NCERT Textbook - Conservation of Plants & Animals UPSC Notes | EduRev

General Science for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - Conservation of Plants & Animals UPSC Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
W
e saw in Class VII that
Paheli  and  Boojho  had visited
the forest along with Prof.
Ahmad and Tibu. They were eager to
share their experiences with their
classmates. Other children in the class
were also eager to share their experiences
as some of them had visited Bharatpur
Sanctuary. Some others had heard
about  Kaziranga National Park,
Lockchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Great
Nicobar Biosphere Reserve and Tiger
Reserve, etc.
Some natural causes of deforestation
are forest fires and severe droughts.
Activity 7.1
Add more causes of deforestation to
your list and classify them into
natural and man-made.
7.2Consequences of
Deforestation
Paheli and Boojho recalled the
consequences of deforestation. They
remembered that deforestation increases
the temperature and pollution level on
the earth. It increases the level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere. Ground water
level also gets lowered. They know that
deforestation disturbs the balance in
nature. They were told by Prof. Ahmad
that if cutting of trees continues, rainfall
and the  fertility of the soil will decrease.
7.1 Deforestation and Its
Causes
A great variety of plants and animals
exists on earth. They are essential for
the wellbeing and survival of mankind.
Today, a major threat to survival of these
organisms is deforestation. We know
that deforestation means clearing of
forests and using that land for other
purposes. Trees in the forest are cut for
some of the purposes mentioned below:
 Procuring land for cultivation.
 Building houses and factories.
 Making furniture or using wood as
fuel.
How does deforestation reduce
rainfall on the one hand and
lead to floods on the other?
Moreover, there will be increased
chances of natural calamities such as
floods and droughts.
Recall that plants need carbon
dioxide for photosynthesis. Fewer trees
would mean that less carbon dioxide will
be used up resulting in its increased
What is the purpose of
making national parks,
wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves?
Page 2


CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
W
e saw in Class VII that
Paheli  and  Boojho  had visited
the forest along with Prof.
Ahmad and Tibu. They were eager to
share their experiences with their
classmates. Other children in the class
were also eager to share their experiences
as some of them had visited Bharatpur
Sanctuary. Some others had heard
about  Kaziranga National Park,
Lockchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Great
Nicobar Biosphere Reserve and Tiger
Reserve, etc.
Some natural causes of deforestation
are forest fires and severe droughts.
Activity 7.1
Add more causes of deforestation to
your list and classify them into
natural and man-made.
7.2Consequences of
Deforestation
Paheli and Boojho recalled the
consequences of deforestation. They
remembered that deforestation increases
the temperature and pollution level on
the earth. It increases the level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere. Ground water
level also gets lowered. They know that
deforestation disturbs the balance in
nature. They were told by Prof. Ahmad
that if cutting of trees continues, rainfall
and the  fertility of the soil will decrease.
7.1 Deforestation and Its
Causes
A great variety of plants and animals
exists on earth. They are essential for
the wellbeing and survival of mankind.
Today, a major threat to survival of these
organisms is deforestation. We know
that deforestation means clearing of
forests and using that land for other
purposes. Trees in the forest are cut for
some of the purposes mentioned below:
 Procuring land for cultivation.
 Building houses and factories.
 Making furniture or using wood as
fuel.
How does deforestation reduce
rainfall on the one hand and
lead to floods on the other?
Moreover, there will be increased
chances of natural calamities such as
floods and droughts.
Recall that plants need carbon
dioxide for photosynthesis. Fewer trees
would mean that less carbon dioxide will
be used up resulting in its increased
What is the purpose of
making national parks,
wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves?
SCIENCE 78
amount in the atmosphere. This will lead
to global warming as carbon dioxide
traps the heat rays reflected by the earth.
The increase in temperature on the earth
disturbs the water cycle and may reduce
rainfall. This could cause droughts.
Deforestation is a major cause which
leads to the change in soil properties.
Physical properties of the soil get affected
by plantation and vegetation. Recall
from Class VII how trees prevent soil
erosion. Fewer trees result in more soil
erosion. Removal of the top layer of the
soil exposes the lower, hard and rocky
layers. This soil has less humus and is
less fertile. Gradually the fertile land
gets converted into deserts. It is called
desertification.
Deforestation also leads to a decrease
in the water holding capacity of the soil.
The movement of water from the soil
surface into the ground (infiltration rate)
is reduced. So, there are floods. The
other properties of the soil like nutrient
content, texture, etc., also change
because of deforestation.
We have studied in Class VII that we
get many products from forests. List these
products. Will we face the shortage of these
products if we continue cutting trees?
Activity 7.2
Animal life is also affected by
deforestation. How? List the points
and discuss them in your class.
7.3 Conservation of Forest
and Wildlife
Having become aware of the effects of
deforestation, Paheli and Boojho are
worried. They go to Prof. Ahmad and ask
him how forests and wildlife can be saved.
Prof. Ahmad organises a visit to a
biosphere reserve for Paheli, Boojho and
their classmates. He selects a place
named Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. He
knows that the plants and animals found
here are similar to those of the upper
Himalayan peaks and to those belonging
to the lower western ghats. Prof. Ahmad
believes that the biodiversity found here
is unique. He requests Madhavji, a forest
employee, to guide the children inside
the biosphere reserve. He explains that
preserving areas of such biological
importance make them a part of our
national heritage.
Biosphere is that part of the earth in
which living organisms exist or which
supports life. Biological diversity or
biodiversity, refers  to the variety of
organisms existing on the earth, their
interrelationships and their
relationship with the environment.
Madhavji explains to the children
that apart from our personal efforts and
efforts of the society, government
agencies also take care of the forests and
animals. The government lays down
rules, methods and policies to protect
and conserve them. Wildlife sanctuaries,
national parks, biosphere reserves, etc.,
are protected areas for conservation of
plants and animals present in that area.
To protect our flora and fauna and
their habitats, protected areas
called sanctuaries, national parks and
biosphere reserves have been
earmarked. Plantation, cultivation,
grazing, felling trees, hunting and
poaching are prohibited there.
Sanctuary :  Areas where animals are
protected from any disturbance to
them and their habitat.
Page 3


CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
W
e saw in Class VII that
Paheli  and  Boojho  had visited
the forest along with Prof.
Ahmad and Tibu. They were eager to
share their experiences with their
classmates. Other children in the class
were also eager to share their experiences
as some of them had visited Bharatpur
Sanctuary. Some others had heard
about  Kaziranga National Park,
Lockchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Great
Nicobar Biosphere Reserve and Tiger
Reserve, etc.
Some natural causes of deforestation
are forest fires and severe droughts.
Activity 7.1
Add more causes of deforestation to
your list and classify them into
natural and man-made.
7.2Consequences of
Deforestation
Paheli and Boojho recalled the
consequences of deforestation. They
remembered that deforestation increases
the temperature and pollution level on
the earth. It increases the level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere. Ground water
level also gets lowered. They know that
deforestation disturbs the balance in
nature. They were told by Prof. Ahmad
that if cutting of trees continues, rainfall
and the  fertility of the soil will decrease.
7.1 Deforestation and Its
Causes
A great variety of plants and animals
exists on earth. They are essential for
the wellbeing and survival of mankind.
Today, a major threat to survival of these
organisms is deforestation. We know
that deforestation means clearing of
forests and using that land for other
purposes. Trees in the forest are cut for
some of the purposes mentioned below:
 Procuring land for cultivation.
 Building houses and factories.
 Making furniture or using wood as
fuel.
How does deforestation reduce
rainfall on the one hand and
lead to floods on the other?
Moreover, there will be increased
chances of natural calamities such as
floods and droughts.
Recall that plants need carbon
dioxide for photosynthesis. Fewer trees
would mean that less carbon dioxide will
be used up resulting in its increased
What is the purpose of
making national parks,
wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves?
SCIENCE 78
amount in the atmosphere. This will lead
to global warming as carbon dioxide
traps the heat rays reflected by the earth.
The increase in temperature on the earth
disturbs the water cycle and may reduce
rainfall. This could cause droughts.
Deforestation is a major cause which
leads to the change in soil properties.
Physical properties of the soil get affected
by plantation and vegetation. Recall
from Class VII how trees prevent soil
erosion. Fewer trees result in more soil
erosion. Removal of the top layer of the
soil exposes the lower, hard and rocky
layers. This soil has less humus and is
less fertile. Gradually the fertile land
gets converted into deserts. It is called
desertification.
Deforestation also leads to a decrease
in the water holding capacity of the soil.
The movement of water from the soil
surface into the ground (infiltration rate)
is reduced. So, there are floods. The
other properties of the soil like nutrient
content, texture, etc., also change
because of deforestation.
We have studied in Class VII that we
get many products from forests. List these
products. Will we face the shortage of these
products if we continue cutting trees?
Activity 7.2
Animal life is also affected by
deforestation. How? List the points
and discuss them in your class.
7.3 Conservation of Forest
and Wildlife
Having become aware of the effects of
deforestation, Paheli and Boojho are
worried. They go to Prof. Ahmad and ask
him how forests and wildlife can be saved.
Prof. Ahmad organises a visit to a
biosphere reserve for Paheli, Boojho and
their classmates. He selects a place
named Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. He
knows that the plants and animals found
here are similar to those of the upper
Himalayan peaks and to those belonging
to the lower western ghats. Prof. Ahmad
believes that the biodiversity found here
is unique. He requests Madhavji, a forest
employee, to guide the children inside
the biosphere reserve. He explains that
preserving areas of such biological
importance make them a part of our
national heritage.
Biosphere is that part of the earth in
which living organisms exist or which
supports life. Biological diversity or
biodiversity, refers  to the variety of
organisms existing on the earth, their
interrelationships and their
relationship with the environment.
Madhavji explains to the children
that apart from our personal efforts and
efforts of the society, government
agencies also take care of the forests and
animals. The government lays down
rules, methods and policies to protect
and conserve them. Wildlife sanctuaries,
national parks, biosphere reserves, etc.,
are protected areas for conservation of
plants and animals present in that area.
To protect our flora and fauna and
their habitats, protected areas
called sanctuaries, national parks and
biosphere reserves have been
earmarked. Plantation, cultivation,
grazing, felling trees, hunting and
poaching are prohibited there.
Sanctuary :  Areas where animals are
protected from any disturbance to
them and their habitat.
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 79
Activity 7.3
Find out the number of national
parks, wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves in your district,
state and country. Record in  Table
7.1. Show these areas in an outline
map of your state and India.
Fig. 7.1 : Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve
7.4Biosphere Reserve
Children along with Prof. Ahmad and
Madhavji enter the biosphere reserve
area. Madhavji explains that biosphere
reserves are the areas meant for
conservation of biodiversity. As you are
aware that biodiversity is the variety of
plants, animals and microorganisms
generally found in an area.  The
biosphere reserves  help to maintain the
biodiversity and culture of that area. A
biosphere reserve may also contain
other protected areas in it. The
Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve consists
of one national park named Satpura and
two wildlife sanctuaries named Bori and
Pachmarhi (Fig. 7.1).
Table 7.1 : Protected areas for conservation.
Protected Areas — National Park Wildlife Sanctuary Biosphere Reserve
In my district
In my state
In my country
PACHMARHI SANCTUARY
TO PIPARIYA
TAWA
RESERVIOR
CHURNA
BORI SANCTUARY
DHAIN
BORI
SATPURA NATIONAL PARK
NEEMGHAN
PANARPANI GATE
PACHMARHI
?
N
National Park : Areas reserved for
wild life where they can freely use
the habitats and natural resources.
Biosphere Reserve : Large areas of
protected land for conservation of wild
life, plant and animal resources and
traditional life of the tribals living in
the area.
Page 4


CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
W
e saw in Class VII that
Paheli  and  Boojho  had visited
the forest along with Prof.
Ahmad and Tibu. They were eager to
share their experiences with their
classmates. Other children in the class
were also eager to share their experiences
as some of them had visited Bharatpur
Sanctuary. Some others had heard
about  Kaziranga National Park,
Lockchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Great
Nicobar Biosphere Reserve and Tiger
Reserve, etc.
Some natural causes of deforestation
are forest fires and severe droughts.
Activity 7.1
Add more causes of deforestation to
your list and classify them into
natural and man-made.
7.2Consequences of
Deforestation
Paheli and Boojho recalled the
consequences of deforestation. They
remembered that deforestation increases
the temperature and pollution level on
the earth. It increases the level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere. Ground water
level also gets lowered. They know that
deforestation disturbs the balance in
nature. They were told by Prof. Ahmad
that if cutting of trees continues, rainfall
and the  fertility of the soil will decrease.
7.1 Deforestation and Its
Causes
A great variety of plants and animals
exists on earth. They are essential for
the wellbeing and survival of mankind.
Today, a major threat to survival of these
organisms is deforestation. We know
that deforestation means clearing of
forests and using that land for other
purposes. Trees in the forest are cut for
some of the purposes mentioned below:
 Procuring land for cultivation.
 Building houses and factories.
 Making furniture or using wood as
fuel.
How does deforestation reduce
rainfall on the one hand and
lead to floods on the other?
Moreover, there will be increased
chances of natural calamities such as
floods and droughts.
Recall that plants need carbon
dioxide for photosynthesis. Fewer trees
would mean that less carbon dioxide will
be used up resulting in its increased
What is the purpose of
making national parks,
wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves?
SCIENCE 78
amount in the atmosphere. This will lead
to global warming as carbon dioxide
traps the heat rays reflected by the earth.
The increase in temperature on the earth
disturbs the water cycle and may reduce
rainfall. This could cause droughts.
Deforestation is a major cause which
leads to the change in soil properties.
Physical properties of the soil get affected
by plantation and vegetation. Recall
from Class VII how trees prevent soil
erosion. Fewer trees result in more soil
erosion. Removal of the top layer of the
soil exposes the lower, hard and rocky
layers. This soil has less humus and is
less fertile. Gradually the fertile land
gets converted into deserts. It is called
desertification.
Deforestation also leads to a decrease
in the water holding capacity of the soil.
The movement of water from the soil
surface into the ground (infiltration rate)
is reduced. So, there are floods. The
other properties of the soil like nutrient
content, texture, etc., also change
because of deforestation.
We have studied in Class VII that we
get many products from forests. List these
products. Will we face the shortage of these
products if we continue cutting trees?
Activity 7.2
Animal life is also affected by
deforestation. How? List the points
and discuss them in your class.
7.3 Conservation of Forest
and Wildlife
Having become aware of the effects of
deforestation, Paheli and Boojho are
worried. They go to Prof. Ahmad and ask
him how forests and wildlife can be saved.
Prof. Ahmad organises a visit to a
biosphere reserve for Paheli, Boojho and
their classmates. He selects a place
named Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. He
knows that the plants and animals found
here are similar to those of the upper
Himalayan peaks and to those belonging
to the lower western ghats. Prof. Ahmad
believes that the biodiversity found here
is unique. He requests Madhavji, a forest
employee, to guide the children inside
the biosphere reserve. He explains that
preserving areas of such biological
importance make them a part of our
national heritage.
Biosphere is that part of the earth in
which living organisms exist or which
supports life. Biological diversity or
biodiversity, refers  to the variety of
organisms existing on the earth, their
interrelationships and their
relationship with the environment.
Madhavji explains to the children
that apart from our personal efforts and
efforts of the society, government
agencies also take care of the forests and
animals. The government lays down
rules, methods and policies to protect
and conserve them. Wildlife sanctuaries,
national parks, biosphere reserves, etc.,
are protected areas for conservation of
plants and animals present in that area.
To protect our flora and fauna and
their habitats, protected areas
called sanctuaries, national parks and
biosphere reserves have been
earmarked. Plantation, cultivation,
grazing, felling trees, hunting and
poaching are prohibited there.
Sanctuary :  Areas where animals are
protected from any disturbance to
them and their habitat.
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 79
Activity 7.3
Find out the number of national
parks, wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves in your district,
state and country. Record in  Table
7.1. Show these areas in an outline
map of your state and India.
Fig. 7.1 : Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve
7.4Biosphere Reserve
Children along with Prof. Ahmad and
Madhavji enter the biosphere reserve
area. Madhavji explains that biosphere
reserves are the areas meant for
conservation of biodiversity. As you are
aware that biodiversity is the variety of
plants, animals and microorganisms
generally found in an area.  The
biosphere reserves  help to maintain the
biodiversity and culture of that area. A
biosphere reserve may also contain
other protected areas in it. The
Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve consists
of one national park named Satpura and
two wildlife sanctuaries named Bori and
Pachmarhi (Fig. 7.1).
Table 7.1 : Protected areas for conservation.
Protected Areas — National Park Wildlife Sanctuary Biosphere Reserve
In my district
In my state
In my country
PACHMARHI SANCTUARY
TO PIPARIYA
TAWA
RESERVIOR
CHURNA
BORI SANCTUARY
DHAIN
BORI
SATPURA NATIONAL PARK
NEEMGHAN
PANARPANI GATE
PACHMARHI
?
N
National Park : Areas reserved for
wild life where they can freely use
the habitats and natural resources.
Biosphere Reserve : Large areas of
protected land for conservation of wild
life, plant and animal resources and
traditional life of the tribals living in
the area.
SCIENCE 80
(d) (e) (f)
Fig.  7.2 : (a) Wild dog (b) Cheetal (c) Wolf (d) Leopard (e) Fern (f) Jamun
Activity  7.4
List the factors disturbing the
biodiversity of your area. Some of
these factors and human activities
may disturb the biodiversity
unknowingly. List these human
activities. How can these be checked?
Discuss in your class and write a
brief report in your notebook.
7.5  Flora and Fauna
As the children walk around the
biosphere reserve they appreciate the
green wealth of the forest. They are very
happy to see tall teak trees and animals
inside the forest. Suddenly, Paheli finds
a rabbit and wants to catch it. She
starts running after it. Prof. Ahmad
stops her. He explains that animals are
comfortable and happy in their own
habitat. We should not disturb them.
Madhavji explains that some animals
and plants typically belong to a
particular area. The plants and animals
found in a particular area are termed
flora and fauna of that area.
Sal, teak, mango, jamun, silver ferns,
arjun, etc are the flora and chinkara,
blue-bull, barking deer, cheetal,
leopard, wild dog, wolf, etc. are
examples of the fauna of the
Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve
(Fig. 7.2).
(a) (b) (c)
Page 5


CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
W
e saw in Class VII that
Paheli  and  Boojho  had visited
the forest along with Prof.
Ahmad and Tibu. They were eager to
share their experiences with their
classmates. Other children in the class
were also eager to share their experiences
as some of them had visited Bharatpur
Sanctuary. Some others had heard
about  Kaziranga National Park,
Lockchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Great
Nicobar Biosphere Reserve and Tiger
Reserve, etc.
Some natural causes of deforestation
are forest fires and severe droughts.
Activity 7.1
Add more causes of deforestation to
your list and classify them into
natural and man-made.
7.2Consequences of
Deforestation
Paheli and Boojho recalled the
consequences of deforestation. They
remembered that deforestation increases
the temperature and pollution level on
the earth. It increases the level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere. Ground water
level also gets lowered. They know that
deforestation disturbs the balance in
nature. They were told by Prof. Ahmad
that if cutting of trees continues, rainfall
and the  fertility of the soil will decrease.
7.1 Deforestation and Its
Causes
A great variety of plants and animals
exists on earth. They are essential for
the wellbeing and survival of mankind.
Today, a major threat to survival of these
organisms is deforestation. We know
that deforestation means clearing of
forests and using that land for other
purposes. Trees in the forest are cut for
some of the purposes mentioned below:
 Procuring land for cultivation.
 Building houses and factories.
 Making furniture or using wood as
fuel.
How does deforestation reduce
rainfall on the one hand and
lead to floods on the other?
Moreover, there will be increased
chances of natural calamities such as
floods and droughts.
Recall that plants need carbon
dioxide for photosynthesis. Fewer trees
would mean that less carbon dioxide will
be used up resulting in its increased
What is the purpose of
making national parks,
wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves?
SCIENCE 78
amount in the atmosphere. This will lead
to global warming as carbon dioxide
traps the heat rays reflected by the earth.
The increase in temperature on the earth
disturbs the water cycle and may reduce
rainfall. This could cause droughts.
Deforestation is a major cause which
leads to the change in soil properties.
Physical properties of the soil get affected
by plantation and vegetation. Recall
from Class VII how trees prevent soil
erosion. Fewer trees result in more soil
erosion. Removal of the top layer of the
soil exposes the lower, hard and rocky
layers. This soil has less humus and is
less fertile. Gradually the fertile land
gets converted into deserts. It is called
desertification.
Deforestation also leads to a decrease
in the water holding capacity of the soil.
The movement of water from the soil
surface into the ground (infiltration rate)
is reduced. So, there are floods. The
other properties of the soil like nutrient
content, texture, etc., also change
because of deforestation.
We have studied in Class VII that we
get many products from forests. List these
products. Will we face the shortage of these
products if we continue cutting trees?
Activity 7.2
Animal life is also affected by
deforestation. How? List the points
and discuss them in your class.
7.3 Conservation of Forest
and Wildlife
Having become aware of the effects of
deforestation, Paheli and Boojho are
worried. They go to Prof. Ahmad and ask
him how forests and wildlife can be saved.
Prof. Ahmad organises a visit to a
biosphere reserve for Paheli, Boojho and
their classmates. He selects a place
named Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. He
knows that the plants and animals found
here are similar to those of the upper
Himalayan peaks and to those belonging
to the lower western ghats. Prof. Ahmad
believes that the biodiversity found here
is unique. He requests Madhavji, a forest
employee, to guide the children inside
the biosphere reserve. He explains that
preserving areas of such biological
importance make them a part of our
national heritage.
Biosphere is that part of the earth in
which living organisms exist or which
supports life. Biological diversity or
biodiversity, refers  to the variety of
organisms existing on the earth, their
interrelationships and their
relationship with the environment.
Madhavji explains to the children
that apart from our personal efforts and
efforts of the society, government
agencies also take care of the forests and
animals. The government lays down
rules, methods and policies to protect
and conserve them. Wildlife sanctuaries,
national parks, biosphere reserves, etc.,
are protected areas for conservation of
plants and animals present in that area.
To protect our flora and fauna and
their habitats, protected areas
called sanctuaries, national parks and
biosphere reserves have been
earmarked. Plantation, cultivation,
grazing, felling trees, hunting and
poaching are prohibited there.
Sanctuary :  Areas where animals are
protected from any disturbance to
them and their habitat.
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 79
Activity 7.3
Find out the number of national
parks, wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves in your district,
state and country. Record in  Table
7.1. Show these areas in an outline
map of your state and India.
Fig. 7.1 : Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve
7.4Biosphere Reserve
Children along with Prof. Ahmad and
Madhavji enter the biosphere reserve
area. Madhavji explains that biosphere
reserves are the areas meant for
conservation of biodiversity. As you are
aware that biodiversity is the variety of
plants, animals and microorganisms
generally found in an area.  The
biosphere reserves  help to maintain the
biodiversity and culture of that area. A
biosphere reserve may also contain
other protected areas in it. The
Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve consists
of one national park named Satpura and
two wildlife sanctuaries named Bori and
Pachmarhi (Fig. 7.1).
Table 7.1 : Protected areas for conservation.
Protected Areas — National Park Wildlife Sanctuary Biosphere Reserve
In my district
In my state
In my country
PACHMARHI SANCTUARY
TO PIPARIYA
TAWA
RESERVIOR
CHURNA
BORI SANCTUARY
DHAIN
BORI
SATPURA NATIONAL PARK
NEEMGHAN
PANARPANI GATE
PACHMARHI
?
N
National Park : Areas reserved for
wild life where they can freely use
the habitats and natural resources.
Biosphere Reserve : Large areas of
protected land for conservation of wild
life, plant and animal resources and
traditional life of the tribals living in
the area.
SCIENCE 80
(d) (e) (f)
Fig.  7.2 : (a) Wild dog (b) Cheetal (c) Wolf (d) Leopard (e) Fern (f) Jamun
Activity  7.4
List the factors disturbing the
biodiversity of your area. Some of
these factors and human activities
may disturb the biodiversity
unknowingly. List these human
activities. How can these be checked?
Discuss in your class and write a
brief report in your notebook.
7.5  Flora and Fauna
As the children walk around the
biosphere reserve they appreciate the
green wealth of the forest. They are very
happy to see tall teak trees and animals
inside the forest. Suddenly, Paheli finds
a rabbit and wants to catch it. She
starts running after it. Prof. Ahmad
stops her. He explains that animals are
comfortable and happy in their own
habitat. We should not disturb them.
Madhavji explains that some animals
and plants typically belong to a
particular area. The plants and animals
found in a particular area are termed
flora and fauna of that area.
Sal, teak, mango, jamun, silver ferns,
arjun, etc are the flora and chinkara,
blue-bull, barking deer, cheetal,
leopard, wild dog, wolf, etc. are
examples of the fauna of the
Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve
(Fig. 7.2).
(a) (b) (c)
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 81
I have heard that some of the
endemic species may vanish.
Is it true?
Activity 7.5
Try to identify the flora and fauna
of your area and list them.
7.6 Endemic Species
Soon the group quietly enters the deep
forest. Children are surprised to see a
very big squirrel. This squirrel has a big
fluffy tail. They are very curious to know
about it. Madhavji tells them that this
is known as the giant squirrel and is
endemic to this area.
Endemic species are those species
of plants and animals which are found
exclusively in a particular area. They are
not naturally found anywhere else. A
particular type of animal or plant may
be endemic to a zone, a state or a country.
Madhavji shows sal  and wild mango
(Fig. 7.3 (a)] as two  examples of the
Fig. 7.3 : (a) Wild Mango
Fig. 7.3 : (b) Giant squirrel
endemic flora of the Pachmarhi
Biosphere Reserve. Bison, Indian giant
squirrel [Fig. 7.3 (b)] and flying squirrel
are endemic fauna of this area. Prof.
Ahmad explains that the destruction of
their habitat,  increasing population and
introduction of new species may affect
the natural habitat of endemic species
and endanger their existence.
Species is a group of populations
which are capable of interbreeding.
This means that the members of a
species can reproduce fertile offspring
only with the members of their own
species and not with members of
other species. Members of a species
have common characteristics.
Activity 7.6
Find out the endemic plants and
animals of the region where you live.
Read More
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