NCERT Textbook - Small Business Commerce Notes | EduRev

Business Studies (BST) Class 11

Commerce : NCERT Textbook - Small Business Commerce Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


CHAPTER 9
SMALL BUSINESS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• explain the meaning and nature of small business;
? appreciate the role of small business in India;
? analyse the problems of small business; and
? classify the different forms of assistance provided by the
government to small business, particularly in rural and hilly areas.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


CHAPTER 9
SMALL BUSINESS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• explain the meaning and nature of small business;
? appreciate the role of small business in India;
? analyse the problems of small business; and
? classify the different forms of assistance provided by the
government to small business, particularly in rural and hilly areas.
© NCERT
not to be republished
208 BUSINESS STUDIES
9.1 INTRODUCTION
In the pervious chapters, the concepts
of business, trade, commerce and
industry were discussed. The present
chapter discusses the issue of size of
business, with reference to small
industries and small business
establishments. It also describes the
role of small business and the major
problems faced by the small sector
units. Further , the assistance provided
by the government to small business,
particularly in the rural and hilly areas
has been discussed.
9.2 MEANING AND NATURE OF SMALL
BUSINESS
In India, the ‘village and small
industries sector’ consists of both
‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ small
industries. This sector has eight
subgroups. They are handlooms,
handicrafts, coir, sericulture, khadi and
village industries, small scale
industries and powerlooms. The last
two come under the modern small
industries, while the others come under
traditional industries. Village and small
industries together provide the largest
employment opportunities in India.
Before understanding the nature
and meaning of small business, it is
important to know how size is defined
in our country, with reference to small
industries and small business
establishments. Several parameters can
be used to measure the size of business
units. These include the number of
persons employed in business, capital
invested in business, volume of output
or value of output of business and
power consumed for business activities.
However, there is no parameter which
is without limitations. Depending on the
need the measures can vary.
Amar, Akbar and Anthony are three good friends who have completed a vocational
course in entrepreneurship, after their school education. Finding the job market
tough, they were contemplating the idea of setting up a small business, using the
skills they had learnt in their course. However, they knew very little about business.
They were wondering what business to start, where to locate it, how to procure
machinery and materials needed for the business, how to raise money and how
to market. They came across a notification given by the District Industries Centre
located near the Industrial Estate in Balanagar, Ranga Reddy district of Andhra
Pradesh regarding a seminar on government’s assistance for a small business,
aimed at young entrepreneurs. Excited with the news, the three friends decided
to attend the seminar. They were told about the financial and other assistance
offered by the Central and State Governments under the Rural Employment
Generation Programme to the educated youth. They found that toys were in
demand and decided to manufacture toys. They started a small scale industry in
their village by taking financial assistance with the help of Khadi and Village
Industries Commission. Today, they are successful makers of toys and in the
near future, they plan to get into export market as well.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


CHAPTER 9
SMALL BUSINESS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• explain the meaning and nature of small business;
? appreciate the role of small business in India;
? analyse the problems of small business; and
? classify the different forms of assistance provided by the
government to small business, particularly in rural and hilly areas.
© NCERT
not to be republished
208 BUSINESS STUDIES
9.1 INTRODUCTION
In the pervious chapters, the concepts
of business, trade, commerce and
industry were discussed. The present
chapter discusses the issue of size of
business, with reference to small
industries and small business
establishments. It also describes the
role of small business and the major
problems faced by the small sector
units. Further , the assistance provided
by the government to small business,
particularly in the rural and hilly areas
has been discussed.
9.2 MEANING AND NATURE OF SMALL
BUSINESS
In India, the ‘village and small
industries sector’ consists of both
‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ small
industries. This sector has eight
subgroups. They are handlooms,
handicrafts, coir, sericulture, khadi and
village industries, small scale
industries and powerlooms. The last
two come under the modern small
industries, while the others come under
traditional industries. Village and small
industries together provide the largest
employment opportunities in India.
Before understanding the nature
and meaning of small business, it is
important to know how size is defined
in our country, with reference to small
industries and small business
establishments. Several parameters can
be used to measure the size of business
units. These include the number of
persons employed in business, capital
invested in business, volume of output
or value of output of business and
power consumed for business activities.
However, there is no parameter which
is without limitations. Depending on the
need the measures can vary.
Amar, Akbar and Anthony are three good friends who have completed a vocational
course in entrepreneurship, after their school education. Finding the job market
tough, they were contemplating the idea of setting up a small business, using the
skills they had learnt in their course. However, they knew very little about business.
They were wondering what business to start, where to locate it, how to procure
machinery and materials needed for the business, how to raise money and how
to market. They came across a notification given by the District Industries Centre
located near the Industrial Estate in Balanagar, Ranga Reddy district of Andhra
Pradesh regarding a seminar on government’s assistance for a small business,
aimed at young entrepreneurs. Excited with the news, the three friends decided
to attend the seminar. They were told about the financial and other assistance
offered by the Central and State Governments under the Rural Employment
Generation Programme to the educated youth. They found that toys were in
demand and decided to manufacture toys. They started a small scale industry in
their village by taking financial assistance with the help of Khadi and Village
Industries Commission. Today, they are successful makers of toys and in the
near future, they plan to get into export market as well.
© NCERT
not to be republished
209 SMALL BUSINESS
The definition used by the
Government of India to describe small
industries is based on the investment
in plant and machinery. This measure
seeks to keep in view the socio-economic
environment in India where capital is
scarce and labour is abundant. One
more important point to note is that a
definition exists only for small and tiny
units but not for large and medium
units. Medium and large sized
enterprises are not defined. Anything
that does not fall under the definition
of small can be large or medium.
Taking capital invested as the basis the
small business units in India can fall
under any of the following categories:
(i) Small scale industry: A small scale
industrial undertaking is defined as
one in which the investment in fixed
assets of plant and machinery does not
exceed rupees one crore. However, to
cater to the needs of small industries
whose thrust is on export promotion
and modernisation, investment ceiling
in plant and machinery is rupees
five crores.
(ii) Ancillary small industrial unit:
The small scale industry can enjoy the
status of an ancillary small industry if
it supplies not less than 50 per cent of
its production to another industry,
referred to as the parent unit. The
ancillary small industry can
manufacture parts, components, sub-
assemblies, tools or intermediate
products for the parent unit. Apart from
catering to the needs of the parent unit,
it can do business on its own. Ancillary
units have the advantage of assured
demand from parent units. Normally,
the parent unit assists the ancillary
unit by giving technical guidance as
well as financial help.
(iii) Export oriented units: The small
scale industry can enjoy the status of
an export oriented unit if it exports
more than 50 per cent of its production.
It can avail the incentives like export
subsidies and other concessions offered
by the government for exporting units.
(iv) Small scale industries owned
and managed by women entre-
preneurs: An enterprise promoted by
women entrepreneurs is a small scale
industrial unit in which she/they
individually or jointly have share
capital of not less than 51 per cent.
Such units can avail the special
concessions offered by the government,
like low interest rates on loans, etc.
(v) Tiny industrial units: A tiny unit is
defined as an industrial or business
enterprise whose investment in plant and
machinery is not more than Rs. 25 lakhs.
(vi) Small scale service and business
(Industry related) enterprises: A
small scale service and business
enterprise is one whose investment in
fixed assets of plant and machinery
excluding land and building does not
exceed Rs. 10 lakhs.
(vii) Micro business enterprises:
Within the tiny and small business
sector, micro enterprises are those whose
investment in plant and machinery
does not exceed rupees one lakh.
(viii) Village industries: Village
Industry has been defined as any
industry located in a rural area which
produces any goods, renders any
service with or without the use of power
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


CHAPTER 9
SMALL BUSINESS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• explain the meaning and nature of small business;
? appreciate the role of small business in India;
? analyse the problems of small business; and
? classify the different forms of assistance provided by the
government to small business, particularly in rural and hilly areas.
© NCERT
not to be republished
208 BUSINESS STUDIES
9.1 INTRODUCTION
In the pervious chapters, the concepts
of business, trade, commerce and
industry were discussed. The present
chapter discusses the issue of size of
business, with reference to small
industries and small business
establishments. It also describes the
role of small business and the major
problems faced by the small sector
units. Further , the assistance provided
by the government to small business,
particularly in the rural and hilly areas
has been discussed.
9.2 MEANING AND NATURE OF SMALL
BUSINESS
In India, the ‘village and small
industries sector’ consists of both
‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ small
industries. This sector has eight
subgroups. They are handlooms,
handicrafts, coir, sericulture, khadi and
village industries, small scale
industries and powerlooms. The last
two come under the modern small
industries, while the others come under
traditional industries. Village and small
industries together provide the largest
employment opportunities in India.
Before understanding the nature
and meaning of small business, it is
important to know how size is defined
in our country, with reference to small
industries and small business
establishments. Several parameters can
be used to measure the size of business
units. These include the number of
persons employed in business, capital
invested in business, volume of output
or value of output of business and
power consumed for business activities.
However, there is no parameter which
is without limitations. Depending on the
need the measures can vary.
Amar, Akbar and Anthony are three good friends who have completed a vocational
course in entrepreneurship, after their school education. Finding the job market
tough, they were contemplating the idea of setting up a small business, using the
skills they had learnt in their course. However, they knew very little about business.
They were wondering what business to start, where to locate it, how to procure
machinery and materials needed for the business, how to raise money and how
to market. They came across a notification given by the District Industries Centre
located near the Industrial Estate in Balanagar, Ranga Reddy district of Andhra
Pradesh regarding a seminar on government’s assistance for a small business,
aimed at young entrepreneurs. Excited with the news, the three friends decided
to attend the seminar. They were told about the financial and other assistance
offered by the Central and State Governments under the Rural Employment
Generation Programme to the educated youth. They found that toys were in
demand and decided to manufacture toys. They started a small scale industry in
their village by taking financial assistance with the help of Khadi and Village
Industries Commission. Today, they are successful makers of toys and in the
near future, they plan to get into export market as well.
© NCERT
not to be republished
209 SMALL BUSINESS
The definition used by the
Government of India to describe small
industries is based on the investment
in plant and machinery. This measure
seeks to keep in view the socio-economic
environment in India where capital is
scarce and labour is abundant. One
more important point to note is that a
definition exists only for small and tiny
units but not for large and medium
units. Medium and large sized
enterprises are not defined. Anything
that does not fall under the definition
of small can be large or medium.
Taking capital invested as the basis the
small business units in India can fall
under any of the following categories:
(i) Small scale industry: A small scale
industrial undertaking is defined as
one in which the investment in fixed
assets of plant and machinery does not
exceed rupees one crore. However, to
cater to the needs of small industries
whose thrust is on export promotion
and modernisation, investment ceiling
in plant and machinery is rupees
five crores.
(ii) Ancillary small industrial unit:
The small scale industry can enjoy the
status of an ancillary small industry if
it supplies not less than 50 per cent of
its production to another industry,
referred to as the parent unit. The
ancillary small industry can
manufacture parts, components, sub-
assemblies, tools or intermediate
products for the parent unit. Apart from
catering to the needs of the parent unit,
it can do business on its own. Ancillary
units have the advantage of assured
demand from parent units. Normally,
the parent unit assists the ancillary
unit by giving technical guidance as
well as financial help.
(iii) Export oriented units: The small
scale industry can enjoy the status of
an export oriented unit if it exports
more than 50 per cent of its production.
It can avail the incentives like export
subsidies and other concessions offered
by the government for exporting units.
(iv) Small scale industries owned
and managed by women entre-
preneurs: An enterprise promoted by
women entrepreneurs is a small scale
industrial unit in which she/they
individually or jointly have share
capital of not less than 51 per cent.
Such units can avail the special
concessions offered by the government,
like low interest rates on loans, etc.
(v) Tiny industrial units: A tiny unit is
defined as an industrial or business
enterprise whose investment in plant and
machinery is not more than Rs. 25 lakhs.
(vi) Small scale service and business
(Industry related) enterprises: A
small scale service and business
enterprise is one whose investment in
fixed assets of plant and machinery
excluding land and building does not
exceed Rs. 10 lakhs.
(vii) Micro business enterprises:
Within the tiny and small business
sector, micro enterprises are those whose
investment in plant and machinery
does not exceed rupees one lakh.
(viii) Village industries: Village
Industry has been defined as any
industry located in a rural area which
produces any goods, renders any
service with or without the use of power
© NCERT
not to be republished
210 BUSINESS STUDIES
and in which the fixed capital investment
per head or artisan or worker does not
exceed Rs. 50,000 or such other sum as
may be specified by the central
government, from time to time.
(ix) Cottage industries: These are also
known as Rural Industries or
Traditional industries. They are not
defined by capital investment criteria
as in the case of other small scale
industries. However, cottage industries
are characterised by certain features
like the following:
? these are organised by
individuals, with private
resources;
? normally use family labour and
locally available talent;
? the equipment used is simple;
? capital investment is small;
? produce simple products,
normally in their own
premises;
? production of goods using
indigenous technology.
9.3 ADMINISTRATIVE SETUP FOR THE
SMALL SCALE, AGRO AND RURAL
INDUSTRIES
The Government of India created the
ministry of Small Scale Industries and
Agro and Rural Industries as the nodal
ministry for formulation of policy and
coordination of central assistance for the
promotion and development of small
scale industries in India. The Ministry
was bifurcated into two separate
ministries, viz., Ministry of Small Scale
Industries and Ministry of Agro and
Rural Industries in September, 2001.
The Ministry of Small Scale Indus-
tries designs policies, programmes, and
schemes for the promotion and growth
of SSIs. The Small Industries
Development Organisation (SIDO), also
known as the Office of the Development
Commissioner (SSI) which is attached
to this ministry is responsible for
implementing and monitoring of
various policies and programmes
formulated.
y r t s u d n I f o e p yT) s R ( t i m i L t n e m t s e v nIs k r a m e R
y r t s u d n i e l a c s l l a mSe r o r c e n O
e v i f s i t i s t c u d o r p c i f i c e p s r o F
) r a f o s s t c u d o r p 1 7 ( s e r o r c
y r t s u d n i y r a l l i c nAe r o r c e n O
e h t o t d e i l p p u s t u p t u o f o % 0 5
t i n u t n e r a p
e s i r p r e t n e y n iTs h k a l 52t i m i l n o i t a c o l o N
s s e n i s u B d n a e c i v r e S
) d e t a l e r y r t s u d n i (
s e s i r p r e t n e
s h k a l 01t i m i l n o i t a c o l o N
e s i r p r e t n e n e m oWe v o b a e h t f o y n A
n e m o w y b g n i d l o h y t i u q e % 1 5
n e m o w y b d e g a n a m d n a
s t i n U d e t n e i r O t r o p x E
) s ' U O E (
e r o r c e n O
n i % 5 2 l l e s n a c s U O E , % 0 0 1
. s t e k r a m c i t s e m o d
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


CHAPTER 9
SMALL BUSINESS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• explain the meaning and nature of small business;
? appreciate the role of small business in India;
? analyse the problems of small business; and
? classify the different forms of assistance provided by the
government to small business, particularly in rural and hilly areas.
© NCERT
not to be republished
208 BUSINESS STUDIES
9.1 INTRODUCTION
In the pervious chapters, the concepts
of business, trade, commerce and
industry were discussed. The present
chapter discusses the issue of size of
business, with reference to small
industries and small business
establishments. It also describes the
role of small business and the major
problems faced by the small sector
units. Further , the assistance provided
by the government to small business,
particularly in the rural and hilly areas
has been discussed.
9.2 MEANING AND NATURE OF SMALL
BUSINESS
In India, the ‘village and small
industries sector’ consists of both
‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ small
industries. This sector has eight
subgroups. They are handlooms,
handicrafts, coir, sericulture, khadi and
village industries, small scale
industries and powerlooms. The last
two come under the modern small
industries, while the others come under
traditional industries. Village and small
industries together provide the largest
employment opportunities in India.
Before understanding the nature
and meaning of small business, it is
important to know how size is defined
in our country, with reference to small
industries and small business
establishments. Several parameters can
be used to measure the size of business
units. These include the number of
persons employed in business, capital
invested in business, volume of output
or value of output of business and
power consumed for business activities.
However, there is no parameter which
is without limitations. Depending on the
need the measures can vary.
Amar, Akbar and Anthony are three good friends who have completed a vocational
course in entrepreneurship, after their school education. Finding the job market
tough, they were contemplating the idea of setting up a small business, using the
skills they had learnt in their course. However, they knew very little about business.
They were wondering what business to start, where to locate it, how to procure
machinery and materials needed for the business, how to raise money and how
to market. They came across a notification given by the District Industries Centre
located near the Industrial Estate in Balanagar, Ranga Reddy district of Andhra
Pradesh regarding a seminar on government’s assistance for a small business,
aimed at young entrepreneurs. Excited with the news, the three friends decided
to attend the seminar. They were told about the financial and other assistance
offered by the Central and State Governments under the Rural Employment
Generation Programme to the educated youth. They found that toys were in
demand and decided to manufacture toys. They started a small scale industry in
their village by taking financial assistance with the help of Khadi and Village
Industries Commission. Today, they are successful makers of toys and in the
near future, they plan to get into export market as well.
© NCERT
not to be republished
209 SMALL BUSINESS
The definition used by the
Government of India to describe small
industries is based on the investment
in plant and machinery. This measure
seeks to keep in view the socio-economic
environment in India where capital is
scarce and labour is abundant. One
more important point to note is that a
definition exists only for small and tiny
units but not for large and medium
units. Medium and large sized
enterprises are not defined. Anything
that does not fall under the definition
of small can be large or medium.
Taking capital invested as the basis the
small business units in India can fall
under any of the following categories:
(i) Small scale industry: A small scale
industrial undertaking is defined as
one in which the investment in fixed
assets of plant and machinery does not
exceed rupees one crore. However, to
cater to the needs of small industries
whose thrust is on export promotion
and modernisation, investment ceiling
in plant and machinery is rupees
five crores.
(ii) Ancillary small industrial unit:
The small scale industry can enjoy the
status of an ancillary small industry if
it supplies not less than 50 per cent of
its production to another industry,
referred to as the parent unit. The
ancillary small industry can
manufacture parts, components, sub-
assemblies, tools or intermediate
products for the parent unit. Apart from
catering to the needs of the parent unit,
it can do business on its own. Ancillary
units have the advantage of assured
demand from parent units. Normally,
the parent unit assists the ancillary
unit by giving technical guidance as
well as financial help.
(iii) Export oriented units: The small
scale industry can enjoy the status of
an export oriented unit if it exports
more than 50 per cent of its production.
It can avail the incentives like export
subsidies and other concessions offered
by the government for exporting units.
(iv) Small scale industries owned
and managed by women entre-
preneurs: An enterprise promoted by
women entrepreneurs is a small scale
industrial unit in which she/they
individually or jointly have share
capital of not less than 51 per cent.
Such units can avail the special
concessions offered by the government,
like low interest rates on loans, etc.
(v) Tiny industrial units: A tiny unit is
defined as an industrial or business
enterprise whose investment in plant and
machinery is not more than Rs. 25 lakhs.
(vi) Small scale service and business
(Industry related) enterprises: A
small scale service and business
enterprise is one whose investment in
fixed assets of plant and machinery
excluding land and building does not
exceed Rs. 10 lakhs.
(vii) Micro business enterprises:
Within the tiny and small business
sector, micro enterprises are those whose
investment in plant and machinery
does not exceed rupees one lakh.
(viii) Village industries: Village
Industry has been defined as any
industry located in a rural area which
produces any goods, renders any
service with or without the use of power
© NCERT
not to be republished
210 BUSINESS STUDIES
and in which the fixed capital investment
per head or artisan or worker does not
exceed Rs. 50,000 or such other sum as
may be specified by the central
government, from time to time.
(ix) Cottage industries: These are also
known as Rural Industries or
Traditional industries. They are not
defined by capital investment criteria
as in the case of other small scale
industries. However, cottage industries
are characterised by certain features
like the following:
? these are organised by
individuals, with private
resources;
? normally use family labour and
locally available talent;
? the equipment used is simple;
? capital investment is small;
? produce simple products,
normally in their own
premises;
? production of goods using
indigenous technology.
9.3 ADMINISTRATIVE SETUP FOR THE
SMALL SCALE, AGRO AND RURAL
INDUSTRIES
The Government of India created the
ministry of Small Scale Industries and
Agro and Rural Industries as the nodal
ministry for formulation of policy and
coordination of central assistance for the
promotion and development of small
scale industries in India. The Ministry
was bifurcated into two separate
ministries, viz., Ministry of Small Scale
Industries and Ministry of Agro and
Rural Industries in September, 2001.
The Ministry of Small Scale Indus-
tries designs policies, programmes, and
schemes for the promotion and growth
of SSIs. The Small Industries
Development Organisation (SIDO), also
known as the Office of the Development
Commissioner (SSI) which is attached
to this ministry is responsible for
implementing and monitoring of
various policies and programmes
formulated.
y r t s u d n I f o e p yT) s R ( t i m i L t n e m t s e v nIs k r a m e R
y r t s u d n i e l a c s l l a mSe r o r c e n O
e v i f s i t i s t c u d o r p c i f i c e p s r o F
) r a f o s s t c u d o r p 1 7 ( s e r o r c
y r t s u d n i y r a l l i c nAe r o r c e n O
e h t o t d e i l p p u s t u p t u o f o % 0 5
t i n u t n e r a p
e s i r p r e t n e y n iTs h k a l 52t i m i l n o i t a c o l o N
s s e n i s u B d n a e c i v r e S
) d e t a l e r y r t s u d n i (
s e s i r p r e t n e
s h k a l 01t i m i l n o i t a c o l o N
e s i r p r e t n e n e m oWe v o b a e h t f o y n A
n e m o w y b g n i d l o h y t i u q e % 1 5
n e m o w y b d e g a n a m d n a
s t i n U d e t n e i r O t r o p x E
) s ' U O E (
e r o r c e n O
n i % 5 2 l l e s n a c s U O E , % 0 0 1
. s t e k r a m c i t s e m o d
© NCERT
not to be republished
211 SMALL BUSINESS
Ministry of Agro and Rural
Industries is the nodal agency for
coordination and development of
Village and Khadi industries, tiny and
micro enterprises in both urban and
rural areas. It also implements Prime
Minister’s Rojgar Yojana. The various
policies, programmes and schemes
related to agro and rural industries are
implemented by the ministry through
the Khadi and Village Industries
Commission (KVIC), Handicrafts Board,
Coir Board, Silk Board etc.
State Governments also execute
different promotional and
developmental projects and schemes to
provide number of supporting
incentives for development and
promotion of SSIs in their respective
states. These are executed through  the
State Directorate of Industries, who has
District Industries Centers (DICs)
under it to implement central/state
level schemes.
9.4 ROLE OF SMALL BUSINESS IN INDIA
Small Scale Industries in India enjoy a
distinct position in view of their
contribution to the socio-economic
development of the country. The
following points highlight their
contribution.
(i) Small industries in India account
for 95 per cent of the industrial
units in the country. They
contribute almost 40 per cent of
the gross industrial value added
and 45 per cent of the total exports
(direct and indirect exports) from
India.
(ii) Small industries are the second
largest employers of human
resources, after agriculture.
They generate more number of
employment opportunities per
unit of capital invested compared
to large industries. They are,
therefore, considered to be more
labour intensive and less capital
intensive. This is a boon for a
labour surplus country like India.
(iii) Small industries in our country
supply an enormous variety of
products which include mass
consumption goods, readymade
garments, hosiery goods,
stationery items, soaps and
detergents, domestic utensils,
leather, plastic and rubber goods,
processed foods and vegetables,
wood and steel furniture, paints,
varnishes, safety matches, etc.
Among the sophisticated items
manufactured are electric and
electronic goods like televisions,
calculators, electro-medical
equipment, electronic teaching
aids like overhead projectors, air
conditioning equipment, drugs
and pharmaceuticals, agricultural
tools and equipment and several
other engineering products. A
special mention should be made of
handlooms, handicrafts and other
products from traditional village
industries in view of their export
value. (see Box A which highlights
the major industry groups that
come under the purview of small
industries as per the classification
laid down by the government.)
© NCERT
not to be republished
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