NCERT Textbook - रजिया सज्जाद ज़हीर Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 12

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - रजिया सज्जाद ज़हीर Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj
tUe % 15 I
+
kQjojh] lu~ 1917] vtesj (jktLFkku)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % ”knZ xqykc (mnwZ dgkuh laxzg)
lEeku % lksfo;r Hkwfe usg: iqjLdkj] mnwZ vdknseh]
mÙkj&izns'k] vf[ky Hkkjrh; ysf[kdk la?k vokMZ
fu/u % 18 fnlacj] lu~ 1979
gekjs n`<+ ladYi gh gekjh rkdr gSa]
gekjk fy[kuk gh gesa ¯”knk j[krk gSA
jf”k;k lTTkkn ”kghj ewyr% mnwZ dh dFkkdkj gSaA mUgksaus ch-,- rd dh f'k{kk ?kj ij
jgdj gh izkIr dhA fookg osQ ckn mUgksaus bykgkckn ls mnwZ esa ,e-,- dh ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ
dhA lu~ 1947 esa os v”kesj ls y[kumQ vkb± vkSj ogk¡ djker gqlSu xYlZ dkWyst esa i<+kus
yxhaA lu~ 1965 eas mudh fu;qfDr lksfo;r lwpuk foHkkx esa gqbZA
vkèkqfud mnZw dFkk&lkfgR; esa mudk egÙoiw.kZ LFkku gSA mUgksaus dgkuh vkSj miU;kl
nksuksa fy[ks gSaa] mnwZ esa cky&lkfgR; dh jpuk Hkh dh gSA ekSfyd ltZu osQ lkFk&lkFk mUgksaus
dbZ vU; Hkk"kkvksa ls mnwZ esa oqQN iqLrdksa osQ vuqokn Hkh fd, gSaA jf”k;k th dh Hkk"kk
lgt] ljy vkSj  eqgkojsnkj gSA mudh oqQN dgkfu;k¡ nsoukxjh esa Hkh fyI;karfjr gks pqdh
gSaA
jf”k;k lTTkkn ”kghj dh dgkfu;ksa esa lkekftd ln~Hkko] èkkfeZd lfg".kqrk vkSj
vkèkqfud lanHkks± esa cnyrs gq, ikfjokfjd ewY;ksa dks mHkkjus dk liQy iz;kl feyrk gSA
lkekftd ;FkkFkZ vkSj ekuoh; xq.kksa dk lgt lkeatL; mudh dgkfu;ksa dh fo'ks"krk gSA
16
+++++ +++++
Page 2


jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj
tUe % 15 I
+
kQjojh] lu~ 1917] vtesj (jktLFkku)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % ”knZ xqykc (mnwZ dgkuh laxzg)
lEeku % lksfo;r Hkwfe usg: iqjLdkj] mnwZ vdknseh]
mÙkj&izns'k] vf[ky Hkkjrh; ysf[kdk la?k vokMZ
fu/u % 18 fnlacj] lu~ 1979
gekjs n`<+ ladYi gh gekjh rkdr gSa]
gekjk fy[kuk gh gesa ¯”knk j[krk gSA
jf”k;k lTTkkn ”kghj ewyr% mnwZ dh dFkkdkj gSaA mUgksaus ch-,- rd dh f'k{kk ?kj ij
jgdj gh izkIr dhA fookg osQ ckn mUgksaus bykgkckn ls mnwZ esa ,e-,- dh ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ
dhA lu~ 1947 esa os v”kesj ls y[kumQ vkb± vkSj ogk¡ djker gqlSu xYlZ dkWyst esa i<+kus
yxhaA lu~ 1965 eas mudh fu;qfDr lksfo;r lwpuk foHkkx esa gqbZA
vkèkqfud mnZw dFkk&lkfgR; esa mudk egÙoiw.kZ LFkku gSA mUgksaus dgkuh vkSj miU;kl
nksuksa fy[ks gSaa] mnwZ esa cky&lkfgR; dh jpuk Hkh dh gSA ekSfyd ltZu osQ lkFk&lkFk mUgksaus
dbZ vU; Hkk"kkvksa ls mnwZ esa oqQN iqLrdksa osQ vuqokn Hkh fd, gSaA jf”k;k th dh Hkk"kk
lgt] ljy vkSj  eqgkojsnkj gSA mudh oqQN dgkfu;k¡ nsoukxjh esa Hkh fyI;karfjr gks pqdh
gSaA
jf”k;k lTTkkn ”kghj dh dgkfu;ksa esa lkekftd ln~Hkko] èkkfeZd lfg".kqrk vkSj
vkèkqfud lanHkks± esa cnyrs gq, ikfjokfjd ewY;ksa dks mHkkjus dk liQy iz;kl feyrk gSA
lkekftd ;FkkFkZ vkSj ekuoh; xq.kksa dk lgt lkeatL; mudh dgkfu;ksa dh fo'ks"krk gSA
16
+++++ +++++
jf”k;k lTTkkn ”kghj dh ued 'kh"kZd dgkuh Hkkjr&ikd foHkktu osQ ckn ljgn
osQ nksuksa rjI
+
kQ osQ foLFkkfir iquokZZflr tuksa osQ fnyksa dks VVksyrh ,d ekfeZd dgkuh gSA
fnyksa dks VVksyus dh bl dksf'k'k esa vius&ijk,] nsl&ijnsl dh dbZ izpfyr èkkj.kkvksa ij
loky [kM+s fd, x, gSaA foLFkkfir gksdj vkbZ fl[k chch vkt Hkh ykgkSj dks gh viuk
oru ekurh gSa vkSj lkSxkr osQ rkSj ij ogk¡ dk ued yk, tkus dh I
+
kQjekb'k djrh gSaA dLVe
vfèkdkjh ued ys tkus dh btk”kr nsrs gq, (ftls ys tkuk xSjdkuwuh gS) nsgyh dks viuk
oru crkrk gSA blh rjg Hkkjrh; dLVe vfèkdkjh lquhy nklxqIr dk dguk gS] ¶esjk
oru <kdk gSA jk"Vª&jkT;ksa dh u;h lhek&js[kk,¡ [khaph tk pqdh gSa vkSj e”kgch vkèkkj ij
yksx bu js[kkvksa osQ bèkj&mèkj viuh txgsa eqdjZj dj pqosQ gSa] blosQ ckotwn ”kehu ij
[khaph xbZ js[kk,¡ muosQ vareZu rd ugha igq¡p ikbZ gSaA (jktuhfrd ;FkkFkZ osQ Lrj ij muosQ
oru dh igpku cny pqdh gS] ¯drq ;g mudk gkfnZd ;FkkFkZ ugha cu ik;k gSA) ,d
vupkgh] vizhfrdj ckgjh ckè;rk us mUgsa vius&vius tUe&LFkkuksa ls foLFkkfir rks dj
fn;k gS] ij og muosQ fnykas ij dC”kk ugha dj ikbZ gSA ued tSlh NksVh&lh ph”k dk
lI
+
kQj igpku osQ bl gkfnZd igyw dks ijr&nj&ijr m?kkM+ nsrk gSA ;g gkfnZd igyw tc
rd ljgn osQ vkj&ikj thfor gS] rc rd ;g mEehn dh tk ldrh gS fd jktuhfrd
ljgnsa ,d fnu csekuh gks tk,¡xhA ykgkSj osQ dLVe vfèkdkjh dk ;g dFku cgqr lkjxfHkZr
gSµmudks ;g ued nsrs oDr esjh rjI
+
kQ ls dfg,xk fd ykgkSj vHkh rd mudk oru gS
vkSj nsgyh esjk] rks ckdh lc jÝ
+
rk&jÝ
+
rk Bhd gks tk,xkA
bls i<+rs gq, ,d loky gekjs eu esa ”k:j mB ldrk gSµD;k èkeZ&e”kgc osQ vkèkkj
ij u;h ljgnksa osQ vkj&ikj isaQd fn, x, yksxksa dh og ih<+h ftuosQ fnyksa esa viuh
tUe&LFkyh osQ izfr xgjk yxko gS] osQ [kRe gks tkus ij ¶jÝ
+
rk&jÝ
+
rk Bhd gks tkus¸ dh
mEehn Hkh [kRe gks tk,xh\ D;k u;h ih<+h osQ vkus ij Hkh ;g mEehn cuh jgsxh\
jft+;k lTTkkn t+ghj
129
Page 3


jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj
tUe % 15 I
+
kQjojh] lu~ 1917] vtesj (jktLFkku)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % ”knZ xqykc (mnwZ dgkuh laxzg)
lEeku % lksfo;r Hkwfe usg: iqjLdkj] mnwZ vdknseh]
mÙkj&izns'k] vf[ky Hkkjrh; ysf[kdk la?k vokMZ
fu/u % 18 fnlacj] lu~ 1979
gekjs n`<+ ladYi gh gekjh rkdr gSa]
gekjk fy[kuk gh gesa ¯”knk j[krk gSA
jf”k;k lTTkkn ”kghj ewyr% mnwZ dh dFkkdkj gSaA mUgksaus ch-,- rd dh f'k{kk ?kj ij
jgdj gh izkIr dhA fookg osQ ckn mUgksaus bykgkckn ls mnwZ esa ,e-,- dh ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ
dhA lu~ 1947 esa os v”kesj ls y[kumQ vkb± vkSj ogk¡ djker gqlSu xYlZ dkWyst esa i<+kus
yxhaA lu~ 1965 eas mudh fu;qfDr lksfo;r lwpuk foHkkx esa gqbZA
vkèkqfud mnZw dFkk&lkfgR; esa mudk egÙoiw.kZ LFkku gSA mUgksaus dgkuh vkSj miU;kl
nksuksa fy[ks gSaa] mnwZ esa cky&lkfgR; dh jpuk Hkh dh gSA ekSfyd ltZu osQ lkFk&lkFk mUgksaus
dbZ vU; Hkk"kkvksa ls mnwZ esa oqQN iqLrdksa osQ vuqokn Hkh fd, gSaA jf”k;k th dh Hkk"kk
lgt] ljy vkSj  eqgkojsnkj gSA mudh oqQN dgkfu;k¡ nsoukxjh esa Hkh fyI;karfjr gks pqdh
gSaA
jf”k;k lTTkkn ”kghj dh dgkfu;ksa esa lkekftd ln~Hkko] èkkfeZd lfg".kqrk vkSj
vkèkqfud lanHkks± esa cnyrs gq, ikfjokfjd ewY;ksa dks mHkkjus dk liQy iz;kl feyrk gSA
lkekftd ;FkkFkZ vkSj ekuoh; xq.kksa dk lgt lkeatL; mudh dgkfu;ksa dh fo'ks"krk gSA
16
+++++ +++++
jf”k;k lTTkkn ”kghj dh ued 'kh"kZd dgkuh Hkkjr&ikd foHkktu osQ ckn ljgn
osQ nksuksa rjI
+
kQ osQ foLFkkfir iquokZZflr tuksa osQ fnyksa dks VVksyrh ,d ekfeZd dgkuh gSA
fnyksa dks VVksyus dh bl dksf'k'k esa vius&ijk,] nsl&ijnsl dh dbZ izpfyr èkkj.kkvksa ij
loky [kM+s fd, x, gSaA foLFkkfir gksdj vkbZ fl[k chch vkt Hkh ykgkSj dks gh viuk
oru ekurh gSa vkSj lkSxkr osQ rkSj ij ogk¡ dk ued yk, tkus dh I
+
kQjekb'k djrh gSaA dLVe
vfèkdkjh ued ys tkus dh btk”kr nsrs gq, (ftls ys tkuk xSjdkuwuh gS) nsgyh dks viuk
oru crkrk gSA blh rjg Hkkjrh; dLVe vfèkdkjh lquhy nklxqIr dk dguk gS] ¶esjk
oru <kdk gSA jk"Vª&jkT;ksa dh u;h lhek&js[kk,¡ [khaph tk pqdh gSa vkSj e”kgch vkèkkj ij
yksx bu js[kkvksa osQ bèkj&mèkj viuh txgsa eqdjZj dj pqosQ gSa] blosQ ckotwn ”kehu ij
[khaph xbZ js[kk,¡ muosQ vareZu rd ugha igq¡p ikbZ gSaA (jktuhfrd ;FkkFkZ osQ Lrj ij muosQ
oru dh igpku cny pqdh gS] ¯drq ;g mudk gkfnZd ;FkkFkZ ugha cu ik;k gSA) ,d
vupkgh] vizhfrdj ckgjh ckè;rk us mUgsa vius&vius tUe&LFkkuksa ls foLFkkfir rks dj
fn;k gS] ij og muosQ fnykas ij dC”kk ugha dj ikbZ gSA ued tSlh NksVh&lh ph”k dk
lI
+
kQj igpku osQ bl gkfnZd igyw dks ijr&nj&ijr m?kkM+ nsrk gSA ;g gkfnZd igyw tc
rd ljgn osQ vkj&ikj thfor gS] rc rd ;g mEehn dh tk ldrh gS fd jktuhfrd
ljgnsa ,d fnu csekuh gks tk,¡xhA ykgkSj osQ dLVe vfèkdkjh dk ;g dFku cgqr lkjxfHkZr
gSµmudks ;g ued nsrs oDr esjh rjI
+
kQ ls dfg,xk fd ykgkSj vHkh rd mudk oru gS
vkSj nsgyh esjk] rks ckdh lc jÝ
+
rk&jÝ
+
rk Bhd gks tk,xkA
bls i<+rs gq, ,d loky gekjs eu esa ”k:j mB ldrk gSµD;k èkeZ&e”kgc osQ vkèkkj
ij u;h ljgnksa osQ vkj&ikj isaQd fn, x, yksxksa dh og ih<+h ftuosQ fnyksa esa viuh
tUe&LFkyh osQ izfr xgjk yxko gS] osQ [kRe gks tkus ij ¶jÝ
+
rk&jÝ
+
rk Bhd gks tkus¸ dh
mEehn Hkh [kRe gks tk,xh\ D;k u;h ih<+h osQ vkus ij Hkh ;g mEehn cuh jgsxh\
jft+;k lTTkkn t+ghj
129
vkjksg
130
ued ued ued ued ued
mu fl[k chch dks ns[kdj lfI
+
kQ;k gSjku jg xbZ Fkh] fdl
dnj og mldh ek¡ ls feyrh FkhA ogh Hkkjh Hkjde ftLe]
NksVh&NksVh pednkj vk¡[ksa] ftuesa usdh] eqgCcr vkSj jgefnyh
dh jks'kuh txexk;k djrh FkhA psgjk tSls dksbZ [kqyh gqbZ
fdrkcA oSlk gh lI
+
ksQn ckjhd eyey dk nqi^k tSlk
mldh vEek eqgjZe esa vks<+k djrh FkhA
tc lfI
+
kQ;k us dbZ ckj mudh rjI
+
kQ eqgCcr ls ns[kk
rks mUgksaus Hkh mlosQ ckjs esa ?kj dh cgw ls iwNkA mUgsa crk;k x;k fd ;s eqlyeku gSaA
dy gh lqcg ykgkSj tk jgh gSa vius Hkkb;ksa ls feyus] ftUgsa bUgksaus dbZ lky ls ugha
ns[kkA ykgkSj dk uke lqudj os mBdj lfI
+
kQ;k osQ ikl vk cSBha vkSj mls crkus yxha fd
mudk ykgkSj fdruk I;kjk 'kgj gSA ogk¡ osQ yksx oSQls [kwclwjr gksrs gSa] mEnk [kkus vkSj
uI
+
kQhl diM+ksa osQ 'kkSdhu] lSj&likVs osQ jfl;k] ¯”knkfnyh dh rLkohjA
dhrZu gksrk jgkA os vkfgLrk&vkfgLrk ckrsa djrh jghaA lfI
+
kQ;k us nks&,d ckj chp
esa iwNk Hkh]¶ekrk th] vkidks rks ;gk¡ vk, cgqr lky gks x, gksaxsA¸ ¶gk¡ csVh! tc
¯gnqLrku cuk Fkk rHkh vk, FksA oSls rks vc ;gk¡ Hkh gekjh dksBh cu xbZ gSA fc”kusl gS]
lc Bhd gh gS] ij ykgkSj cgqr ;kn vkrk gSA gekjk oru rks th ykgkSj gh gSA¸
fiQj iydksa ls oqQN flrkjs VwVdj nwfèk;k vk¡py esa lek tkrs gSaA ckr vkxs py
iM+rh] exj ?kwe&fiQjdj fiQj mlh txg ij vk tkrhµµ^lkMk ykgkSj*!
dhrZu dksbZ X;kjg cts [kRe gqvkA tc os izlkn gkFk esa fy, mBus yxha vkSj
lkfI
+
kQ;k osQ lyke osQ tokc esa nqvk,¡ nsrh gqbZ jQ[klr gksus yxha rc lfI
+
kQ;k us èkhes ls
iwNk] ¶vki ykgkSj ls dksbZ lkSxkr e¡xkuk pkgsa rks eq>s gqDe nhft,A¸
os njok”ks ls yxh [kM+h FkhaA fgpfdpkdj cgqr gh vkfgLrk ls cksyha] ¶vxj yk
ldks rks FkksM+k&lk ykgkSjh ued ykukA¸
ianzg fnu ;ksa xq”kjs fd irk gh ugha pykA fTke[kkuk dh 'kkesaa] nksLrksa dh eqgCcr]
Hkkb;ksa dh [kkfrjnkfj;k¡µmudk cl u pyrk Fkk fd fcNqM+h gqbZ ijnslh cfgu osQ fy,
D;k oqQN u dj nsa! nksLrksa] v”kh”kksa dh ;g gkyr fd dksbZ oqQN fy, vk jgk gS] dksbZ
Page 4


jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj
tUe % 15 I
+
kQjojh] lu~ 1917] vtesj (jktLFkku)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % ”knZ xqykc (mnwZ dgkuh laxzg)
lEeku % lksfo;r Hkwfe usg: iqjLdkj] mnwZ vdknseh]
mÙkj&izns'k] vf[ky Hkkjrh; ysf[kdk la?k vokMZ
fu/u % 18 fnlacj] lu~ 1979
gekjs n`<+ ladYi gh gekjh rkdr gSa]
gekjk fy[kuk gh gesa ¯”knk j[krk gSA
jf”k;k lTTkkn ”kghj ewyr% mnwZ dh dFkkdkj gSaA mUgksaus ch-,- rd dh f'k{kk ?kj ij
jgdj gh izkIr dhA fookg osQ ckn mUgksaus bykgkckn ls mnwZ esa ,e-,- dh ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ
dhA lu~ 1947 esa os v”kesj ls y[kumQ vkb± vkSj ogk¡ djker gqlSu xYlZ dkWyst esa i<+kus
yxhaA lu~ 1965 eas mudh fu;qfDr lksfo;r lwpuk foHkkx esa gqbZA
vkèkqfud mnZw dFkk&lkfgR; esa mudk egÙoiw.kZ LFkku gSA mUgksaus dgkuh vkSj miU;kl
nksuksa fy[ks gSaa] mnwZ esa cky&lkfgR; dh jpuk Hkh dh gSA ekSfyd ltZu osQ lkFk&lkFk mUgksaus
dbZ vU; Hkk"kkvksa ls mnwZ esa oqQN iqLrdksa osQ vuqokn Hkh fd, gSaA jf”k;k th dh Hkk"kk
lgt] ljy vkSj  eqgkojsnkj gSA mudh oqQN dgkfu;k¡ nsoukxjh esa Hkh fyI;karfjr gks pqdh
gSaA
jf”k;k lTTkkn ”kghj dh dgkfu;ksa esa lkekftd ln~Hkko] èkkfeZd lfg".kqrk vkSj
vkèkqfud lanHkks± esa cnyrs gq, ikfjokfjd ewY;ksa dks mHkkjus dk liQy iz;kl feyrk gSA
lkekftd ;FkkFkZ vkSj ekuoh; xq.kksa dk lgt lkeatL; mudh dgkfu;ksa dh fo'ks"krk gSA
16
+++++ +++++
jf”k;k lTTkkn ”kghj dh ued 'kh"kZd dgkuh Hkkjr&ikd foHkktu osQ ckn ljgn
osQ nksuksa rjI
+
kQ osQ foLFkkfir iquokZZflr tuksa osQ fnyksa dks VVksyrh ,d ekfeZd dgkuh gSA
fnyksa dks VVksyus dh bl dksf'k'k esa vius&ijk,] nsl&ijnsl dh dbZ izpfyr èkkj.kkvksa ij
loky [kM+s fd, x, gSaA foLFkkfir gksdj vkbZ fl[k chch vkt Hkh ykgkSj dks gh viuk
oru ekurh gSa vkSj lkSxkr osQ rkSj ij ogk¡ dk ued yk, tkus dh I
+
kQjekb'k djrh gSaA dLVe
vfèkdkjh ued ys tkus dh btk”kr nsrs gq, (ftls ys tkuk xSjdkuwuh gS) nsgyh dks viuk
oru crkrk gSA blh rjg Hkkjrh; dLVe vfèkdkjh lquhy nklxqIr dk dguk gS] ¶esjk
oru <kdk gSA jk"Vª&jkT;ksa dh u;h lhek&js[kk,¡ [khaph tk pqdh gSa vkSj e”kgch vkèkkj ij
yksx bu js[kkvksa osQ bèkj&mèkj viuh txgsa eqdjZj dj pqosQ gSa] blosQ ckotwn ”kehu ij
[khaph xbZ js[kk,¡ muosQ vareZu rd ugha igq¡p ikbZ gSaA (jktuhfrd ;FkkFkZ osQ Lrj ij muosQ
oru dh igpku cny pqdh gS] ¯drq ;g mudk gkfnZd ;FkkFkZ ugha cu ik;k gSA) ,d
vupkgh] vizhfrdj ckgjh ckè;rk us mUgsa vius&vius tUe&LFkkuksa ls foLFkkfir rks dj
fn;k gS] ij og muosQ fnykas ij dC”kk ugha dj ikbZ gSA ued tSlh NksVh&lh ph”k dk
lI
+
kQj igpku osQ bl gkfnZd igyw dks ijr&nj&ijr m?kkM+ nsrk gSA ;g gkfnZd igyw tc
rd ljgn osQ vkj&ikj thfor gS] rc rd ;g mEehn dh tk ldrh gS fd jktuhfrd
ljgnsa ,d fnu csekuh gks tk,¡xhA ykgkSj osQ dLVe vfèkdkjh dk ;g dFku cgqr lkjxfHkZr
gSµmudks ;g ued nsrs oDr esjh rjI
+
kQ ls dfg,xk fd ykgkSj vHkh rd mudk oru gS
vkSj nsgyh esjk] rks ckdh lc jÝ
+
rk&jÝ
+
rk Bhd gks tk,xkA
bls i<+rs gq, ,d loky gekjs eu esa ”k:j mB ldrk gSµD;k èkeZ&e”kgc osQ vkèkkj
ij u;h ljgnksa osQ vkj&ikj isaQd fn, x, yksxksa dh og ih<+h ftuosQ fnyksa esa viuh
tUe&LFkyh osQ izfr xgjk yxko gS] osQ [kRe gks tkus ij ¶jÝ
+
rk&jÝ
+
rk Bhd gks tkus¸ dh
mEehn Hkh [kRe gks tk,xh\ D;k u;h ih<+h osQ vkus ij Hkh ;g mEehn cuh jgsxh\
jft+;k lTTkkn t+ghj
129
vkjksg
130
ued ued ued ued ued
mu fl[k chch dks ns[kdj lfI
+
kQ;k gSjku jg xbZ Fkh] fdl
dnj og mldh ek¡ ls feyrh FkhA ogh Hkkjh Hkjde ftLe]
NksVh&NksVh pednkj vk¡[ksa] ftuesa usdh] eqgCcr vkSj jgefnyh
dh jks'kuh txexk;k djrh FkhA psgjk tSls dksbZ [kqyh gqbZ
fdrkcA oSlk gh lI
+
ksQn ckjhd eyey dk nqi^k tSlk
mldh vEek eqgjZe esa vks<+k djrh FkhA
tc lfI
+
kQ;k us dbZ ckj mudh rjI
+
kQ eqgCcr ls ns[kk
rks mUgksaus Hkh mlosQ ckjs esa ?kj dh cgw ls iwNkA mUgsa crk;k x;k fd ;s eqlyeku gSaA
dy gh lqcg ykgkSj tk jgh gSa vius Hkkb;ksa ls feyus] ftUgsa bUgksaus dbZ lky ls ugha
ns[kkA ykgkSj dk uke lqudj os mBdj lfI
+
kQ;k osQ ikl vk cSBha vkSj mls crkus yxha fd
mudk ykgkSj fdruk I;kjk 'kgj gSA ogk¡ osQ yksx oSQls [kwclwjr gksrs gSa] mEnk [kkus vkSj
uI
+
kQhl diM+ksa osQ 'kkSdhu] lSj&likVs osQ jfl;k] ¯”knkfnyh dh rLkohjA
dhrZu gksrk jgkA os vkfgLrk&vkfgLrk ckrsa djrh jghaA lfI
+
kQ;k us nks&,d ckj chp
esa iwNk Hkh]¶ekrk th] vkidks rks ;gk¡ vk, cgqr lky gks x, gksaxsA¸ ¶gk¡ csVh! tc
¯gnqLrku cuk Fkk rHkh vk, FksA oSls rks vc ;gk¡ Hkh gekjh dksBh cu xbZ gSA fc”kusl gS]
lc Bhd gh gS] ij ykgkSj cgqr ;kn vkrk gSA gekjk oru rks th ykgkSj gh gSA¸
fiQj iydksa ls oqQN flrkjs VwVdj nwfèk;k vk¡py esa lek tkrs gSaA ckr vkxs py
iM+rh] exj ?kwe&fiQjdj fiQj mlh txg ij vk tkrhµµ^lkMk ykgkSj*!
dhrZu dksbZ X;kjg cts [kRe gqvkA tc os izlkn gkFk esa fy, mBus yxha vkSj
lkfI
+
kQ;k osQ lyke osQ tokc esa nqvk,¡ nsrh gqbZ jQ[klr gksus yxha rc lfI
+
kQ;k us èkhes ls
iwNk] ¶vki ykgkSj ls dksbZ lkSxkr e¡xkuk pkgsa rks eq>s gqDe nhft,A¸
os njok”ks ls yxh [kM+h FkhaA fgpfdpkdj cgqr gh vkfgLrk ls cksyha] ¶vxj yk
ldks rks FkksM+k&lk ykgkSjh ued ykukA¸
ianzg fnu ;ksa xq”kjs fd irk gh ugha pykA fTke[kkuk dh 'kkesaa] nksLrksa dh eqgCcr]
Hkkb;ksa dh [kkfrjnkfj;k¡µmudk cl u pyrk Fkk fd fcNqM+h gqbZ ijnslh cfgu osQ fy,
D;k oqQN u dj nsa! nksLrksa] v”kh”kksa dh ;g gkyr fd dksbZ oqQN fy, vk jgk gS] dksbZ
ued
131
oqQNA dgk¡ j[ksa] oSQls iSd djsa] D;ksa dj ys tk,¡µ,d leL;k FkhA lcls cM+h leL;k Fkh
cknkeh dkx”k dh ,d iqfM+;k dh ftlesa dksbZ lsj Hkj ykgkSjh ued FkkA
lfI
+
kQ;k dk HkkbZ ,d cgqr cM+k iqfyl vI
+
kQlj FkkA mlus lkspk fd og Bhd jk;
ns losQxkA pqiosQ ls iwNus yxh] ¶D;ksa HkS;k] ued ys tk ldrs gSa\¸
og gSjku gksdj cksyk] ¶ued\ ued rks ugha ys tk ldrs] xSjdkuwuh gS vkSj--- vkSj
ued dk vki D;k djsaxh\ vki yksxksa osQ fgLls esa rks gels cgqr ”;knk ued vk;k gSA¸
og >q¡>yk xbZ] ¶eSa fgLls&c[kjs dh ckr ugha dj jgh gw¡] vk;k gksxkA eq>s rks ykgkSj
dk ued pkfg,] esjh ek¡ us ;gh e¡xok;k gSA¸
HkkbZ dh le> esa oqQN ugha vk;kA ek¡ dk D;ksa f”kØ Fkk] os rks c¡Vokjs ls igys gh
ej pqdh FkhaA
”kjk ujeh ls le>kus osQ vank”k esa cksyk] ¶nsf[k, ckth! vkidks dLVe ls xq”kjuk
gS vkSj vxj ,d Hkh ph”k ,slh&oSlh fudy vkbZ rks vkiosQ lkeku dh ¯pnh&¯pnh fc[ksj
nsaxs dLVeokysA dkuwu tks---¸
og fcxM+dj cksyha] ¶fudy vkus dk D;k eryc] eSa D;k pksjh ls ys tkmQ¡xh\
fNik osQ ys tkmQ¡xh\ eSa rks fn[kk osQ] trk osQ ys tkmQ¡xh\¸
¶HkbZ] ;g rks vki cgqr gh xyr ckr djsaxhA--- dkuwu---A¸
¶vjs] fiQj ogh dkuwu&dkuwu dgs tkrs gks! D;k lc dkuwu gqowQer osQ gh gksrs gSa]
oqQN eqgCcr] eqjkSor] vknfe;r] balkfu;r osQ ugha gksrs\ vkf[kj dLVeokys Hkh balku
gksrs gSa] dksbZ e'khu rks ugha gksrsA¸
¶gk¡] os e'khu rks ugha gksrs] ij eSa vkidks ;dhu fnykrk gw¡ os 'kk;j Hkh ugha gksrsA
mudks rks viuh M~;wVh djuh gksrh gSaA¸
¶vjs ckck] rks eSa dc dg jgh gw¡ fd og M~;wVh u djsaA ,d rksgI
+
kQk gS] og Hkh
pan iSlksa dk] 'kkSd ls ns[k ysa] dksbZ lksuk&pk¡nh ugha] Lexy dh gqbZ ph”k ugha] CySd
ekosZQV dk eky ughaA¸
¶vc vkils dkSu cgl djsA vki vnhc Bgjha vkSj lHkh vnhcksa dk fnekx
FkksM+k&lk rks ”k:j gh ?kwek gqvk gksrk gSA oSls eSa vkidks crk, nsrk gw¡ fd vki ys ugha
tk ik,¡xh vkSj cnukeh eqÝ
+
 r esa ge lcdh Hkh gksxhA vkf[kj vki dLVeokyksa dks fdruk
tkurh gSaa\¸
mlus xqLls ls tokc fn;k] ¶dLVeokyksa dks tkusa ;k u tkusa] ij ge balkuksa dks
FkksM+k&lk ”k:j tkurs gSaA vkSj jgh fnekx dh ckr lks vxj lHkh yksxksa dk fnekx ge
vnhcksa dh rjg ?kwek gqvk gksrk rks ;g nqfu;k oqQN csgrj gh txg gks tkrh] HkS;kA¸
Page 5


jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj jft;k lTTkkn tghj
tUe % 15 I
+
kQjojh] lu~ 1917] vtesj (jktLFkku)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % ”knZ xqykc (mnwZ dgkuh laxzg)
lEeku % lksfo;r Hkwfe usg: iqjLdkj] mnwZ vdknseh]
mÙkj&izns'k] vf[ky Hkkjrh; ysf[kdk la?k vokMZ
fu/u % 18 fnlacj] lu~ 1979
gekjs n`<+ ladYi gh gekjh rkdr gSa]
gekjk fy[kuk gh gesa ¯”knk j[krk gSA
jf”k;k lTTkkn ”kghj ewyr% mnwZ dh dFkkdkj gSaA mUgksaus ch-,- rd dh f'k{kk ?kj ij
jgdj gh izkIr dhA fookg osQ ckn mUgksaus bykgkckn ls mnwZ esa ,e-,- dh ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ
dhA lu~ 1947 esa os v”kesj ls y[kumQ vkb± vkSj ogk¡ djker gqlSu xYlZ dkWyst esa i<+kus
yxhaA lu~ 1965 eas mudh fu;qfDr lksfo;r lwpuk foHkkx esa gqbZA
vkèkqfud mnZw dFkk&lkfgR; esa mudk egÙoiw.kZ LFkku gSA mUgksaus dgkuh vkSj miU;kl
nksuksa fy[ks gSaa] mnwZ esa cky&lkfgR; dh jpuk Hkh dh gSA ekSfyd ltZu osQ lkFk&lkFk mUgksaus
dbZ vU; Hkk"kkvksa ls mnwZ esa oqQN iqLrdksa osQ vuqokn Hkh fd, gSaA jf”k;k th dh Hkk"kk
lgt] ljy vkSj  eqgkojsnkj gSA mudh oqQN dgkfu;k¡ nsoukxjh esa Hkh fyI;karfjr gks pqdh
gSaA
jf”k;k lTTkkn ”kghj dh dgkfu;ksa esa lkekftd ln~Hkko] èkkfeZd lfg".kqrk vkSj
vkèkqfud lanHkks± esa cnyrs gq, ikfjokfjd ewY;ksa dks mHkkjus dk liQy iz;kl feyrk gSA
lkekftd ;FkkFkZ vkSj ekuoh; xq.kksa dk lgt lkeatL; mudh dgkfu;ksa dh fo'ks"krk gSA
16
+++++ +++++
jf”k;k lTTkkn ”kghj dh ued 'kh"kZd dgkuh Hkkjr&ikd foHkktu osQ ckn ljgn
osQ nksuksa rjI
+
kQ osQ foLFkkfir iquokZZflr tuksa osQ fnyksa dks VVksyrh ,d ekfeZd dgkuh gSA
fnyksa dks VVksyus dh bl dksf'k'k esa vius&ijk,] nsl&ijnsl dh dbZ izpfyr èkkj.kkvksa ij
loky [kM+s fd, x, gSaA foLFkkfir gksdj vkbZ fl[k chch vkt Hkh ykgkSj dks gh viuk
oru ekurh gSa vkSj lkSxkr osQ rkSj ij ogk¡ dk ued yk, tkus dh I
+
kQjekb'k djrh gSaA dLVe
vfèkdkjh ued ys tkus dh btk”kr nsrs gq, (ftls ys tkuk xSjdkuwuh gS) nsgyh dks viuk
oru crkrk gSA blh rjg Hkkjrh; dLVe vfèkdkjh lquhy nklxqIr dk dguk gS] ¶esjk
oru <kdk gSA jk"Vª&jkT;ksa dh u;h lhek&js[kk,¡ [khaph tk pqdh gSa vkSj e”kgch vkèkkj ij
yksx bu js[kkvksa osQ bèkj&mèkj viuh txgsa eqdjZj dj pqosQ gSa] blosQ ckotwn ”kehu ij
[khaph xbZ js[kk,¡ muosQ vareZu rd ugha igq¡p ikbZ gSaA (jktuhfrd ;FkkFkZ osQ Lrj ij muosQ
oru dh igpku cny pqdh gS] ¯drq ;g mudk gkfnZd ;FkkFkZ ugha cu ik;k gSA) ,d
vupkgh] vizhfrdj ckgjh ckè;rk us mUgsa vius&vius tUe&LFkkuksa ls foLFkkfir rks dj
fn;k gS] ij og muosQ fnykas ij dC”kk ugha dj ikbZ gSA ued tSlh NksVh&lh ph”k dk
lI
+
kQj igpku osQ bl gkfnZd igyw dks ijr&nj&ijr m?kkM+ nsrk gSA ;g gkfnZd igyw tc
rd ljgn osQ vkj&ikj thfor gS] rc rd ;g mEehn dh tk ldrh gS fd jktuhfrd
ljgnsa ,d fnu csekuh gks tk,¡xhA ykgkSj osQ dLVe vfèkdkjh dk ;g dFku cgqr lkjxfHkZr
gSµmudks ;g ued nsrs oDr esjh rjI
+
kQ ls dfg,xk fd ykgkSj vHkh rd mudk oru gS
vkSj nsgyh esjk] rks ckdh lc jÝ
+
rk&jÝ
+
rk Bhd gks tk,xkA
bls i<+rs gq, ,d loky gekjs eu esa ”k:j mB ldrk gSµD;k èkeZ&e”kgc osQ vkèkkj
ij u;h ljgnksa osQ vkj&ikj isaQd fn, x, yksxksa dh og ih<+h ftuosQ fnyksa esa viuh
tUe&LFkyh osQ izfr xgjk yxko gS] osQ [kRe gks tkus ij ¶jÝ
+
rk&jÝ
+
rk Bhd gks tkus¸ dh
mEehn Hkh [kRe gks tk,xh\ D;k u;h ih<+h osQ vkus ij Hkh ;g mEehn cuh jgsxh\
jft+;k lTTkkn t+ghj
129
vkjksg
130
ued ued ued ued ued
mu fl[k chch dks ns[kdj lfI
+
kQ;k gSjku jg xbZ Fkh] fdl
dnj og mldh ek¡ ls feyrh FkhA ogh Hkkjh Hkjde ftLe]
NksVh&NksVh pednkj vk¡[ksa] ftuesa usdh] eqgCcr vkSj jgefnyh
dh jks'kuh txexk;k djrh FkhA psgjk tSls dksbZ [kqyh gqbZ
fdrkcA oSlk gh lI
+
ksQn ckjhd eyey dk nqi^k tSlk
mldh vEek eqgjZe esa vks<+k djrh FkhA
tc lfI
+
kQ;k us dbZ ckj mudh rjI
+
kQ eqgCcr ls ns[kk
rks mUgksaus Hkh mlosQ ckjs esa ?kj dh cgw ls iwNkA mUgsa crk;k x;k fd ;s eqlyeku gSaA
dy gh lqcg ykgkSj tk jgh gSa vius Hkkb;ksa ls feyus] ftUgsa bUgksaus dbZ lky ls ugha
ns[kkA ykgkSj dk uke lqudj os mBdj lfI
+
kQ;k osQ ikl vk cSBha vkSj mls crkus yxha fd
mudk ykgkSj fdruk I;kjk 'kgj gSA ogk¡ osQ yksx oSQls [kwclwjr gksrs gSa] mEnk [kkus vkSj
uI
+
kQhl diM+ksa osQ 'kkSdhu] lSj&likVs osQ jfl;k] ¯”knkfnyh dh rLkohjA
dhrZu gksrk jgkA os vkfgLrk&vkfgLrk ckrsa djrh jghaA lfI
+
kQ;k us nks&,d ckj chp
esa iwNk Hkh]¶ekrk th] vkidks rks ;gk¡ vk, cgqr lky gks x, gksaxsA¸ ¶gk¡ csVh! tc
¯gnqLrku cuk Fkk rHkh vk, FksA oSls rks vc ;gk¡ Hkh gekjh dksBh cu xbZ gSA fc”kusl gS]
lc Bhd gh gS] ij ykgkSj cgqr ;kn vkrk gSA gekjk oru rks th ykgkSj gh gSA¸
fiQj iydksa ls oqQN flrkjs VwVdj nwfèk;k vk¡py esa lek tkrs gSaA ckr vkxs py
iM+rh] exj ?kwe&fiQjdj fiQj mlh txg ij vk tkrhµµ^lkMk ykgkSj*!
dhrZu dksbZ X;kjg cts [kRe gqvkA tc os izlkn gkFk esa fy, mBus yxha vkSj
lkfI
+
kQ;k osQ lyke osQ tokc esa nqvk,¡ nsrh gqbZ jQ[klr gksus yxha rc lfI
+
kQ;k us èkhes ls
iwNk] ¶vki ykgkSj ls dksbZ lkSxkr e¡xkuk pkgsa rks eq>s gqDe nhft,A¸
os njok”ks ls yxh [kM+h FkhaA fgpfdpkdj cgqr gh vkfgLrk ls cksyha] ¶vxj yk
ldks rks FkksM+k&lk ykgkSjh ued ykukA¸
ianzg fnu ;ksa xq”kjs fd irk gh ugha pykA fTke[kkuk dh 'kkesaa] nksLrksa dh eqgCcr]
Hkkb;ksa dh [kkfrjnkfj;k¡µmudk cl u pyrk Fkk fd fcNqM+h gqbZ ijnslh cfgu osQ fy,
D;k oqQN u dj nsa! nksLrksa] v”kh”kksa dh ;g gkyr fd dksbZ oqQN fy, vk jgk gS] dksbZ
ued
131
oqQNA dgk¡ j[ksa] oSQls iSd djsa] D;ksa dj ys tk,¡µ,d leL;k FkhA lcls cM+h leL;k Fkh
cknkeh dkx”k dh ,d iqfM+;k dh ftlesa dksbZ lsj Hkj ykgkSjh ued FkkA
lfI
+
kQ;k dk HkkbZ ,d cgqr cM+k iqfyl vI
+
kQlj FkkA mlus lkspk fd og Bhd jk;
ns losQxkA pqiosQ ls iwNus yxh] ¶D;ksa HkS;k] ued ys tk ldrs gSa\¸
og gSjku gksdj cksyk] ¶ued\ ued rks ugha ys tk ldrs] xSjdkuwuh gS vkSj--- vkSj
ued dk vki D;k djsaxh\ vki yksxksa osQ fgLls esa rks gels cgqr ”;knk ued vk;k gSA¸
og >q¡>yk xbZ] ¶eSa fgLls&c[kjs dh ckr ugha dj jgh gw¡] vk;k gksxkA eq>s rks ykgkSj
dk ued pkfg,] esjh ek¡ us ;gh e¡xok;k gSA¸
HkkbZ dh le> esa oqQN ugha vk;kA ek¡ dk D;ksa f”kØ Fkk] os rks c¡Vokjs ls igys gh
ej pqdh FkhaA
”kjk ujeh ls le>kus osQ vank”k esa cksyk] ¶nsf[k, ckth! vkidks dLVe ls xq”kjuk
gS vkSj vxj ,d Hkh ph”k ,slh&oSlh fudy vkbZ rks vkiosQ lkeku dh ¯pnh&¯pnh fc[ksj
nsaxs dLVeokysA dkuwu tks---¸
og fcxM+dj cksyha] ¶fudy vkus dk D;k eryc] eSa D;k pksjh ls ys tkmQ¡xh\
fNik osQ ys tkmQ¡xh\ eSa rks fn[kk osQ] trk osQ ys tkmQ¡xh\¸
¶HkbZ] ;g rks vki cgqr gh xyr ckr djsaxhA--- dkuwu---A¸
¶vjs] fiQj ogh dkuwu&dkuwu dgs tkrs gks! D;k lc dkuwu gqowQer osQ gh gksrs gSa]
oqQN eqgCcr] eqjkSor] vknfe;r] balkfu;r osQ ugha gksrs\ vkf[kj dLVeokys Hkh balku
gksrs gSa] dksbZ e'khu rks ugha gksrsA¸
¶gk¡] os e'khu rks ugha gksrs] ij eSa vkidks ;dhu fnykrk gw¡ os 'kk;j Hkh ugha gksrsA
mudks rks viuh M~;wVh djuh gksrh gSaA¸
¶vjs ckck] rks eSa dc dg jgh gw¡ fd og M~;wVh u djsaA ,d rksgI
+
kQk gS] og Hkh
pan iSlksa dk] 'kkSd ls ns[k ysa] dksbZ lksuk&pk¡nh ugha] Lexy dh gqbZ ph”k ugha] CySd
ekosZQV dk eky ughaA¸
¶vc vkils dkSu cgl djsA vki vnhc Bgjha vkSj lHkh vnhcksa dk fnekx
FkksM+k&lk rks ”k:j gh ?kwek gqvk gksrk gSA oSls eSa vkidks crk, nsrk gw¡ fd vki ys ugha
tk ik,¡xh vkSj cnukeh eqÝ
+
 r esa ge lcdh Hkh gksxhA vkf[kj vki dLVeokyksa dks fdruk
tkurh gSaa\¸
mlus xqLls ls tokc fn;k] ¶dLVeokyksa dks tkusa ;k u tkusa] ij ge balkuksa dks
FkksM+k&lk ”k:j tkurs gSaA vkSj jgh fnekx dh ckr lks vxj lHkh yksxksa dk fnekx ge
vnhcksa dh rjg ?kwek gqvk gksrk rks ;g nqfu;k oqQN csgrj gh txg gks tkrh] HkS;kA¸
vkjksg
132
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