NCERT Textbook - Our Country Class 6 Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

Created by: Rohini Seth

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - Our Country Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


7
7
OUR COUNTRY – INDIA
India is a country of vast geographical expanse. In the
north, it is bound by the lofty Himalayas. The Arabian
Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the
Indian Ocean in the south, wash the shores of the
Indian peninsula.
India has an area of about 3.28 million sq. km. The
north-south extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is
about 3,200 km. And the east-west extent from
Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2,900 km.
The lofty mountains, the Great Indian Desert, the
Northern Plains, the uneven plateau surface and the
coasts and islands present a diversity of landforms.
There is a great variety in the climate, vegetation,
wildlife as well as in the language and culture. In this
diversity, we find unity that is reflected in traditions
that bind us as one nation. India has a population of
more than one hundred twenty crores since the
year 2011. It is the second most populous country of
the world after China.
LOCATIONAL SETTING
India is located in the northern hemisphere. The Tropic
of Cancer (23°30
'
N) passes almost halfway through the
country (Figure 7.2). From south to north, main land
of India extends between 8°4
'
N and 37°6
'
N latitudes.
From west to east, India extends between 68°7
'
E and
97°25
'
E longitudes. If we divide the world into eastern
and western hemispheres, which hemisphere would
India belong to? Due to great longitudinal extent of
about 29°, there could be a wide differences in local
time of places located at two extreme points of India. As
such, the difference between these two points would be of
The peninsula is a piece
of land that is
surrounded by water on
three sides (figure 6.1).
Do you know?
Large countries
which stretch
extensively from
east to west do not have
a single Standard Time
for the whole country.
The USA and Canada
have seven and six time
zones respectively. Do you
remember how many
time zones are there in
Russia?
2018-19
Page 2


7
7
OUR COUNTRY – INDIA
India is a country of vast geographical expanse. In the
north, it is bound by the lofty Himalayas. The Arabian
Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the
Indian Ocean in the south, wash the shores of the
Indian peninsula.
India has an area of about 3.28 million sq. km. The
north-south extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is
about 3,200 km. And the east-west extent from
Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2,900 km.
The lofty mountains, the Great Indian Desert, the
Northern Plains, the uneven plateau surface and the
coasts and islands present a diversity of landforms.
There is a great variety in the climate, vegetation,
wildlife as well as in the language and culture. In this
diversity, we find unity that is reflected in traditions
that bind us as one nation. India has a population of
more than one hundred twenty crores since the
year 2011. It is the second most populous country of
the world after China.
LOCATIONAL SETTING
India is located in the northern hemisphere. The Tropic
of Cancer (23°30
'
N) passes almost halfway through the
country (Figure 7.2). From south to north, main land
of India extends between 8°4
'
N and 37°6
'
N latitudes.
From west to east, India extends between 68°7
'
E and
97°25
'
E longitudes. If we divide the world into eastern
and western hemispheres, which hemisphere would
India belong to? Due to great longitudinal extent of
about 29°, there could be a wide differences in local
time of places located at two extreme points of India. As
such, the difference between these two points would be of
The peninsula is a piece
of land that is
surrounded by water on
three sides (figure 6.1).
Do you know?
Large countries
which stretch
extensively from
east to west do not have
a single Standard Time
for the whole country.
The USA and Canada
have seven and six time
zones respectively. Do you
remember how many
time zones are there in
Russia?
2018-19
48
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
Figure 7.1 : India and its neighbouring countries
about two hours. As you have learnt earlier, the local time changes by four minutes
for every one degree of longitude. The sun rises about two hours earlier in the east
(Arunachal Pradesh) than in the west (Gujarat). You have already read earlier, why
the local time of longitude of 82°30
'
E has been taken as the Indian Standard Time.
This meridian or longitude is also termed as the Standard Meridian of India.
INDIA’S NEIGHBOURS
There are seven countries that share land boundaries with India. Find out names
2018-19
Page 3


7
7
OUR COUNTRY – INDIA
India is a country of vast geographical expanse. In the
north, it is bound by the lofty Himalayas. The Arabian
Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the
Indian Ocean in the south, wash the shores of the
Indian peninsula.
India has an area of about 3.28 million sq. km. The
north-south extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is
about 3,200 km. And the east-west extent from
Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2,900 km.
The lofty mountains, the Great Indian Desert, the
Northern Plains, the uneven plateau surface and the
coasts and islands present a diversity of landforms.
There is a great variety in the climate, vegetation,
wildlife as well as in the language and culture. In this
diversity, we find unity that is reflected in traditions
that bind us as one nation. India has a population of
more than one hundred twenty crores since the
year 2011. It is the second most populous country of
the world after China.
LOCATIONAL SETTING
India is located in the northern hemisphere. The Tropic
of Cancer (23°30
'
N) passes almost halfway through the
country (Figure 7.2). From south to north, main land
of India extends between 8°4
'
N and 37°6
'
N latitudes.
From west to east, India extends between 68°7
'
E and
97°25
'
E longitudes. If we divide the world into eastern
and western hemispheres, which hemisphere would
India belong to? Due to great longitudinal extent of
about 29°, there could be a wide differences in local
time of places located at two extreme points of India. As
such, the difference between these two points would be of
The peninsula is a piece
of land that is
surrounded by water on
three sides (figure 6.1).
Do you know?
Large countries
which stretch
extensively from
east to west do not have
a single Standard Time
for the whole country.
The USA and Canada
have seven and six time
zones respectively. Do you
remember how many
time zones are there in
Russia?
2018-19
48
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
Figure 7.1 : India and its neighbouring countries
about two hours. As you have learnt earlier, the local time changes by four minutes
for every one degree of longitude. The sun rises about two hours earlier in the east
(Arunachal Pradesh) than in the west (Gujarat). You have already read earlier, why
the local time of longitude of 82°30
'
E has been taken as the Indian Standard Time.
This meridian or longitude is also termed as the Standard Meridian of India.
INDIA’S NEIGHBOURS
There are seven countries that share land boundaries with India. Find out names
2018-19
49
OUR COUNTRY – INDIA
* Telangana became 29th state of India in June 2014
Figure 7.2 : Political map of India
2018-19
Page 4


7
7
OUR COUNTRY – INDIA
India is a country of vast geographical expanse. In the
north, it is bound by the lofty Himalayas. The Arabian
Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the
Indian Ocean in the south, wash the shores of the
Indian peninsula.
India has an area of about 3.28 million sq. km. The
north-south extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is
about 3,200 km. And the east-west extent from
Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2,900 km.
The lofty mountains, the Great Indian Desert, the
Northern Plains, the uneven plateau surface and the
coasts and islands present a diversity of landforms.
There is a great variety in the climate, vegetation,
wildlife as well as in the language and culture. In this
diversity, we find unity that is reflected in traditions
that bind us as one nation. India has a population of
more than one hundred twenty crores since the
year 2011. It is the second most populous country of
the world after China.
LOCATIONAL SETTING
India is located in the northern hemisphere. The Tropic
of Cancer (23°30
'
N) passes almost halfway through the
country (Figure 7.2). From south to north, main land
of India extends between 8°4
'
N and 37°6
'
N latitudes.
From west to east, India extends between 68°7
'
E and
97°25
'
E longitudes. If we divide the world into eastern
and western hemispheres, which hemisphere would
India belong to? Due to great longitudinal extent of
about 29°, there could be a wide differences in local
time of places located at two extreme points of India. As
such, the difference between these two points would be of
The peninsula is a piece
of land that is
surrounded by water on
three sides (figure 6.1).
Do you know?
Large countries
which stretch
extensively from
east to west do not have
a single Standard Time
for the whole country.
The USA and Canada
have seven and six time
zones respectively. Do you
remember how many
time zones are there in
Russia?
2018-19
48
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
Figure 7.1 : India and its neighbouring countries
about two hours. As you have learnt earlier, the local time changes by four minutes
for every one degree of longitude. The sun rises about two hours earlier in the east
(Arunachal Pradesh) than in the west (Gujarat). You have already read earlier, why
the local time of longitude of 82°30
'
E has been taken as the Indian Standard Time.
This meridian or longitude is also termed as the Standard Meridian of India.
INDIA’S NEIGHBOURS
There are seven countries that share land boundaries with India. Find out names
2018-19
49
OUR COUNTRY – INDIA
* Telangana became 29th state of India in June 2014
Figure 7.2 : Political map of India
2018-19
50
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
Figure 7.3 : India : Physical Divisions
of these countries from the Figure 7.1. How many of these countries do not have
access to any ocean or sea? Across the sea to the south, lie our island neighbours—
Sri Lanka and Maldives. Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait.
POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS
India is a vast country. For administrative purposes, the country is divided into 29
2018-19
Page 5


7
7
OUR COUNTRY – INDIA
India is a country of vast geographical expanse. In the
north, it is bound by the lofty Himalayas. The Arabian
Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the
Indian Ocean in the south, wash the shores of the
Indian peninsula.
India has an area of about 3.28 million sq. km. The
north-south extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is
about 3,200 km. And the east-west extent from
Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2,900 km.
The lofty mountains, the Great Indian Desert, the
Northern Plains, the uneven plateau surface and the
coasts and islands present a diversity of landforms.
There is a great variety in the climate, vegetation,
wildlife as well as in the language and culture. In this
diversity, we find unity that is reflected in traditions
that bind us as one nation. India has a population of
more than one hundred twenty crores since the
year 2011. It is the second most populous country of
the world after China.
LOCATIONAL SETTING
India is located in the northern hemisphere. The Tropic
of Cancer (23°30
'
N) passes almost halfway through the
country (Figure 7.2). From south to north, main land
of India extends between 8°4
'
N and 37°6
'
N latitudes.
From west to east, India extends between 68°7
'
E and
97°25
'
E longitudes. If we divide the world into eastern
and western hemispheres, which hemisphere would
India belong to? Due to great longitudinal extent of
about 29°, there could be a wide differences in local
time of places located at two extreme points of India. As
such, the difference between these two points would be of
The peninsula is a piece
of land that is
surrounded by water on
three sides (figure 6.1).
Do you know?
Large countries
which stretch
extensively from
east to west do not have
a single Standard Time
for the whole country.
The USA and Canada
have seven and six time
zones respectively. Do you
remember how many
time zones are there in
Russia?
2018-19
48
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
Figure 7.1 : India and its neighbouring countries
about two hours. As you have learnt earlier, the local time changes by four minutes
for every one degree of longitude. The sun rises about two hours earlier in the east
(Arunachal Pradesh) than in the west (Gujarat). You have already read earlier, why
the local time of longitude of 82°30
'
E has been taken as the Indian Standard Time.
This meridian or longitude is also termed as the Standard Meridian of India.
INDIA’S NEIGHBOURS
There are seven countries that share land boundaries with India. Find out names
2018-19
49
OUR COUNTRY – INDIA
* Telangana became 29th state of India in June 2014
Figure 7.2 : Political map of India
2018-19
50
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
Figure 7.3 : India : Physical Divisions
of these countries from the Figure 7.1. How many of these countries do not have
access to any ocean or sea? Across the sea to the south, lie our island neighbours—
Sri Lanka and Maldives. Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait.
POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS
India is a vast country. For administrative purposes, the country is divided into 29
2018-19
51
OUR COUNTRY – INDIA
States and 7 Union Territories (Appendix-I). Telangana
became the 29th state of India on 2 June 2014. It was
previously a part of Andhra Pradesh. Delhi is the
national capital. The states have been formed mainly
on the basis of languages. Rajasthan is the largest
state and Goa is the smallest state in terms of area.
The states are further divided into districts.
PHYSICAL DIVISIONS
India is marked by a diversity of physical features such
as mountains, plateaus, plains, coasts and islands.
Standing as sentinels in the north are the lofty snow-
capped Himalayas. Him+alaya mean ‘the abode of
snow’. The Himalayan mountains are divided into three
main parallel ranges. The northernmost is the Great
Himalaya or Himadri. The world’s highest peaks are
located in this range. Middle Himalaya or Himachal
lies to the south of Himadri. Many popular hill stations
are situated here. Find out the names of five hill
stations. The Shiwalik is the southernmost range.
The Northern Indian plains lie to the south of the
Himalayas. They are generally level and flat. These are
formed by the alluvial deposits laid down by the rivers–
the Indus, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and their
tributaries. These river plains  provide fertile land for
cultivation. That is the reason for high concentration of
population in these plains.
In the western part of India lies the Great Indian desert.
It is a dry, hot and sandy stretch of land. It has very little
vegetation.
To the south of northern plains lies the Peninsular
plateau. It is triangular in shape. The relief is highly
uneven. This is a region with numerous hill ranges and
valleys. Aravali hills, one of the oldest ranges of the world,
border it on the north-west side. The Vindhyas and the
Satpuras are the important ranges. The rivers Narmada
and Tapi flow through these ranges. These are west-flowing
rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea. The Western Ghats
or Sahyadris border the plateau in the west and the
Eastern Ghats provide the eastern boundary. While the
Western Ghats are almost continuous, the Eastern Ghats
are broken and uneven (Figure 7.3). The plateau is rich
in minerals like coal and iron-ore.
To the West of the Western Ghats and the East of
Eastern Ghats lie the Coastal plains. The western
Alluvial deposits : These
are very fine soils,
brought by rivers and
deposited in the river
basins.
Tributary : A river or
stream which contributes
its water to a main river
by discharging it into
main river from either
side (Figure 6.1).
Let’s Do
Many girls
are named
after rivers
eg. Yamuna, Mandakini,
and Kaveri. Do you know
anyone in your locality
who is named after a
river? Ask your parents
and others and make a
list of such names.
Could you also find
other names related to
water e.g. Shabnam?
Do you know?
The Ganga and
the Brahma-
putra form the
world’s largest delta, the
Sundarbans delta. The
delta is triangular in
shape. It is an area of
land formed at the mouth
of the river (Where rivers
enter the sea, that point
is called the mouth of the
river, Figure 6.1).
2018-19
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