NCERT Textbook - US Hegemony in World Politics Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 12

Created by: Uk Tiwary

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - US Hegemony in World Politics Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


OVERVIEW
We have seen that the end of Cold
War left the US without any
serious rival in the world. The era
since then has been described as
a period of US dominance or a
unipolar world. In this chapter, we
try to understand the nature,
extent and limits of this
dominance. We begin by narrating
the story of the rise of the new
world order from the First Gulf
War to the US-led invasion of Iraq.
We then pause to understand the
nature of US domination with the
help of the concept of ‘hegemony’.
After exploring the political,
economic and cultural aspects of
US hegemony, we assess India’s
policy options in dealing with the
US. Finally, we turn to see if there
are challenges to this hegemony
and whether it can be overcome.
Chapter 3
US Hegemony in World Politics
The attack on the twin towers of the World Trade Centre in
New York on 11 September  2001 has been seen as a
watershed event in contemporary history.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


OVERVIEW
We have seen that the end of Cold
War left the US without any
serious rival in the world. The era
since then has been described as
a period of US dominance or a
unipolar world. In this chapter, we
try to understand the nature,
extent and limits of this
dominance. We begin by narrating
the story of the rise of the new
world order from the First Gulf
War to the US-led invasion of Iraq.
We then pause to understand the
nature of US domination with the
help of the concept of ‘hegemony’.
After exploring the political,
economic and cultural aspects of
US hegemony, we assess India’s
policy options in dealing with the
US. Finally, we turn to see if there
are challenges to this hegemony
and whether it can be overcome.
Chapter 3
US Hegemony in World Politics
The attack on the twin towers of the World Trade Centre in
New York on 11 September  2001 has been seen as a
watershed event in contemporary history.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Contemporary World Politics
32
forced to study a subject that he
has no interest in. In contrast,
Ayesha has lost her leg and is
lucky to be alive. How can we even
discuss their problems in the same
breath? We can, and must, do so.
As we shall see in this chapter, all
three have been, in different ways,
affected by US hegemony. We will
meet Ayesha, Jabu and Andrei
again. But let us first understand
how US hegemony began and how
it operates in the world today.
We will follow the popular
usage of the word ‘America’ to
refer to the United States of
America.  But it may be useful to
remind ourselves that the
expression America covers the two
continents of North and South
America and that the US is only
one of the countries of the
American continent. Thus, the use
of the word America solely for the
US is already a sign of the US
hegemony that we seek to
understand in this chapter.
BEGINNING OF THE ‘NEW
WORLD ORDER’
The sudden collapse of the Soviet
Union took everyone by surprise.
While one of the two superpowers
ceased to exist, the other remained
with all its powers intact, even
enhanced. Thus, it would appear
that the US hegemony began in
1991 after Soviet power
disappeared from the international
scene. This is largely correct, but
we need to keep in mind two riders
to this. First, as we shall see in this
AYESHA, JABU AND ANDREI
Ayesha was doing very well in her
studies at a high school in the
outskirts of Baghdad, and was
planning to study medicine in
university. She lost a leg in 2003
when a missile slammed into an
air raid shelter in which she was
hiding with her friends. Now she
is learning to walk all over again.
She still plans to become a doctor,
but only after the foreign armies
leave her country.
Jabu is a talented young artist
who lives in Durban, South Africa.
His paintings are heavily
influenced by traditional tribal art
forms. He wants to go to art school
and later open his own studio.
However, his father wants him to
study for an MBA and then join
the family business. The business
is not doing too well; Jabu’s father
feels that with an MBA degree,
Jabu will be able to make the
family business profitable.
Andrei is a young man living
in Perth, Australia. His parents are
immigrants from Russia. His
mother gets very angry every time
Andrei puts on blue jeans to go to
church. She wants him to look
respectable in church. Andrei tells
his mother that jeans are “cool”,
that they give him the sense of
freedom. Andrei’s father reminds
his wife how they too used to wear
jeans when they were youngsters
in Leningrad, and for the same
reason that their son now invokes.
Andrei has had an argument
with his mother. Jabu may be
I’m glad I did not opt
for the Science
subjects. Or else I too
would have been a
victim of US
hegemony. Can you
think how and why?
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


OVERVIEW
We have seen that the end of Cold
War left the US without any
serious rival in the world. The era
since then has been described as
a period of US dominance or a
unipolar world. In this chapter, we
try to understand the nature,
extent and limits of this
dominance. We begin by narrating
the story of the rise of the new
world order from the First Gulf
War to the US-led invasion of Iraq.
We then pause to understand the
nature of US domination with the
help of the concept of ‘hegemony’.
After exploring the political,
economic and cultural aspects of
US hegemony, we assess India’s
policy options in dealing with the
US. Finally, we turn to see if there
are challenges to this hegemony
and whether it can be overcome.
Chapter 3
US Hegemony in World Politics
The attack on the twin towers of the World Trade Centre in
New York on 11 September  2001 has been seen as a
watershed event in contemporary history.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Contemporary World Politics
32
forced to study a subject that he
has no interest in. In contrast,
Ayesha has lost her leg and is
lucky to be alive. How can we even
discuss their problems in the same
breath? We can, and must, do so.
As we shall see in this chapter, all
three have been, in different ways,
affected by US hegemony. We will
meet Ayesha, Jabu and Andrei
again. But let us first understand
how US hegemony began and how
it operates in the world today.
We will follow the popular
usage of the word ‘America’ to
refer to the United States of
America.  But it may be useful to
remind ourselves that the
expression America covers the two
continents of North and South
America and that the US is only
one of the countries of the
American continent. Thus, the use
of the word America solely for the
US is already a sign of the US
hegemony that we seek to
understand in this chapter.
BEGINNING OF THE ‘NEW
WORLD ORDER’
The sudden collapse of the Soviet
Union took everyone by surprise.
While one of the two superpowers
ceased to exist, the other remained
with all its powers intact, even
enhanced. Thus, it would appear
that the US hegemony began in
1991 after Soviet power
disappeared from the international
scene. This is largely correct, but
we need to keep in mind two riders
to this. First, as we shall see in this
AYESHA, JABU AND ANDREI
Ayesha was doing very well in her
studies at a high school in the
outskirts of Baghdad, and was
planning to study medicine in
university. She lost a leg in 2003
when a missile slammed into an
air raid shelter in which she was
hiding with her friends. Now she
is learning to walk all over again.
She still plans to become a doctor,
but only after the foreign armies
leave her country.
Jabu is a talented young artist
who lives in Durban, South Africa.
His paintings are heavily
influenced by traditional tribal art
forms. He wants to go to art school
and later open his own studio.
However, his father wants him to
study for an MBA and then join
the family business. The business
is not doing too well; Jabu’s father
feels that with an MBA degree,
Jabu will be able to make the
family business profitable.
Andrei is a young man living
in Perth, Australia. His parents are
immigrants from Russia. His
mother gets very angry every time
Andrei puts on blue jeans to go to
church. She wants him to look
respectable in church. Andrei tells
his mother that jeans are “cool”,
that they give him the sense of
freedom. Andrei’s father reminds
his wife how they too used to wear
jeans when they were youngsters
in Leningrad, and for the same
reason that their son now invokes.
Andrei has had an argument
with his mother. Jabu may be
I’m glad I did not opt
for the Science
subjects. Or else I too
would have been a
victim of US
hegemony. Can you
think how and why?
© NCERT
not to be republished
US Hegemony in World Politics
33
chapter, some aspects of US
hegemony did not emerge in 1991
but in fact go back to the end of
the Second World War in 1945.
Second, the US did not start
behaving like a hegemonic power
right from 1991; it became clear
much later that the world was in
fact living in a period of hegemony.
Let us therefore look at this
process by which US hegemony
got established more closely.
In August 1990, Iraq invaded
Kuwait, rapidly occupying and
subsequently annexing it. After a
series of diplomatic attempts failed
at convincing Iraq to quit its
aggression, the United Nations
mandated the liberation of Kuwait
by force. For the UN, this was a
dramatic decision after years of
deadlock during the Cold W ar. The
US President George H.W. Bush
hailed the emergence of a ‘new
world order’.
A massive coalition force of
660,000 troops from 34 countries
fought against Iraq and defeated
it in what came to be known as
the First Gulf War. However, the
This picture of burned and broken vehicles was taken on the ‘Highway of Death’, a road between Kuwait and
Basra, on which the retreating Iraqi army was attacked by American aircraft during the First Gulf War in February
1991. Some commentators have suggested that the US forces deliberately bombed this stretch of highway where
fleeing and ‘out of combat’ Iraqi soldiers were stuck in a frenzied traffic jam and that the victims included Kuwaiti
prisoners and hostages and Palestinian civilian refugees. Many observers have called it a ‘war crime’ and a
violation of the Geneva Convention.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


OVERVIEW
We have seen that the end of Cold
War left the US without any
serious rival in the world. The era
since then has been described as
a period of US dominance or a
unipolar world. In this chapter, we
try to understand the nature,
extent and limits of this
dominance. We begin by narrating
the story of the rise of the new
world order from the First Gulf
War to the US-led invasion of Iraq.
We then pause to understand the
nature of US domination with the
help of the concept of ‘hegemony’.
After exploring the political,
economic and cultural aspects of
US hegemony, we assess India’s
policy options in dealing with the
US. Finally, we turn to see if there
are challenges to this hegemony
and whether it can be overcome.
Chapter 3
US Hegemony in World Politics
The attack on the twin towers of the World Trade Centre in
New York on 11 September  2001 has been seen as a
watershed event in contemporary history.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Contemporary World Politics
32
forced to study a subject that he
has no interest in. In contrast,
Ayesha has lost her leg and is
lucky to be alive. How can we even
discuss their problems in the same
breath? We can, and must, do so.
As we shall see in this chapter, all
three have been, in different ways,
affected by US hegemony. We will
meet Ayesha, Jabu and Andrei
again. But let us first understand
how US hegemony began and how
it operates in the world today.
We will follow the popular
usage of the word ‘America’ to
refer to the United States of
America.  But it may be useful to
remind ourselves that the
expression America covers the two
continents of North and South
America and that the US is only
one of the countries of the
American continent. Thus, the use
of the word America solely for the
US is already a sign of the US
hegemony that we seek to
understand in this chapter.
BEGINNING OF THE ‘NEW
WORLD ORDER’
The sudden collapse of the Soviet
Union took everyone by surprise.
While one of the two superpowers
ceased to exist, the other remained
with all its powers intact, even
enhanced. Thus, it would appear
that the US hegemony began in
1991 after Soviet power
disappeared from the international
scene. This is largely correct, but
we need to keep in mind two riders
to this. First, as we shall see in this
AYESHA, JABU AND ANDREI
Ayesha was doing very well in her
studies at a high school in the
outskirts of Baghdad, and was
planning to study medicine in
university. She lost a leg in 2003
when a missile slammed into an
air raid shelter in which she was
hiding with her friends. Now she
is learning to walk all over again.
She still plans to become a doctor,
but only after the foreign armies
leave her country.
Jabu is a talented young artist
who lives in Durban, South Africa.
His paintings are heavily
influenced by traditional tribal art
forms. He wants to go to art school
and later open his own studio.
However, his father wants him to
study for an MBA and then join
the family business. The business
is not doing too well; Jabu’s father
feels that with an MBA degree,
Jabu will be able to make the
family business profitable.
Andrei is a young man living
in Perth, Australia. His parents are
immigrants from Russia. His
mother gets very angry every time
Andrei puts on blue jeans to go to
church. She wants him to look
respectable in church. Andrei tells
his mother that jeans are “cool”,
that they give him the sense of
freedom. Andrei’s father reminds
his wife how they too used to wear
jeans when they were youngsters
in Leningrad, and for the same
reason that their son now invokes.
Andrei has had an argument
with his mother. Jabu may be
I’m glad I did not opt
for the Science
subjects. Or else I too
would have been a
victim of US
hegemony. Can you
think how and why?
© NCERT
not to be republished
US Hegemony in World Politics
33
chapter, some aspects of US
hegemony did not emerge in 1991
but in fact go back to the end of
the Second World War in 1945.
Second, the US did not start
behaving like a hegemonic power
right from 1991; it became clear
much later that the world was in
fact living in a period of hegemony.
Let us therefore look at this
process by which US hegemony
got established more closely.
In August 1990, Iraq invaded
Kuwait, rapidly occupying and
subsequently annexing it. After a
series of diplomatic attempts failed
at convincing Iraq to quit its
aggression, the United Nations
mandated the liberation of Kuwait
by force. For the UN, this was a
dramatic decision after years of
deadlock during the Cold W ar. The
US President George H.W. Bush
hailed the emergence of a ‘new
world order’.
A massive coalition force of
660,000 troops from 34 countries
fought against Iraq and defeated
it in what came to be known as
the First Gulf War. However, the
This picture of burned and broken vehicles was taken on the ‘Highway of Death’, a road between Kuwait and
Basra, on which the retreating Iraqi army was attacked by American aircraft during the First Gulf War in February
1991. Some commentators have suggested that the US forces deliberately bombed this stretch of highway where
fleeing and ‘out of combat’ Iraqi soldiers were stuck in a frenzied traffic jam and that the victims included Kuwaiti
prisoners and hostages and Palestinian civilian refugees. Many observers have called it a ‘war crime’ and a
violation of the Geneva Convention.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Contemporary World Politics
34
UN operation, which was called
‘Operation Desert Storm’, was
overwhelmingly American. An
American general, Norman
Schwarzkopf, led the UN coalition
and nearly 75 per cent of the
coalition forces were from the US.
Although the Iraqi President,
Saddam Hussein, had promised
“the mother of all battles”, the
Iraqi forces were quickly defeated
and forced to withdraw from
Kuwait.
The First  Gulf  War revealed
the vast technological gap that had
opened up between the US military
capability and that of other states.
The highly publicised use of so-
called ‘smart bombs’ by the US led
some observers to call this a
‘computer war’. Widespread
television coverage also made it a
‘video game war’, with viewers
around the world watching the
destruction of Iraqi forces live on
TV in the comfort of their living
rooms.
Incredibly, the US may
actually have made a profit from
the war. According to many
reports, the US received more
money from countries like
Germany, Japan and Saudi
Arabia than it had spent on the
war.
THE CLINTON YEARS
Despite winning the First Gulf War,
George H.W. Bush lost the US
presidential elections of 1992 to
William Jefferson (Bill) Clinton of
the Democratic Party, who had
campaigned on domestic rather
than foreign policy issues. Bill
Clinton won again in 1996 and
thus remained the president of the
US for eight years. During the
Clinton years, it often seemed that
the US had withdrawn into its
internal affairs and was not fully
engaged in world politics. In
foreign policy, the Clinton
government tended to focus on
‘soft issues’ like democracy
promotion, climate change and
world trade rather than on the
‘hard politics’ of military power and
security.
Nevertheless, the US on
occasion did show its readiness to
use military power even during the
Clinton years. The most important
episode occurred in 1999, in
response to Yugoslavian actions
against the predominantly
Albanian population in the
province of Kosovo. The air forces
of the NATO countries, led by the
US, bombarded targets around
Yugoslavia for well over two
months, forcing the downfall of
the government of Slobodan
Milosevic and the stationing of a
NATO force in Kosovo.
Another significant US military
action during the Clinton years was
in response to the bombing of the
US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya
and Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in
1998. These bombings were
attributed to Al-Qaeda, a terrorist
organisation strongly influenced by
extremist Islamist ideas. Within a
few days of this bombing, President
Clinton ordered Operation Infinite
Is it true that the US has
never fought a war on
its own land? Doesn’t
that make it easy for
Americans to get into
military adventures?
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


OVERVIEW
We have seen that the end of Cold
War left the US without any
serious rival in the world. The era
since then has been described as
a period of US dominance or a
unipolar world. In this chapter, we
try to understand the nature,
extent and limits of this
dominance. We begin by narrating
the story of the rise of the new
world order from the First Gulf
War to the US-led invasion of Iraq.
We then pause to understand the
nature of US domination with the
help of the concept of ‘hegemony’.
After exploring the political,
economic and cultural aspects of
US hegemony, we assess India’s
policy options in dealing with the
US. Finally, we turn to see if there
are challenges to this hegemony
and whether it can be overcome.
Chapter 3
US Hegemony in World Politics
The attack on the twin towers of the World Trade Centre in
New York on 11 September  2001 has been seen as a
watershed event in contemporary history.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Contemporary World Politics
32
forced to study a subject that he
has no interest in. In contrast,
Ayesha has lost her leg and is
lucky to be alive. How can we even
discuss their problems in the same
breath? We can, and must, do so.
As we shall see in this chapter, all
three have been, in different ways,
affected by US hegemony. We will
meet Ayesha, Jabu and Andrei
again. But let us first understand
how US hegemony began and how
it operates in the world today.
We will follow the popular
usage of the word ‘America’ to
refer to the United States of
America.  But it may be useful to
remind ourselves that the
expression America covers the two
continents of North and South
America and that the US is only
one of the countries of the
American continent. Thus, the use
of the word America solely for the
US is already a sign of the US
hegemony that we seek to
understand in this chapter.
BEGINNING OF THE ‘NEW
WORLD ORDER’
The sudden collapse of the Soviet
Union took everyone by surprise.
While one of the two superpowers
ceased to exist, the other remained
with all its powers intact, even
enhanced. Thus, it would appear
that the US hegemony began in
1991 after Soviet power
disappeared from the international
scene. This is largely correct, but
we need to keep in mind two riders
to this. First, as we shall see in this
AYESHA, JABU AND ANDREI
Ayesha was doing very well in her
studies at a high school in the
outskirts of Baghdad, and was
planning to study medicine in
university. She lost a leg in 2003
when a missile slammed into an
air raid shelter in which she was
hiding with her friends. Now she
is learning to walk all over again.
She still plans to become a doctor,
but only after the foreign armies
leave her country.
Jabu is a talented young artist
who lives in Durban, South Africa.
His paintings are heavily
influenced by traditional tribal art
forms. He wants to go to art school
and later open his own studio.
However, his father wants him to
study for an MBA and then join
the family business. The business
is not doing too well; Jabu’s father
feels that with an MBA degree,
Jabu will be able to make the
family business profitable.
Andrei is a young man living
in Perth, Australia. His parents are
immigrants from Russia. His
mother gets very angry every time
Andrei puts on blue jeans to go to
church. She wants him to look
respectable in church. Andrei tells
his mother that jeans are “cool”,
that they give him the sense of
freedom. Andrei’s father reminds
his wife how they too used to wear
jeans when they were youngsters
in Leningrad, and for the same
reason that their son now invokes.
Andrei has had an argument
with his mother. Jabu may be
I’m glad I did not opt
for the Science
subjects. Or else I too
would have been a
victim of US
hegemony. Can you
think how and why?
© NCERT
not to be republished
US Hegemony in World Politics
33
chapter, some aspects of US
hegemony did not emerge in 1991
but in fact go back to the end of
the Second World War in 1945.
Second, the US did not start
behaving like a hegemonic power
right from 1991; it became clear
much later that the world was in
fact living in a period of hegemony.
Let us therefore look at this
process by which US hegemony
got established more closely.
In August 1990, Iraq invaded
Kuwait, rapidly occupying and
subsequently annexing it. After a
series of diplomatic attempts failed
at convincing Iraq to quit its
aggression, the United Nations
mandated the liberation of Kuwait
by force. For the UN, this was a
dramatic decision after years of
deadlock during the Cold W ar. The
US President George H.W. Bush
hailed the emergence of a ‘new
world order’.
A massive coalition force of
660,000 troops from 34 countries
fought against Iraq and defeated
it in what came to be known as
the First Gulf War. However, the
This picture of burned and broken vehicles was taken on the ‘Highway of Death’, a road between Kuwait and
Basra, on which the retreating Iraqi army was attacked by American aircraft during the First Gulf War in February
1991. Some commentators have suggested that the US forces deliberately bombed this stretch of highway where
fleeing and ‘out of combat’ Iraqi soldiers were stuck in a frenzied traffic jam and that the victims included Kuwaiti
prisoners and hostages and Palestinian civilian refugees. Many observers have called it a ‘war crime’ and a
violation of the Geneva Convention.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Contemporary World Politics
34
UN operation, which was called
‘Operation Desert Storm’, was
overwhelmingly American. An
American general, Norman
Schwarzkopf, led the UN coalition
and nearly 75 per cent of the
coalition forces were from the US.
Although the Iraqi President,
Saddam Hussein, had promised
“the mother of all battles”, the
Iraqi forces were quickly defeated
and forced to withdraw from
Kuwait.
The First  Gulf  War revealed
the vast technological gap that had
opened up between the US military
capability and that of other states.
The highly publicised use of so-
called ‘smart bombs’ by the US led
some observers to call this a
‘computer war’. Widespread
television coverage also made it a
‘video game war’, with viewers
around the world watching the
destruction of Iraqi forces live on
TV in the comfort of their living
rooms.
Incredibly, the US may
actually have made a profit from
the war. According to many
reports, the US received more
money from countries like
Germany, Japan and Saudi
Arabia than it had spent on the
war.
THE CLINTON YEARS
Despite winning the First Gulf War,
George H.W. Bush lost the US
presidential elections of 1992 to
William Jefferson (Bill) Clinton of
the Democratic Party, who had
campaigned on domestic rather
than foreign policy issues. Bill
Clinton won again in 1996 and
thus remained the president of the
US for eight years. During the
Clinton years, it often seemed that
the US had withdrawn into its
internal affairs and was not fully
engaged in world politics. In
foreign policy, the Clinton
government tended to focus on
‘soft issues’ like democracy
promotion, climate change and
world trade rather than on the
‘hard politics’ of military power and
security.
Nevertheless, the US on
occasion did show its readiness to
use military power even during the
Clinton years. The most important
episode occurred in 1999, in
response to Yugoslavian actions
against the predominantly
Albanian population in the
province of Kosovo. The air forces
of the NATO countries, led by the
US, bombarded targets around
Yugoslavia for well over two
months, forcing the downfall of
the government of Slobodan
Milosevic and the stationing of a
NATO force in Kosovo.
Another significant US military
action during the Clinton years was
in response to the bombing of the
US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya
and Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in
1998. These bombings were
attributed to Al-Qaeda, a terrorist
organisation strongly influenced by
extremist Islamist ideas. Within a
few days of this bombing, President
Clinton ordered Operation Infinite
Is it true that the US has
never fought a war on
its own land? Doesn’t
that make it easy for
Americans to get into
military adventures?
© NCERT
not to be republished
US Hegemony in World Politics
35
Reach, a series of cruise missile
strikes on Al-Qaeda terrorist targets
in Sudan and Afghanistan. The US
did not bother about the UN
sanction or provisions of
international law in this regard. It
was alleged that some of the targets
were civilian facilities unconnected
to terrorism. In retrospect, this was
merely the beginning.
9/11 AND THE ‘GLOBAL
WAR ON TERROR’
On 11 September 2001, nineteen
hijackers hailing from a number
of Arab countries took control of
four American commercial aircraft
shortly after takeoff and flew them
into important buildings in the
US. One airliner each crashed into
the North and South Towers of the
World Trade Centre in New York.
A third aircraft crashed into the
Pentagon building in Arlington,
Virginia, where the US Defence
Department is headquartered.
The fourth aircraft, presumably
bound for the Capitol building of
the US Congress, came down in a
field in Pennsylvania. The attacks
have come to be known as “9/11”.
(In America the convention is to
This is ridiculous!
Does it mean
that Sri Lanka
can drop a
missile on Paris if
it suspects that
some of the LTTE
militants are
hiding there?
This is how The New York Times reported 9/11 in its edition the
following morning.
write the month first, followed by
the date; hence the short form ‘9/
11’ instead of ‘11/9’ as we would
write in India).
The attacks killed nearly three
thousand persons. In terms of their
shocking effect on Americans, they
have been compared to the British
burning of Washington, DC in 1814
and the Japanese attack on Pearl
Harbour in 1941. However, in terms
of loss of life, 9/11 was the most
© NCERT
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