The painter clapped his
hands, and the entrance to the cave opened. “The inside is splendid,
beyond anything words can convey. Please let me show Your
Majesty the way.” The painter entered the cave; but the entrance
closed behind him, and before the astonished Emperor could move
or utter a word, the painting had vanished from the wall. Not a
trace of Wu Daozi’s brush was left — and the artist was never
seen again in this world.
Such stories played an important part in China’s classical
education. The books of Confucius and Zhuangzi are full of them;
they helped the master to guide his disciple in the right direction.
Beyond the anecdote, they are deeply revealing of the spirit in
2019-20
LANDSCAPE OF THE SOUL 35
which art was considered. Contrast this story — or another famous
one about a painter who wouldn’t draw the eye of a dragon he
had painted, for fear it would fly out of the painting — with an old
story from my native Flanders that I find most representative of
Western painting.
In fifteenth century Antwerp, a master blacksmith called
Quinten Metsys fell in love with a painter’s daughter. The father
would not accept a son-in-law in such a profession. So Quinten
sneaked into the painter’s studio and painted a fly on his latest
panel, with such delicate realism that the master tried to swat
it away before he realised what had happened. Quinten was
immediately admitted as an apprentice into his studio. He married
his beloved and went on to become one of the most famous
painters of his age. These two stories illustrate what each form
of art is trying to achieve: a perfect, illusionistic likeness in
Europe, the essence of inner life and spirit in Asia.
In the Chinese story, the Emperor commissions a painting
and appreciates its outer appearance. But the artist reveals to
him the true meaning of his work. The Emperor may rule over
the territory he has conquered, but only the artist knows the
way within. “Let me show the Way”, the ‘Dao’, a word that means
both the path or the method, and the mysterious works of the
Universe. The painting is gone, but the artist has reached his goal —
beyond any material appearance.
A classical Chinese landscape is not meant to reproduce an
actual view, as would a Western figurative painting. Whereas
the European painter wants you to borrow his eyes and look at
a particular landscape exactly as he saw it, from a specific angle,
the Chinese painter does not choose a single viewpoint. His
landscape is not a ‘real’ one, and you can enter it from any point,
then travel in it; the artist creates a path for your eyes to travel
up and down, then back again, in a leisurely movement. This is
even more true in the case of the horizontal scroll, in which the
action of slowly opening one section of the painting, then rolling
it up to move on to the other, adds a dimension of time which is
unknown in any other form of painting. It also requires the active
participation of the viewer, who decides at what pace he will travel
through the painting — a participation which is physical as well
as mental. The Chinese painter does not want you to borrow his
eyes; he wants you to enter his mind. The landscape is an inner
one, a spiritual and conceptual space.
2019-20
36 HORNBILL
This concept is expressed as shanshui, literally ‘mountain-
water’ which used together represent the word ‘landscape’. More
than two elements of an image, these represent two
complementary poles, reflecting the Daoist view of the universe.
The mountain is Yang — reaching vertically towards Heaven,
stable, warm, and dry in the sun, while the water is Yin — horizontal
and resting on the earth, fluid, moist and cool. The interaction of
Yin, the receptive, feminine aspect of universal energy, and its
counterpart Yang, active and masculine, is of course a
fundamental notion of Daoism.  What is often overlooked is an
essential third element, the Middle Void where their interaction
takes place. This can be compared with the yogic practice of
pranayama; breathe in, retain, breathe out — the suspension of
breath is the Void where meditation occurs. The Middle Void is
essential — nothing can happen without it; hence the importance
of the white, unpainted space in Chinese landscape.
This is also where Man finds a fundamental role. In that space
between Heaven and Earth, he becomes the conduit of
communication between both poles of the Universe. His presence
is essential, even if it’s only suggested; far from being lost or
oppressed by the lofty peaks, he is, in Francois Cheng’s wonderful
expression, “the eye of the landscape”.
[excerpt from ‘Landscape of the Soul:
Ethics and Spirituality in Chinese
Painting’, slightly edited]
Getting Inside ‘Outsider Art’
When French painter Jean  Dubuffet mooted the concept of
‘art brut’ in the 1940s, the art of the untrained visionary
was of minority interest. From its almost veiled beginnings,
‘outsider art’ has gradually become the fastest growing area
of interest in contemporary art internationally.
This genre is described as the art of those who have ‘no
right’ to be artists as they have received no formal training,
yet show talent and artistic insight. Their works are a
stimulating contrast to a lot of mainstream offerings.
Around the time Dubuffet was propounding his
concept, in India “an untutored genius was creating
paradise”. Years ago the little patch of jungle that he began
clearing to make himself a garden sculpted with stone and
2019-20
LANDSCAPE OF THE SOUL 37
recycled material is known to the world today as the Rock
Garden, at Chandigarh.
Its 80-year-old creator– director, Nek Chand, is now hailed
as India’s biggest contributor to outsider art. The fiftieth issue
(Spring 2005) of Raw Vision, a UK-based magazine pioneer
in outsider art publications, features Nek Chand, and his
Rock Garden sculpture ‘Women by the Waterfall’ on its
anniversary issue’s cover.
The notion of ‘art brut’ or ‘raw art’, was of works that
were in their raw state as regards cultural and artistic
influences. Anything and everything from a tin to a sink to a
broken down car could be material for a work of art,
something Nek Chand has taken to dizzying heights.
Recognising his art as “an outstanding testimony of the
difference a single man can make when he lives his dream”,
the Swiss Commission for UNESCO will be honouring him
by way of a European exposition of his works. The five-month
interactive show, ‘Realm of Nek Chand’, beginning October
will be held at leading museums in Switzerland,  Belgium,
France and Italy. “The biggest reward is walking through the
garden and seeing people enjoy my creation,” Nek Chand says.
BRINDA SURI
Hindustan Times, 28 August 2005
A Rock Garden sculpture made of broken bangles by Nek Chand
2019-20
38 HORNBILL
Understanding the text
1. (i) Contrast the Chinese view of art with the European view
with examples.
(ii) Explain the concept of shanshui.
2. (i) What do you understand by the terms ‘outsider art’ and
‘art brut’ or ‘raw art’?
(ii) Who was the “untutored genius who created a paradise”
and what is the nature of his contribution to art?
Talking about the text
Discuss the following statements in groups of four.
1. “The Emperor may rule over the territory he has conquered, but
only the artist knows the way within.”
2. “The landscape is an inner one, a spiritual and conceptual space.”
Thinking about language
1. Find out the correlates of Yin and Yang in other cultures.
2. What is the language spoken in Flanders?
Working with words
I. The following common words are used in more than one sense.
panel studio brush
essence material
Examine the following sets of sentences to find out what the
words, ‘panel’ and ‘essence’ mean in different contexts.
1. (i) The masks from Bawa village in Mali look like long
panels of decorated wood.
(ii) Judge H. Hobart Grooms told the jury panel he had
heard the reports.
(iii) The panel is laying the groundwork for an international
treaty.
2019-20
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