NCERT Textbook - Silver Wedding Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 12

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Silver Wedding Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


tc lsD'ku vkfI
+
kQlj okbZ-Mh- (;'kksèkj)
iar us vkf[kjh I
+
kQkby dk yky iQhrk ck¡èkdj fuxkg es”k ls mBkbZ rc nÝ
+
rj dh iqjkuh
nhokj ?kM+h ik¡p ctdj iPphl feuV ctk jgh FkhA mudh viuh dykbZ ?kM+h esa lk<+s
ik¡p ct jgs FksA iarth viuh ?kM+h jks”kkuk lqcg&'kke jsfM;ks lekpkjksa ls feykrs gSa blfy,
mUgksaus nÝ
+
rj dh ?kM+h dks gh lqLr Bgjk;kA I
+
kQkby vkmV Vªs esa Mkydj mUgksaus ,d fuxkg
vius ekrgrksa ij Mkyh tks
muosQ gh dkj.k ik¡p cts osQ
ckn Hkh nÝ
+
rj esa cSBus dks
etcwj gksrs gSaA pyrs&pyrs
twfu;jksa ls dksbZ euksjatd ckr
dj fnu Hkj osQ 'kq"d O;ogkj
dk fujkdj.k dj tkus dh
Ñ".kkuan (fd'kunk) ikaMs ls
feyh gqbZ ijaijk dk ikyu
djrs gq, mUgksaus dgk] ¶vki
yksxksa dh ns[kkns[kh lsD'ku dh
?kM+h Hkh lqLr gks xbZ gS!¸
flYoj oSfMax
euksgj ';ke tks'kh
1
Page 2


tc lsD'ku vkfI
+
kQlj okbZ-Mh- (;'kksèkj)
iar us vkf[kjh I
+
kQkby dk yky iQhrk ck¡èkdj fuxkg es”k ls mBkbZ rc nÝ
+
rj dh iqjkuh
nhokj ?kM+h ik¡p ctdj iPphl feuV ctk jgh FkhA mudh viuh dykbZ ?kM+h esa lk<+s
ik¡p ct jgs FksA iarth viuh ?kM+h jks”kkuk lqcg&'kke jsfM;ks lekpkjksa ls feykrs gSa blfy,
mUgksaus nÝ
+
rj dh ?kM+h dks gh lqLr Bgjk;kA I
+
kQkby vkmV Vªs esa Mkydj mUgksaus ,d fuxkg
vius ekrgrksa ij Mkyh tks
muosQ gh dkj.k ik¡p cts osQ
ckn Hkh nÝ
+
rj esa cSBus dks
etcwj gksrs gSaA pyrs&pyrs
twfu;jksa ls dksbZ euksjatd ckr
dj fnu Hkj osQ 'kq"d O;ogkj
dk fujkdj.k dj tkus dh
Ñ".kkuan (fd'kunk) ikaMs ls
feyh gqbZ ijaijk dk ikyu
djrs gq, mUgksaus dgk] ¶vki
yksxksa dh ns[kkns[kh lsD'ku dh
?kM+h Hkh lqLr gks xbZ gS!¸
flYoj oSfMax
euksgj ';ke tks'kh
1
forku
2
lhèks ^vflLVsaV xzsM* esa vk, u, Nksdjs pbk us] ftldh pkSM+h eksgjhokyh irywu vkSj
m¡Qph ,M+h okys twrs iarth dks] ^le gkm baçkij* ekywe gksrs gSa] FkksM+h cnreh”kh&lh dhA
^,st ;wtqvy* cksyk] ¶cM+s ckÅ] vkidh viuh pwusnkuh dk D;k gky gS\ oDr lgh
nsrh gS\¸
iarth us pbk dh èk`"Vrk dks vuns[kk fd;k vkSj dgk] ¶fefuV&Vw&fefuV djsDV pyrh gSA¸
pbk us oqQN vkSj èk`"V gksdj iarth dh dykbZ Fkke yhA bl rjg dh èk`"Vrk dk çdV
fojksèk djuk ;'kksèkj ckcw us NksM+ fn;k gSA eu&gh&eu og ml ”kekus dh ;kn ”k:j djrs
gSa tc nÝ+rj esa og fd'kunk dks HkkbZ ugha ^lkgc* dgrs vkSj le>rs FksA ?kM+h dh vksj
ns[kdj og cksyk] ¶ckck vkne osQ ”kekus dh gS cM+s ckÅ ;g rks! vc rks fMftVy ys
yks ,d tkikuhA lLrh fey tkrh gSA¸
¶;g ?kM+h eq>s 'kknh esa feyh FkhA ge iqjkuh pky osQ] gekjh ?kM+h iqjkuh pky dhA vjs
;gh cgqr gS fd vc rd ^jkbZV VkbZe* py jgh gSµD;ksa oSQlh jgh\¸
bl rjg dk ugys ij ngyk tokc nsrs gq, ,d gkFk vkxs c<+k nsus dh ijaijk Fkh] jsEts
LowQy] vYeksM+k esa tgk¡ ls dHkh ;'kksèkj ckcw us eSfVªd dh ijh{kk ikl dh FkhA bl rjg
osQ vkxs c<+s gq, gkFk ij lquus okyk crkSj nkn viuk gkFk ekjk djrk Fkk vkSj oDrk&Jksrk
nksuksa BBkdj gkFk feyk;k djrs FksA ,slh gh ijaijk fd'kunk osQ DokVZj esa Hkh Fkh tgk¡
jks”kh&jksVh dh ryk'k esa vk, ;'kksèkj iar uked ,d eSfVªd ikl ckyd dks 'kj.k feyh
Fkh dHkhA fd'kunk oq¡Qvkjs Fks vkSj igkM+ ls vk, gq, fdrus gh yM+osQ Bhd&fBdkuk gksus
ls igys muosQ ;gk¡ jg tkrs FksA eSl tSlh FkhA feydj ykvks] idkvks] [kkvksA ;'kksèkj ckcw
ftl le; fnYyh vk, Fks mudh mez ljdkjh ukSdjh osQ fy, de FkhA dksf'k'k djus ij
Hkh ^ckW; lfoZl* esa og ugha yxk, tk losQA rc fd'kunk us mUgsa eSl dk jlksb;k cukdj
j[k fy;kA ;gh ugha] mUgksaus ;'kksèkj dks ipkl jQi;s mèkkj Hkh fn, fd og vius fy,
diM+s cuok losQ vkSj xk¡o iSlk Hkst losQA ckn esa bUgha fd'kunk us vius gh uhps ukSdjh
fnyokbZ vkSj nÝ+rjh thou esa ekxZ&n'kZu fd;kA
pbk us ”kksj ls dgk] ¶cM+s ckÅ] vki fdu [k;kyksa esa [kks x,\ esuu iwN jgk gS fd
vkidh 'kknh gqbZ dc Fkh\¸
;'kksèkj ckcw us ldidkdj viuk c<+k gqvk gkFk okil [khapk vkSj esuu ls eq[kkfrc
gksdj cksys] ¶uko ySV eh lh] vkbZ okW”k eSfjM vkWu flDLFk I
+
kQjojh ukbafVu I
+
kQksVhZ lsouA¸
Page 3


tc lsD'ku vkfI
+
kQlj okbZ-Mh- (;'kksèkj)
iar us vkf[kjh I
+
kQkby dk yky iQhrk ck¡èkdj fuxkg es”k ls mBkbZ rc nÝ
+
rj dh iqjkuh
nhokj ?kM+h ik¡p ctdj iPphl feuV ctk jgh FkhA mudh viuh dykbZ ?kM+h esa lk<+s
ik¡p ct jgs FksA iarth viuh ?kM+h jks”kkuk lqcg&'kke jsfM;ks lekpkjksa ls feykrs gSa blfy,
mUgksaus nÝ
+
rj dh ?kM+h dks gh lqLr Bgjk;kA I
+
kQkby vkmV Vªs esa Mkydj mUgksaus ,d fuxkg
vius ekrgrksa ij Mkyh tks
muosQ gh dkj.k ik¡p cts osQ
ckn Hkh nÝ
+
rj esa cSBus dks
etcwj gksrs gSaA pyrs&pyrs
twfu;jksa ls dksbZ euksjatd ckr
dj fnu Hkj osQ 'kq"d O;ogkj
dk fujkdj.k dj tkus dh
Ñ".kkuan (fd'kunk) ikaMs ls
feyh gqbZ ijaijk dk ikyu
djrs gq, mUgksaus dgk] ¶vki
yksxksa dh ns[kkns[kh lsD'ku dh
?kM+h Hkh lqLr gks xbZ gS!¸
flYoj oSfMax
euksgj ';ke tks'kh
1
forku
2
lhèks ^vflLVsaV xzsM* esa vk, u, Nksdjs pbk us] ftldh pkSM+h eksgjhokyh irywu vkSj
m¡Qph ,M+h okys twrs iarth dks] ^le gkm baçkij* ekywe gksrs gSa] FkksM+h cnreh”kh&lh dhA
^,st ;wtqvy* cksyk] ¶cM+s ckÅ] vkidh viuh pwusnkuh dk D;k gky gS\ oDr lgh
nsrh gS\¸
iarth us pbk dh èk`"Vrk dks vuns[kk fd;k vkSj dgk] ¶fefuV&Vw&fefuV djsDV pyrh gSA¸
pbk us oqQN vkSj èk`"V gksdj iarth dh dykbZ Fkke yhA bl rjg dh èk`"Vrk dk çdV
fojksèk djuk ;'kksèkj ckcw us NksM+ fn;k gSA eu&gh&eu og ml ”kekus dh ;kn ”k:j djrs
gSa tc nÝ+rj esa og fd'kunk dks HkkbZ ugha ^lkgc* dgrs vkSj le>rs FksA ?kM+h dh vksj
ns[kdj og cksyk] ¶ckck vkne osQ ”kekus dh gS cM+s ckÅ ;g rks! vc rks fMftVy ys
yks ,d tkikuhA lLrh fey tkrh gSA¸
¶;g ?kM+h eq>s 'kknh esa feyh FkhA ge iqjkuh pky osQ] gekjh ?kM+h iqjkuh pky dhA vjs
;gh cgqr gS fd vc rd ^jkbZV VkbZe* py jgh gSµD;ksa oSQlh jgh\¸
bl rjg dk ugys ij ngyk tokc nsrs gq, ,d gkFk vkxs c<+k nsus dh ijaijk Fkh] jsEts
LowQy] vYeksM+k esa tgk¡ ls dHkh ;'kksèkj ckcw us eSfVªd dh ijh{kk ikl dh FkhA bl rjg
osQ vkxs c<+s gq, gkFk ij lquus okyk crkSj nkn viuk gkFk ekjk djrk Fkk vkSj oDrk&Jksrk
nksuksa BBkdj gkFk feyk;k djrs FksA ,slh gh ijaijk fd'kunk osQ DokVZj esa Hkh Fkh tgk¡
jks”kh&jksVh dh ryk'k esa vk, ;'kksèkj iar uked ,d eSfVªd ikl ckyd dks 'kj.k feyh
Fkh dHkhA fd'kunk oq¡Qvkjs Fks vkSj igkM+ ls vk, gq, fdrus gh yM+osQ Bhd&fBdkuk gksus
ls igys muosQ ;gk¡ jg tkrs FksA eSl tSlh FkhA feydj ykvks] idkvks] [kkvksA ;'kksèkj ckcw
ftl le; fnYyh vk, Fks mudh mez ljdkjh ukSdjh osQ fy, de FkhA dksf'k'k djus ij
Hkh ^ckW; lfoZl* esa og ugha yxk, tk losQA rc fd'kunk us mUgsa eSl dk jlksb;k cukdj
j[k fy;kA ;gh ugha] mUgksaus ;'kksèkj dks ipkl jQi;s mèkkj Hkh fn, fd og vius fy,
diM+s cuok losQ vkSj xk¡o iSlk Hkst losQA ckn esa bUgha fd'kunk us vius gh uhps ukSdjh
fnyokbZ vkSj nÝ+rjh thou esa ekxZ&n'kZu fd;kA
pbk us ”kksj ls dgk] ¶cM+s ckÅ] vki fdu [k;kyksa esa [kks x,\ esuu iwN jgk gS fd
vkidh 'kknh gqbZ dc Fkh\¸
;'kksèkj ckcw us ldidkdj viuk c<+k gqvk gkFk okil [khapk vkSj esuu ls eq[kkfrc
gksdj cksys] ¶uko ySV eh lh] vkbZ okW”k eSfjM vkWu flDLFk I
+
kQjojh ukbafVu I
+
kQksVhZ lsouA¸
3
flYoj oSfMax
esuu us I
+
kQkSju fglkc yxk;k vkSj pgddj cksyk] ¶eSuh gSIih
fjVu~Zl vkI
+
kQ n Ms lj! vkt rks vkidk ^flYoj oS¯Mx* gSA 'kknh
dks iwjk iPphl lky gks x;kA¸
;'kksèkj th [kq'k gksrs gq, >sais vkSj >sairs gq, [kq'k gq,A ;g vnk
mUgkasus fd'kunk ls lh[kh FkhA
pbk us ?kaVh ctkdj pijklh dks cqyk;k vkSj dgk] ¶lqu HkbZ
Hkxokunkl] cM+s ckÅ ls cM+k uksV ys vkSj lkjs lsD'ku osQ fy,
pk&ikuh dk bar”kke dj iQVkiQVA¸
;'kksèkj th cksys] ¶vjs ;s ^oS¯Mx ,fuolZjh* oxSjg lc xksjs
lkgcksa osQ pksapys gSaµgekjs ;gk¡ FkksM+h ekurs gSaA¸
pbk cksyk] ¶feDpj er fiykb, xqjQnsoA pk;&e_h&ya
w
 cl bruk
gh rks lkSnk gSA buesa dkSu vkidh cM+h ek;k fudyh tkuh gSA¸
;'kksèkj ckcw us tsc ls cVqvk vkSj cVq, esa ls nl dk uksV
fudkyk vkSj dgk] ¶vki yksx pk; ihft,] ^nSV* rks ^vkbZ Mw
ukV ekbaM*] ysfdu tks gekjs yksxksa esa ^dLVe* ugha gS] ml ij
^buflLV* djuk] ^nSV* eSa ^legkm baçkWij I
+
kQkbaM* djrk gw¡A¸
pbk us nl dk uksV pijklh dks fn;k vkSj iqu% cM+s ckÅ osQ
vkxs gkFk IkSQyk fn;k fd ,d uksV ls lsD'ku dk D;k curk gS\
jQi;s rhl gksa rks pqXxs Hkj dk tqxkM+ djk losaQA
lkjk lsD'ku tkurk gS fd ;'kksèkj ckcw vius cVq, esa lkS&Ms<+
lkS jQi;s ges'kk j[krs gSa Hkys gh mudk nSfud [kpZ ux.; gSA
vkSj rks vkSj] cl&fVdV dk [kpZ Hkh ughaA xksy ekosZQV ls
^lsozsQfVª,V* rd igys lkbfdy esa vkrs&tkrs Fks] bèkj iSny
vkus&tkus yxs gSa D;ksafd muosQ cPps vkèkqfud ;qok gks pys gSa
vkSj mUgsa vius firk dk lkbfdy&lokj gksuk l[r ukxokj
xq”kjrk gSA cPpksa osQ vuqlkj lkbfdy rks pijklh pykrs gSaA cPps
pkgrs gSa fd firkth LowQVj ys ysaA ysfdu firkth dks ^legkm*
LowQVj fugk;r csgwnk lokjh ekywe gksrh gS vkSj dkj tc
^vI
+
kQksMZ* dh ugha tk ldrh rc mldh ckr lkspuk gh D;ksa\
Page 4


tc lsD'ku vkfI
+
kQlj okbZ-Mh- (;'kksèkj)
iar us vkf[kjh I
+
kQkby dk yky iQhrk ck¡èkdj fuxkg es”k ls mBkbZ rc nÝ
+
rj dh iqjkuh
nhokj ?kM+h ik¡p ctdj iPphl feuV ctk jgh FkhA mudh viuh dykbZ ?kM+h esa lk<+s
ik¡p ct jgs FksA iarth viuh ?kM+h jks”kkuk lqcg&'kke jsfM;ks lekpkjksa ls feykrs gSa blfy,
mUgksaus nÝ
+
rj dh ?kM+h dks gh lqLr Bgjk;kA I
+
kQkby vkmV Vªs esa Mkydj mUgksaus ,d fuxkg
vius ekrgrksa ij Mkyh tks
muosQ gh dkj.k ik¡p cts osQ
ckn Hkh nÝ
+
rj esa cSBus dks
etcwj gksrs gSaA pyrs&pyrs
twfu;jksa ls dksbZ euksjatd ckr
dj fnu Hkj osQ 'kq"d O;ogkj
dk fujkdj.k dj tkus dh
Ñ".kkuan (fd'kunk) ikaMs ls
feyh gqbZ ijaijk dk ikyu
djrs gq, mUgksaus dgk] ¶vki
yksxksa dh ns[kkns[kh lsD'ku dh
?kM+h Hkh lqLr gks xbZ gS!¸
flYoj oSfMax
euksgj ';ke tks'kh
1
forku
2
lhèks ^vflLVsaV xzsM* esa vk, u, Nksdjs pbk us] ftldh pkSM+h eksgjhokyh irywu vkSj
m¡Qph ,M+h okys twrs iarth dks] ^le gkm baçkij* ekywe gksrs gSa] FkksM+h cnreh”kh&lh dhA
^,st ;wtqvy* cksyk] ¶cM+s ckÅ] vkidh viuh pwusnkuh dk D;k gky gS\ oDr lgh
nsrh gS\¸
iarth us pbk dh èk`"Vrk dks vuns[kk fd;k vkSj dgk] ¶fefuV&Vw&fefuV djsDV pyrh gSA¸
pbk us oqQN vkSj èk`"V gksdj iarth dh dykbZ Fkke yhA bl rjg dh èk`"Vrk dk çdV
fojksèk djuk ;'kksèkj ckcw us NksM+ fn;k gSA eu&gh&eu og ml ”kekus dh ;kn ”k:j djrs
gSa tc nÝ+rj esa og fd'kunk dks HkkbZ ugha ^lkgc* dgrs vkSj le>rs FksA ?kM+h dh vksj
ns[kdj og cksyk] ¶ckck vkne osQ ”kekus dh gS cM+s ckÅ ;g rks! vc rks fMftVy ys
yks ,d tkikuhA lLrh fey tkrh gSA¸
¶;g ?kM+h eq>s 'kknh esa feyh FkhA ge iqjkuh pky osQ] gekjh ?kM+h iqjkuh pky dhA vjs
;gh cgqr gS fd vc rd ^jkbZV VkbZe* py jgh gSµD;ksa oSQlh jgh\¸
bl rjg dk ugys ij ngyk tokc nsrs gq, ,d gkFk vkxs c<+k nsus dh ijaijk Fkh] jsEts
LowQy] vYeksM+k esa tgk¡ ls dHkh ;'kksèkj ckcw us eSfVªd dh ijh{kk ikl dh FkhA bl rjg
osQ vkxs c<+s gq, gkFk ij lquus okyk crkSj nkn viuk gkFk ekjk djrk Fkk vkSj oDrk&Jksrk
nksuksa BBkdj gkFk feyk;k djrs FksA ,slh gh ijaijk fd'kunk osQ DokVZj esa Hkh Fkh tgk¡
jks”kh&jksVh dh ryk'k esa vk, ;'kksèkj iar uked ,d eSfVªd ikl ckyd dks 'kj.k feyh
Fkh dHkhA fd'kunk oq¡Qvkjs Fks vkSj igkM+ ls vk, gq, fdrus gh yM+osQ Bhd&fBdkuk gksus
ls igys muosQ ;gk¡ jg tkrs FksA eSl tSlh FkhA feydj ykvks] idkvks] [kkvksA ;'kksèkj ckcw
ftl le; fnYyh vk, Fks mudh mez ljdkjh ukSdjh osQ fy, de FkhA dksf'k'k djus ij
Hkh ^ckW; lfoZl* esa og ugha yxk, tk losQA rc fd'kunk us mUgsa eSl dk jlksb;k cukdj
j[k fy;kA ;gh ugha] mUgksaus ;'kksèkj dks ipkl jQi;s mèkkj Hkh fn, fd og vius fy,
diM+s cuok losQ vkSj xk¡o iSlk Hkst losQA ckn esa bUgha fd'kunk us vius gh uhps ukSdjh
fnyokbZ vkSj nÝ+rjh thou esa ekxZ&n'kZu fd;kA
pbk us ”kksj ls dgk] ¶cM+s ckÅ] vki fdu [k;kyksa esa [kks x,\ esuu iwN jgk gS fd
vkidh 'kknh gqbZ dc Fkh\¸
;'kksèkj ckcw us ldidkdj viuk c<+k gqvk gkFk okil [khapk vkSj esuu ls eq[kkfrc
gksdj cksys] ¶uko ySV eh lh] vkbZ okW”k eSfjM vkWu flDLFk I
+
kQjojh ukbafVu I
+
kQksVhZ lsouA¸
3
flYoj oSfMax
esuu us I
+
kQkSju fglkc yxk;k vkSj pgddj cksyk] ¶eSuh gSIih
fjVu~Zl vkI
+
kQ n Ms lj! vkt rks vkidk ^flYoj oS¯Mx* gSA 'kknh
dks iwjk iPphl lky gks x;kA¸
;'kksèkj th [kq'k gksrs gq, >sais vkSj >sairs gq, [kq'k gq,A ;g vnk
mUgkasus fd'kunk ls lh[kh FkhA
pbk us ?kaVh ctkdj pijklh dks cqyk;k vkSj dgk] ¶lqu HkbZ
Hkxokunkl] cM+s ckÅ ls cM+k uksV ys vkSj lkjs lsD'ku osQ fy,
pk&ikuh dk bar”kke dj iQVkiQVA¸
;'kksèkj th cksys] ¶vjs ;s ^oS¯Mx ,fuolZjh* oxSjg lc xksjs
lkgcksa osQ pksapys gSaµgekjs ;gk¡ FkksM+h ekurs gSaA¸
pbk cksyk] ¶feDpj er fiykb, xqjQnsoA pk;&e_h&ya
w
 cl bruk
gh rks lkSnk gSA buesa dkSu vkidh cM+h ek;k fudyh tkuh gSA¸
;'kksèkj ckcw us tsc ls cVqvk vkSj cVq, esa ls nl dk uksV
fudkyk vkSj dgk] ¶vki yksx pk; ihft,] ^nSV* rks ^vkbZ Mw
ukV ekbaM*] ysfdu tks gekjs yksxksa esa ^dLVe* ugha gS] ml ij
^buflLV* djuk] ^nSV* eSa ^legkm baçkWij I
+
kQkbaM* djrk gw¡A¸
pbk us nl dk uksV pijklh dks fn;k vkSj iqu% cM+s ckÅ osQ
vkxs gkFk IkSQyk fn;k fd ,d uksV ls lsD'ku dk D;k curk gS\
jQi;s rhl gksa rks pqXxs Hkj dk tqxkM+ djk losaQA
lkjk lsD'ku tkurk gS fd ;'kksèkj ckcw vius cVq, esa lkS&Ms<+
lkS jQi;s ges'kk j[krs gSa Hkys gh mudk nSfud [kpZ ux.; gSA
vkSj rks vkSj] cl&fVdV dk [kpZ Hkh ughaA xksy ekosZQV ls
^lsozsQfVª,V* rd igys lkbfdy esa vkrs&tkrs Fks] bèkj iSny
vkus&tkus yxs gSa D;ksafd muosQ cPps vkèkqfud ;qok gks pys gSa
vkSj mUgsa vius firk dk lkbfdy&lokj gksuk l[r ukxokj
xq”kjrk gSA cPpksa osQ vuqlkj lkbfdy rks pijklh pykrs gSaA cPps
pkgrs gSa fd firkth LowQVj ys ysaA ysfdu firkth dks ^legkm*
LowQVj fugk;r csgwnk lokjh ekywe gksrh gS vkSj dkj tc
^vI
+
kQksMZ* dh ugha tk ldrh rc mldh ckr lkspuk gh D;ksa\
forku
4
pbk osQ ”kksj nsus ij cM+s ckÅ us nl&nl osQ uksV nks vkSj ns fn, ysfdu lkjs lsD'ku osQ
bljkj djus ij Hkh og viuh ^flYoj oSfMax* dh bl nkor osQ fy, jQosQ ughaA ekrgr
yksxksa ls pyrs&pykrs FkksM+k g¡lh&e”kkd dj ysuk fd'kunk dh ijaijk esa gSA muosQ lkFk
cSBdj pk;&ikuh vkSj xIi&xIik"Vd esa oDr cjckn djuk ml ijaijk osQ fojQ¼ gSA
bèkj ;'kksèkj ckcw us nÝ
+
rj ls ykSVrs gq, jks”k fcM+yk eafnj tkus vkSj mlosQ m|ku esa
cSBdj dksbZ çopu lquus vFkok Lo;a gh çHkq dk è;ku yxkus dh u;h jhr viukbZ gSA
;g ckr muosQ iRuh&cPpksa dks cgqr v[kjrh gSA cCck] vki dksbZ cqbs FkksM+h gSa tks
jks”k&jks”k eafnj tk,¡] brus ”;knk ozr djsaµ,slk dgrs gSa osA ;'kksèkj ckcw bl vkykspuk dks
vulquk dj nsrs gSaA fl¼kar osQ èkuh dh] fd'kunk osQ vuqlkj] ;gh fu'kkuh gS!
fcM+yk eafnj ls mBdj ;'kksèkj ckcw igkM+xat tkrs gSa vkSj ?kj osQ fy, lkx&lC”kh
[kjhn ykrs gSaA fdlh ls feyuk&feykuk gks rks og Hkh blh le; dj ysrs gSaA rks Hkys gh
nÝ
+
rj ik¡p cts NwVrk gks og ?kj vkB cts ls igys ugha igq¡prsA
vkt fcM+yk eafnj tkrs gq, ;'kksèkj ckcw dh fuxkg ml vgkrs ij iM+h ftlesa dHkh
fd'kunk dk rhu cSM:e okyk DokVZj gqvk djrk Fkk vkSj ftl ij bu fnuksa ,d Ng
eaf”kyk bekjr cukbZ tk jgh gSA bèkj ls xq”kjrs gq, dHkh osQ ^Mh-vkbZ-tSM-* ,fj;k dh
cnyrh 'kDy ns[kdj ;'kksèkj ckcw dks cqjk&lk yxrk gSA ;s yksx lkjk xksy ekosZQV {ks=k
rksM+dj ;gk¡ ,d eaf”kyk DokVZjksa dh txg m¡Qph bekjrsa cuk jgs gSaA ;'kksèkj ckcw dks irk
ugha fd os yksx Bhd dj jgs gSa fd xyr dj jgs gSaA mUgsa ;g ”k:j irk gS fd mudh
;knksa osQ xksy ekosZQV osQ <gk, tkus dk xe eukus osQ fy, mudk bl {ks=k esa MVs jguk
fugk;r ”k:jh gSA mUgsa ,aMª;w”kxat] y{ehckbZ uxj] iaMkjk jksM vkfn u;h cfLr;ksa esa in
dh xfjek osQ vuq:i Mh&2 Vkbi DokVZj feyus dh vPNh [kcj dbZ ckj vkbZ gS exj
gj ckj mUgksaus xksy ekosZQV NksM+us ls badkj dj fn;k gSA tc mudk DokVZj VwVus dk uacj
vk;k rc Hkh mUgksaus blh {ks=k dh bu cfLr;ksa esa cps gq, DokVZjksa esa ,d vius uke vykV
djk fy;kA iRuh osQ ;g iwNus ij fd tc ;g Hkh VwV tk,xk rc D;k djksxs\ mUgksaus
dgkµ rc dh rc ns[kh tk,xhA dgk vkSj mlh rjg eqLkoqQjk, ftl rjg fd'kunk ;gh
fI
+
kQdjk dg dj eqLkoqQjkrs FksA
lp rks ;g gS fd fiNys dbZ o"kks± ls ;'kksèkj ckcw dk viuh iRuh vkSj cPpksa ls gj
NksVh&cM+h ckr esa erHksn gksus yxk gS vkSj blh otg ls og ?kj tYnh ykSVuk ilan ugha
djrsA tc rd cPps NksVs Fks rc rd og mudh i<+kbZ&fy[kkbZ esa enn dj ldrs FksA
Page 5


tc lsD'ku vkfI
+
kQlj okbZ-Mh- (;'kksèkj)
iar us vkf[kjh I
+
kQkby dk yky iQhrk ck¡èkdj fuxkg es”k ls mBkbZ rc nÝ
+
rj dh iqjkuh
nhokj ?kM+h ik¡p ctdj iPphl feuV ctk jgh FkhA mudh viuh dykbZ ?kM+h esa lk<+s
ik¡p ct jgs FksA iarth viuh ?kM+h jks”kkuk lqcg&'kke jsfM;ks lekpkjksa ls feykrs gSa blfy,
mUgksaus nÝ
+
rj dh ?kM+h dks gh lqLr Bgjk;kA I
+
kQkby vkmV Vªs esa Mkydj mUgksaus ,d fuxkg
vius ekrgrksa ij Mkyh tks
muosQ gh dkj.k ik¡p cts osQ
ckn Hkh nÝ
+
rj esa cSBus dks
etcwj gksrs gSaA pyrs&pyrs
twfu;jksa ls dksbZ euksjatd ckr
dj fnu Hkj osQ 'kq"d O;ogkj
dk fujkdj.k dj tkus dh
Ñ".kkuan (fd'kunk) ikaMs ls
feyh gqbZ ijaijk dk ikyu
djrs gq, mUgksaus dgk] ¶vki
yksxksa dh ns[kkns[kh lsD'ku dh
?kM+h Hkh lqLr gks xbZ gS!¸
flYoj oSfMax
euksgj ';ke tks'kh
1
forku
2
lhèks ^vflLVsaV xzsM* esa vk, u, Nksdjs pbk us] ftldh pkSM+h eksgjhokyh irywu vkSj
m¡Qph ,M+h okys twrs iarth dks] ^le gkm baçkij* ekywe gksrs gSa] FkksM+h cnreh”kh&lh dhA
^,st ;wtqvy* cksyk] ¶cM+s ckÅ] vkidh viuh pwusnkuh dk D;k gky gS\ oDr lgh
nsrh gS\¸
iarth us pbk dh èk`"Vrk dks vuns[kk fd;k vkSj dgk] ¶fefuV&Vw&fefuV djsDV pyrh gSA¸
pbk us oqQN vkSj èk`"V gksdj iarth dh dykbZ Fkke yhA bl rjg dh èk`"Vrk dk çdV
fojksèk djuk ;'kksèkj ckcw us NksM+ fn;k gSA eu&gh&eu og ml ”kekus dh ;kn ”k:j djrs
gSa tc nÝ+rj esa og fd'kunk dks HkkbZ ugha ^lkgc* dgrs vkSj le>rs FksA ?kM+h dh vksj
ns[kdj og cksyk] ¶ckck vkne osQ ”kekus dh gS cM+s ckÅ ;g rks! vc rks fMftVy ys
yks ,d tkikuhA lLrh fey tkrh gSA¸
¶;g ?kM+h eq>s 'kknh esa feyh FkhA ge iqjkuh pky osQ] gekjh ?kM+h iqjkuh pky dhA vjs
;gh cgqr gS fd vc rd ^jkbZV VkbZe* py jgh gSµD;ksa oSQlh jgh\¸
bl rjg dk ugys ij ngyk tokc nsrs gq, ,d gkFk vkxs c<+k nsus dh ijaijk Fkh] jsEts
LowQy] vYeksM+k esa tgk¡ ls dHkh ;'kksèkj ckcw us eSfVªd dh ijh{kk ikl dh FkhA bl rjg
osQ vkxs c<+s gq, gkFk ij lquus okyk crkSj nkn viuk gkFk ekjk djrk Fkk vkSj oDrk&Jksrk
nksuksa BBkdj gkFk feyk;k djrs FksA ,slh gh ijaijk fd'kunk osQ DokVZj esa Hkh Fkh tgk¡
jks”kh&jksVh dh ryk'k esa vk, ;'kksèkj iar uked ,d eSfVªd ikl ckyd dks 'kj.k feyh
Fkh dHkhA fd'kunk oq¡Qvkjs Fks vkSj igkM+ ls vk, gq, fdrus gh yM+osQ Bhd&fBdkuk gksus
ls igys muosQ ;gk¡ jg tkrs FksA eSl tSlh FkhA feydj ykvks] idkvks] [kkvksA ;'kksèkj ckcw
ftl le; fnYyh vk, Fks mudh mez ljdkjh ukSdjh osQ fy, de FkhA dksf'k'k djus ij
Hkh ^ckW; lfoZl* esa og ugha yxk, tk losQA rc fd'kunk us mUgsa eSl dk jlksb;k cukdj
j[k fy;kA ;gh ugha] mUgksaus ;'kksèkj dks ipkl jQi;s mèkkj Hkh fn, fd og vius fy,
diM+s cuok losQ vkSj xk¡o iSlk Hkst losQA ckn esa bUgha fd'kunk us vius gh uhps ukSdjh
fnyokbZ vkSj nÝ+rjh thou esa ekxZ&n'kZu fd;kA
pbk us ”kksj ls dgk] ¶cM+s ckÅ] vki fdu [k;kyksa esa [kks x,\ esuu iwN jgk gS fd
vkidh 'kknh gqbZ dc Fkh\¸
;'kksèkj ckcw us ldidkdj viuk c<+k gqvk gkFk okil [khapk vkSj esuu ls eq[kkfrc
gksdj cksys] ¶uko ySV eh lh] vkbZ okW”k eSfjM vkWu flDLFk I
+
kQjojh ukbafVu I
+
kQksVhZ lsouA¸
3
flYoj oSfMax
esuu us I
+
kQkSju fglkc yxk;k vkSj pgddj cksyk] ¶eSuh gSIih
fjVu~Zl vkI
+
kQ n Ms lj! vkt rks vkidk ^flYoj oS¯Mx* gSA 'kknh
dks iwjk iPphl lky gks x;kA¸
;'kksèkj th [kq'k gksrs gq, >sais vkSj >sairs gq, [kq'k gq,A ;g vnk
mUgkasus fd'kunk ls lh[kh FkhA
pbk us ?kaVh ctkdj pijklh dks cqyk;k vkSj dgk] ¶lqu HkbZ
Hkxokunkl] cM+s ckÅ ls cM+k uksV ys vkSj lkjs lsD'ku osQ fy,
pk&ikuh dk bar”kke dj iQVkiQVA¸
;'kksèkj th cksys] ¶vjs ;s ^oS¯Mx ,fuolZjh* oxSjg lc xksjs
lkgcksa osQ pksapys gSaµgekjs ;gk¡ FkksM+h ekurs gSaA¸
pbk cksyk] ¶feDpj er fiykb, xqjQnsoA pk;&e_h&ya
w
 cl bruk
gh rks lkSnk gSA buesa dkSu vkidh cM+h ek;k fudyh tkuh gSA¸
;'kksèkj ckcw us tsc ls cVqvk vkSj cVq, esa ls nl dk uksV
fudkyk vkSj dgk] ¶vki yksx pk; ihft,] ^nSV* rks ^vkbZ Mw
ukV ekbaM*] ysfdu tks gekjs yksxksa esa ^dLVe* ugha gS] ml ij
^buflLV* djuk] ^nSV* eSa ^legkm baçkWij I
+
kQkbaM* djrk gw¡A¸
pbk us nl dk uksV pijklh dks fn;k vkSj iqu% cM+s ckÅ osQ
vkxs gkFk IkSQyk fn;k fd ,d uksV ls lsD'ku dk D;k curk gS\
jQi;s rhl gksa rks pqXxs Hkj dk tqxkM+ djk losaQA
lkjk lsD'ku tkurk gS fd ;'kksèkj ckcw vius cVq, esa lkS&Ms<+
lkS jQi;s ges'kk j[krs gSa Hkys gh mudk nSfud [kpZ ux.; gSA
vkSj rks vkSj] cl&fVdV dk [kpZ Hkh ughaA xksy ekosZQV ls
^lsozsQfVª,V* rd igys lkbfdy esa vkrs&tkrs Fks] bèkj iSny
vkus&tkus yxs gSa D;ksafd muosQ cPps vkèkqfud ;qok gks pys gSa
vkSj mUgsa vius firk dk lkbfdy&lokj gksuk l[r ukxokj
xq”kjrk gSA cPpksa osQ vuqlkj lkbfdy rks pijklh pykrs gSaA cPps
pkgrs gSa fd firkth LowQVj ys ysaA ysfdu firkth dks ^legkm*
LowQVj fugk;r csgwnk lokjh ekywe gksrh gS vkSj dkj tc
^vI
+
kQksMZ* dh ugha tk ldrh rc mldh ckr lkspuk gh D;ksa\
forku
4
pbk osQ ”kksj nsus ij cM+s ckÅ us nl&nl osQ uksV nks vkSj ns fn, ysfdu lkjs lsD'ku osQ
bljkj djus ij Hkh og viuh ^flYoj oSfMax* dh bl nkor osQ fy, jQosQ ughaA ekrgr
yksxksa ls pyrs&pykrs FkksM+k g¡lh&e”kkd dj ysuk fd'kunk dh ijaijk esa gSA muosQ lkFk
cSBdj pk;&ikuh vkSj xIi&xIik"Vd esa oDr cjckn djuk ml ijaijk osQ fojQ¼ gSA
bèkj ;'kksèkj ckcw us nÝ
+
rj ls ykSVrs gq, jks”k fcM+yk eafnj tkus vkSj mlosQ m|ku esa
cSBdj dksbZ çopu lquus vFkok Lo;a gh çHkq dk è;ku yxkus dh u;h jhr viukbZ gSA
;g ckr muosQ iRuh&cPpksa dks cgqr v[kjrh gSA cCck] vki dksbZ cqbs FkksM+h gSa tks
jks”k&jks”k eafnj tk,¡] brus ”;knk ozr djsaµ,slk dgrs gSa osA ;'kksèkj ckcw bl vkykspuk dks
vulquk dj nsrs gSaA fl¼kar osQ èkuh dh] fd'kunk osQ vuqlkj] ;gh fu'kkuh gS!
fcM+yk eafnj ls mBdj ;'kksèkj ckcw igkM+xat tkrs gSa vkSj ?kj osQ fy, lkx&lC”kh
[kjhn ykrs gSaA fdlh ls feyuk&feykuk gks rks og Hkh blh le; dj ysrs gSaA rks Hkys gh
nÝ
+
rj ik¡p cts NwVrk gks og ?kj vkB cts ls igys ugha igq¡prsA
vkt fcM+yk eafnj tkrs gq, ;'kksèkj ckcw dh fuxkg ml vgkrs ij iM+h ftlesa dHkh
fd'kunk dk rhu cSM:e okyk DokVZj gqvk djrk Fkk vkSj ftl ij bu fnuksa ,d Ng
eaf”kyk bekjr cukbZ tk jgh gSA bèkj ls xq”kjrs gq, dHkh osQ ^Mh-vkbZ-tSM-* ,fj;k dh
cnyrh 'kDy ns[kdj ;'kksèkj ckcw dks cqjk&lk yxrk gSA ;s yksx lkjk xksy ekosZQV {ks=k
rksM+dj ;gk¡ ,d eaf”kyk DokVZjksa dh txg m¡Qph bekjrsa cuk jgs gSaA ;'kksèkj ckcw dks irk
ugha fd os yksx Bhd dj jgs gSa fd xyr dj jgs gSaA mUgsa ;g ”k:j irk gS fd mudh
;knksa osQ xksy ekosZQV osQ <gk, tkus dk xe eukus osQ fy, mudk bl {ks=k esa MVs jguk
fugk;r ”k:jh gSA mUgsa ,aMª;w”kxat] y{ehckbZ uxj] iaMkjk jksM vkfn u;h cfLr;ksa esa in
dh xfjek osQ vuq:i Mh&2 Vkbi DokVZj feyus dh vPNh [kcj dbZ ckj vkbZ gS exj
gj ckj mUgksaus xksy ekosZQV NksM+us ls badkj dj fn;k gSA tc mudk DokVZj VwVus dk uacj
vk;k rc Hkh mUgksaus blh {ks=k dh bu cfLr;ksa esa cps gq, DokVZjksa esa ,d vius uke vykV
djk fy;kA iRuh osQ ;g iwNus ij fd tc ;g Hkh VwV tk,xk rc D;k djksxs\ mUgksaus
dgkµ rc dh rc ns[kh tk,xhA dgk vkSj mlh rjg eqLkoqQjk, ftl rjg fd'kunk ;gh
fI
+
kQdjk dg dj eqLkoqQjkrs FksA
lp rks ;g gS fd fiNys dbZ o"kks± ls ;'kksèkj ckcw dk viuh iRuh vkSj cPpksa ls gj
NksVh&cM+h ckr esa erHksn gksus yxk gS vkSj blh otg ls og ?kj tYnh ykSVuk ilan ugha
djrsA tc rd cPps NksVs Fks rc rd og mudh i<+kbZ&fy[kkbZ esa enn dj ldrs FksA
5
flYoj oSfMax
vc cM+k yM+dk ,d çeq[k foKkiu laLFkk esa ukSdjh ik x;k gSA
;|fi ^legkm* ;'kksèkj ckcw dks vius lkèkkj.k iq=k dks vlkèkkj.k
osru nsus okyh ;g ukSdjh oqQN le> esa vkrh ughaA
og dgrs gSa fd Ms<+ g”kkj jQi;k rks gesa vc fjVk;jesaV osQ
ikl igq¡p dj feyk gS] 'kq: esa gh Ms<+ g”kkj jQi;k nsus okyh bl
ukSdjh esa ”k:j oqQN isap gksxkA ;'kksèkj th dk nwljk csVk nwljh
ckj vkbZ-,-,l- nsus dh rS;kjh dj jgk gS vkSj ;'kksèkj ckcw osQ
fy, ;g le> lduk vlaHko gS fd tc ;g fiNys lky
^,ykbM lfoZls”k* dh lwph esa] ekuk dkI
+
kQh uhps vk x;k Fkk] rc
blus ^Tokbu* djus ls badkj D;ksa dj fn;k\ mudk rhljk csVk
Ldkyjf'ki ysdj vejhdk pyk x;k gS vkSj mudh ,dek=k csVh
u osQoy reke çLrkfor oj vLohdkj djrh pyh tk jgh gS
cfYd MkDVjh dh mPpre f'k{kk osQ fy, Lo;a Hkh vejhdk pys
tkus dh èkedh ns jgh gSA ;'kksèkj ckcw tgk¡ cPpksa dh bl rjDdh
ls [kq'k gksrs gSa ogk¡ ^legkm* ;g Hkh vuqHko djrs gSa fd og
[kq'kgkyh Hkh oSQlh tks viuksa esa ijk;kiu iSnk djsA vius cPpksa
}kjk xjhc fj'rsnkjksa dh mis{kk mUgsa ^legkm* t¡prh ughaA
^,uhosµ tsujs'kuksa esa xSi rks gksrk gh gS lquk*µ,slk dgdj Lo;a
dks fnyklk nsrk gS firkA
;|fi ;'kksèkj ckcw dh iRuh vius ewy laLdkjksa ls fdlh Hkh
rjg vkèkqfud ugha gS rFkkfi cPpksa dh rjI
+
kQnkjh djus dh
ekr`lqyHk etcwjh us mUgsa Hkh ekWM cuk Mkyk gSA oqQN ;g Hkh gS
fd ftl le; mudh 'kknh gqbZ Fkh ;'kksèkj ckcw osQ lkFk xk¡o ls
vk, rkÅth vkSj muosQ nks fookfgr cssVs Hkh jgk djrs FksA bl
la;qDr ifjokj esa ihNs gh ihNs cgqvksa esa x”kc osQ ruko Fks ysfdu
rkÅth osQ Mj ls dksbZ oqQN dg ugha ikrk FkkA ;'kksèkj ckcw dh
iRuh dks f'kdk;r gS fd la;qDr ifjokj okys ml nkSj esa ifr us
gekjk i{k dHkh ugha fy;k] cl ftBkfu;ksa dh pyus nhA mudk
;g Hkh dguk gS fd eq>s vkpkj&O;ogkj osQ ,sls caèkuksa esa j[kk
x;k ekuks eSa toku vkSjr ugha] cqf<+;k FkhA ftrus Hkh fu;e budh
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

Semester Notes

,

NCERT Textbook - Silver Wedding Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

practice quizzes

,

Summary

,

Objective type Questions

,

Exam

,

Viva Questions

,

video lectures

,

MCQs

,

Important questions

,

Extra Questions

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

past year papers

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

pdf

,

mock tests for examination

,

NCERT Textbook - Silver Wedding Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

NCERT Textbook - Silver Wedding Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

study material

,

Sample Paper

,

ppt

,

Free

;