NCERT Textbook - विष्णु खरे Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 12

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - विष्णु खरे Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs
tUe % lu~ 1940] ¯NnokM+k (eè; izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % ,d xSj :ekuh le; esa] [kqn viuh vk¡[k
ls] lcdh vkok”k osQ insZ esa] fiNyk ckdh (dfork&laxzg)_
vkykspuk dh igyh fdrkc (vkykspuk)_ flusek i<+us osQ
rjhosQ (flus vkykspuk)_ ejQ izns'k vkSj vU; dfork,¡ (Vh-
,l- bfy;V)] ;g pkowQ le; (vW¯ryk ;ks>siQ)] dkysokyk
(fiQuySaM dk jk"VªdkO;)(vuqokn)
izeq[k iqjLdkj % j?kqohj lgk; lEeku] ¯gnh vdkneh
(fnYyh) dk lEeku] f'k[kj lEeku] eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr lEeku]
fiQuySaM dk jk"Vªh; lEeku ukbV vkWI
+
kQ fn vkWMZj vkWI
+
kQ fn
OgkbV jks”k
gj dyko`Qfr ftruh og i<+h tkrh gS] lqukbZ ;k fn[kkbZ nsrh gS
mlls dgha ”;knk gksrh gS vkSj fI
+
kQYe dks ysdj 'kk;n ;g oqQN vfèkd lR; gSA
ledkyhu ¯gnh dfork vkSj vkykspuk esa fo".kq [kjs ,d fof'k"V gLrk{kj gSaA mUgksaus
¯gnh txr dks vR;ar xgjh fopkjijd dfork,¡ nh gSa] rks lkFk gh csckd vkykspukRed
ys[k Hkh fn, gSaA fo'o lkfgR; dk xgu vè;;u muosQ jpukRed vkSj vkykspukRed
ys[ku esa iwjh jaxr osQ lkFk fn[kykbZ iM+rk gSA fo'o flusek osQ Hkh os xgjs tkudkj gSa vkSj
fiNys dbZ o"kks± ls yxkrkj flusek dh foèkk ij xaHkhj ys[ku djrs jgs gSaA 1971&73 osQ
vius fons'k&izokl osQ njE;ku mUgksaus rRdkyhu psdksLyksokfd;k dh jktèkkuh izkx osQ
izfrf"Br fI
+
kQYe Dyc dh lnL;rk izkIr dj lalkj&Hkj dh lSdM+ksa mRo`Q"V fI
+
kQYesa ns[khaA
;gk¡ ls flusek&ys[ku dks oSpkfjd xfjek vkSj xaHkhjrk nsus dk mudk lI
+
kQj 'kq: gqvkA
^fnueku*] ^uoHkkjr VkbEl*] ^fn ik;ksfu;j*] ^fn ¯gnqLrku*] ^tulÙkk*] ^nSfud HkkLdj*]
^gal*] ^dFkkns'k*] tSlh i=k&if=kdkvksa esa mudk flusek fo"k;d ys[ku izdkf'kr gksrk jgk
gSA os mu fo'ks"kKksa esa ls gSa ftUgksaus fI
+
kQYe dks lekt] le; vkSj fopkjèkkjk osQ vkyksd
15
Page 2


fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs
tUe % lu~ 1940] ¯NnokM+k (eè; izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % ,d xSj :ekuh le; esa] [kqn viuh vk¡[k
ls] lcdh vkok”k osQ insZ esa] fiNyk ckdh (dfork&laxzg)_
vkykspuk dh igyh fdrkc (vkykspuk)_ flusek i<+us osQ
rjhosQ (flus vkykspuk)_ ejQ izns'k vkSj vU; dfork,¡ (Vh-
,l- bfy;V)] ;g pkowQ le; (vW¯ryk ;ks>siQ)] dkysokyk
(fiQuySaM dk jk"VªdkO;)(vuqokn)
izeq[k iqjLdkj % j?kqohj lgk; lEeku] ¯gnh vdkneh
(fnYyh) dk lEeku] f'k[kj lEeku] eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr lEeku]
fiQuySaM dk jk"Vªh; lEeku ukbV vkWI
+
kQ fn vkWMZj vkWI
+
kQ fn
OgkbV jks”k
gj dyko`Qfr ftruh og i<+h tkrh gS] lqukbZ ;k fn[kkbZ nsrh gS
mlls dgha ”;knk gksrh gS vkSj fI
+
kQYe dks ysdj 'kk;n ;g oqQN vfèkd lR; gSA
ledkyhu ¯gnh dfork vkSj vkykspuk esa fo".kq [kjs ,d fof'k"V gLrk{kj gSaA mUgksaus
¯gnh txr dks vR;ar xgjh fopkjijd dfork,¡ nh gSa] rks lkFk gh csckd vkykspukRed
ys[k Hkh fn, gSaA fo'o lkfgR; dk xgu vè;;u muosQ jpukRed vkSj vkykspukRed
ys[ku esa iwjh jaxr osQ lkFk fn[kykbZ iM+rk gSA fo'o flusek osQ Hkh os xgjs tkudkj gSa vkSj
fiNys dbZ o"kks± ls yxkrkj flusek dh foèkk ij xaHkhj ys[ku djrs jgs gSaA 1971&73 osQ
vius fons'k&izokl osQ njE;ku mUgksaus rRdkyhu psdksLyksokfd;k dh jktèkkuh izkx osQ
izfrf"Br fI
+
kQYe Dyc dh lnL;rk izkIr dj lalkj&Hkj dh lSdM+ksa mRo`Q"V fI
+
kQYesa ns[khaA
;gk¡ ls flusek&ys[ku dks oSpkfjd xfjek vkSj xaHkhjrk nsus dk mudk lI
+
kQj 'kq: gqvkA
^fnueku*] ^uoHkkjr VkbEl*] ^fn ik;ksfu;j*] ^fn ¯gnqLrku*] ^tulÙkk*] ^nSfud HkkLdj*]
^gal*] ^dFkkns'k*] tSlh i=k&if=kdkvksa esa mudk flusek fo"k;d ys[ku izdkf'kr gksrk jgk
gSA os mu fo'ks"kKksa esa ls gSa ftUgksaus fI
+
kQYe dks lekt] le; vkSj fopkjèkkjk osQ vkyksd
15
esa ns[kk rFkk bfrgkl] laxhr] vfHku;] funsZ'ku dh ckjhfd;ksa osQ flyflys esa mldk
fo'ys"k.k fd;kA vius ys[ku osQ }kjk mUgksaus ¯gnh osQ ml vHkko dks FkksM+k Hkjus esa
liQyrk ikbZ gS] ftlosQ ckjs esa viuh ,d fdrkc dh Hkwfedk esa os fy[krs gSaµ ¶;g Bhd
gS fd vc Hkkjr esa Hkh flusek osQ egÙo vkSj 'kkL=kh;rk dks igpku fy;k x;k gS vkSj
mlosQ fl¼kardkj Hkh mHkj vk, gSa ysfdu nqHkkZX;o'k ftruk xaHkhj dke gekjs flusek ij
;wjksi vkSj vesfjdk esa gks jgk gS 'kk;n mldk 'krka'k Hkh gekjs ;gk¡ ugha gSA ¯gnh esa flusek
osQ fl¼karksa ij 'kk;n gh dksbZ vPNh ewy iqLrd gksA gekjk yxHkx iwjk lekt vHkh Hkh
flusek tkus ;k ns[kus dks ,d gYkosQ vijkèk dh rjg ns[krk gSA¸
fo'o&flusek fo'o&lkfgR; osQ lekukarj iQy&iwQy jgk gS! nks egk;q¼ksa osQ ckn dh
ng'kr] uo&Lora=k ns'kksa dk uSfrd Hkwxksy] vkSifuosf'kd nklrk dk ekufld vo{ksi.k%
fo'o flusek ftl dkS'ky ls ;s fo"k; yxkrkj fcafcr djrk jgk gSµ mlosQ fodkl esa pkyhZ
pSfIyu uked egku vfHkusrk dk cM+k ;ksxnku gSA blhfy, ^pkyhZ pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc*
uked ikB bl egku vfHkusrk osQ Hkhrj osQ bulku dks tkuus dk volj nsrk gSA
lkèkkj.k dh vikj èkkj.k {kerk vkSj mlosQ èkqvk¡rs uk;dRo dks vius <ax ls pkyhZ
pSfIyu ls tqM+s ukVd vkSj fI
+
kQYesa idM+rs jgs gSaA vius ;gk¡ jktdiwj dh vkokjk] Jh
420] vukM+h vkSj esjk uke tksdj vkfn fI
+
kQYesa Hkh ftl rjg osQ Hkksys lM+dNki dh
=kkln&dken xkFkk jprh gSa] og Hkh pkyhZ pSfIyu dk gh izHkko gSA
gkL; fI
+
kQYeksa osQ egku vfHkusrk vkSj funsZ'kd pkyhZ pSfIyu ij fy[ks x, bl ikB
esa ys[kd us pkyhZ osQ dykdeZ dh oqQN ewyHkwr fo'ks"krkvksa dks js[kkafdr fd;k gSA djQ.kk
vkSj gkL; osQ rRoksa dk lkeatL;] mudh n`f"V esa] pkyhZ dh lcls cM+h fo'ks"krk jgh gSA
bls ns[krs gq, Hkkjr tSls eqYd esa] tgk¡ fl¼kar vkSj jpuk nksuksa Lrjksa ij gkL; vkSj djQ.kk osQ
esy dh dksbZ ijaijk ugha jgh gS] pkyhZ pSfIyu dh yksdfiz;rk ;g r; djrh gS fd dyk
Lora=k gksrh gS c¡èkrh ughaA ,d&ls&,d gkL; dykdkj gq,] ij os pSfIyu dh rjg gj ns'k]
gj mez vkSj gj Lrj osQ n'kZdksa dh ialn ugha cu ik,A bldk dkj.k 'kk;n ;g gS fd pkyhZ
gh og 'kf[l;r gks ldrk gS ftuesa lcdks viuh Nfo fn[krh gS os fdlh Hkh laLo`Qfr oQks
fons'kh ugha yxrs gSaA ;g iwjk ikB pkyhZ pSfIyu osQ blh Tkknw dh O;k[;k dk ,d iz;kl gSA
fo".kq [kjs
119
Page 3


fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs
tUe % lu~ 1940] ¯NnokM+k (eè; izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % ,d xSj :ekuh le; esa] [kqn viuh vk¡[k
ls] lcdh vkok”k osQ insZ esa] fiNyk ckdh (dfork&laxzg)_
vkykspuk dh igyh fdrkc (vkykspuk)_ flusek i<+us osQ
rjhosQ (flus vkykspuk)_ ejQ izns'k vkSj vU; dfork,¡ (Vh-
,l- bfy;V)] ;g pkowQ le; (vW¯ryk ;ks>siQ)] dkysokyk
(fiQuySaM dk jk"VªdkO;)(vuqokn)
izeq[k iqjLdkj % j?kqohj lgk; lEeku] ¯gnh vdkneh
(fnYyh) dk lEeku] f'k[kj lEeku] eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr lEeku]
fiQuySaM dk jk"Vªh; lEeku ukbV vkWI
+
kQ fn vkWMZj vkWI
+
kQ fn
OgkbV jks”k
gj dyko`Qfr ftruh og i<+h tkrh gS] lqukbZ ;k fn[kkbZ nsrh gS
mlls dgha ”;knk gksrh gS vkSj fI
+
kQYe dks ysdj 'kk;n ;g oqQN vfèkd lR; gSA
ledkyhu ¯gnh dfork vkSj vkykspuk esa fo".kq [kjs ,d fof'k"V gLrk{kj gSaA mUgksaus
¯gnh txr dks vR;ar xgjh fopkjijd dfork,¡ nh gSa] rks lkFk gh csckd vkykspukRed
ys[k Hkh fn, gSaA fo'o lkfgR; dk xgu vè;;u muosQ jpukRed vkSj vkykspukRed
ys[ku esa iwjh jaxr osQ lkFk fn[kykbZ iM+rk gSA fo'o flusek osQ Hkh os xgjs tkudkj gSa vkSj
fiNys dbZ o"kks± ls yxkrkj flusek dh foèkk ij xaHkhj ys[ku djrs jgs gSaA 1971&73 osQ
vius fons'k&izokl osQ njE;ku mUgksaus rRdkyhu psdksLyksokfd;k dh jktèkkuh izkx osQ
izfrf"Br fI
+
kQYe Dyc dh lnL;rk izkIr dj lalkj&Hkj dh lSdM+ksa mRo`Q"V fI
+
kQYesa ns[khaA
;gk¡ ls flusek&ys[ku dks oSpkfjd xfjek vkSj xaHkhjrk nsus dk mudk lI
+
kQj 'kq: gqvkA
^fnueku*] ^uoHkkjr VkbEl*] ^fn ik;ksfu;j*] ^fn ¯gnqLrku*] ^tulÙkk*] ^nSfud HkkLdj*]
^gal*] ^dFkkns'k*] tSlh i=k&if=kdkvksa esa mudk flusek fo"k;d ys[ku izdkf'kr gksrk jgk
gSA os mu fo'ks"kKksa esa ls gSa ftUgksaus fI
+
kQYe dks lekt] le; vkSj fopkjèkkjk osQ vkyksd
15
esa ns[kk rFkk bfrgkl] laxhr] vfHku;] funsZ'ku dh ckjhfd;ksa osQ flyflys esa mldk
fo'ys"k.k fd;kA vius ys[ku osQ }kjk mUgksaus ¯gnh osQ ml vHkko dks FkksM+k Hkjus esa
liQyrk ikbZ gS] ftlosQ ckjs esa viuh ,d fdrkc dh Hkwfedk esa os fy[krs gSaµ ¶;g Bhd
gS fd vc Hkkjr esa Hkh flusek osQ egÙo vkSj 'kkL=kh;rk dks igpku fy;k x;k gS vkSj
mlosQ fl¼kardkj Hkh mHkj vk, gSa ysfdu nqHkkZX;o'k ftruk xaHkhj dke gekjs flusek ij
;wjksi vkSj vesfjdk esa gks jgk gS 'kk;n mldk 'krka'k Hkh gekjs ;gk¡ ugha gSA ¯gnh esa flusek
osQ fl¼karksa ij 'kk;n gh dksbZ vPNh ewy iqLrd gksA gekjk yxHkx iwjk lekt vHkh Hkh
flusek tkus ;k ns[kus dks ,d gYkosQ vijkèk dh rjg ns[krk gSA¸
fo'o&flusek fo'o&lkfgR; osQ lekukarj iQy&iwQy jgk gS! nks egk;q¼ksa osQ ckn dh
ng'kr] uo&Lora=k ns'kksa dk uSfrd Hkwxksy] vkSifuosf'kd nklrk dk ekufld vo{ksi.k%
fo'o flusek ftl dkS'ky ls ;s fo"k; yxkrkj fcafcr djrk jgk gSµ mlosQ fodkl esa pkyhZ
pSfIyu uked egku vfHkusrk dk cM+k ;ksxnku gSA blhfy, ^pkyhZ pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc*
uked ikB bl egku vfHkusrk osQ Hkhrj osQ bulku dks tkuus dk volj nsrk gSA
lkèkkj.k dh vikj èkkj.k {kerk vkSj mlosQ èkqvk¡rs uk;dRo dks vius <ax ls pkyhZ
pSfIyu ls tqM+s ukVd vkSj fI
+
kQYesa idM+rs jgs gSaA vius ;gk¡ jktdiwj dh vkokjk] Jh
420] vukM+h vkSj esjk uke tksdj vkfn fI
+
kQYesa Hkh ftl rjg osQ Hkksys lM+dNki dh
=kkln&dken xkFkk jprh gSa] og Hkh pkyhZ pSfIyu dk gh izHkko gSA
gkL; fI
+
kQYeksa osQ egku vfHkusrk vkSj funsZ'kd pkyhZ pSfIyu ij fy[ks x, bl ikB
esa ys[kd us pkyhZ osQ dykdeZ dh oqQN ewyHkwr fo'ks"krkvksa dks js[kkafdr fd;k gSA djQ.kk
vkSj gkL; osQ rRoksa dk lkeatL;] mudh n`f"V esa] pkyhZ dh lcls cM+h fo'ks"krk jgh gSA
bls ns[krs gq, Hkkjr tSls eqYd esa] tgk¡ fl¼kar vkSj jpuk nksuksa Lrjksa ij gkL; vkSj djQ.kk osQ
esy dh dksbZ ijaijk ugha jgh gS] pkyhZ pSfIyu dh yksdfiz;rk ;g r; djrh gS fd dyk
Lora=k gksrh gS c¡èkrh ughaA ,d&ls&,d gkL; dykdkj gq,] ij os pSfIyu dh rjg gj ns'k]
gj mez vkSj gj Lrj osQ n'kZdksa dh ialn ugha cu ik,A bldk dkj.k 'kk;n ;g gS fd pkyhZ
gh og 'kf[l;r gks ldrk gS ftuesa lcdks viuh Nfo fn[krh gS os fdlh Hkh laLo`Qfr oQks
fons'kh ugha yxrs gSaA ;g iwjk ikB pkyhZ pSfIyu osQ blh Tkknw dh O;k[;k dk ,d iz;kl gSA
fo".kq [kjs
119
   16 vizSy 1989 dks buds tUe osQ lkS lky iwjs gks x,A
1936 esa cuh ekWMuZ VkbEl fI
+
kQYe dk ,d n`';
pky pky pky pky pkyhhhhhZ pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc
;fn ;g o"kZ pSfIyu dh tUe'krh dk u gksrk rks Hkh pSfIyu
osQ thou dk ,d egÙoiw.kZ o"kZ gksrk D;ksafd vkt mudh
igyh fI
+
kQYe ^esfoaQx , fyfoax* osQ 75o"kZ iwjs gksrs gSaA ikSu
'krkCnh ls pSfIyu dh dyk nqfu;k osQ lkeus gS vkSj ik¡p
ihf<+;ksa dks eqXèk dj pqdh gSA le;] Hkwxksy vkSj laLo`Qfr;ksa
dh lhekvksa ls f[kyokM+ djrk gqvk pkyhZ vkt Hkkjr osQ
yk[kksa cPpksa dks g¡lk jgk gS tks mls vius cq<+kis rd ;kn
j[ksaxsA if'pe esa rks ckj&ckj pkyhZ dk iquthZou gksrk gh gS] fodkl'khy nqfu;k esa
tSls&tSls Vsyhfo”ku vkSj ohfM;ks dk izlkj gks jgk gS] ,d cgqr cM+k n'kZd oxZ u, fljs
ls pkyhZ dks ?kM+h ^lqèkkjrs* ;k twrs ^[kkus* dh dksf'k'k djrs gq, ns[k jgk gSA pSfIyu dh
,slh oqQN fI
+
kQYesa ;k bLrseky u dh xbZ jhysa Hkh feyh gSa ftuosQ ckjs esa dksbZ tkurk u
FkkA vHkh pSfIyu ij djhc 50 o"kks± rd dkI
+
kQh oqQN dgk tk,xkA
Page 4


fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs
tUe % lu~ 1940] ¯NnokM+k (eè; izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % ,d xSj :ekuh le; esa] [kqn viuh vk¡[k
ls] lcdh vkok”k osQ insZ esa] fiNyk ckdh (dfork&laxzg)_
vkykspuk dh igyh fdrkc (vkykspuk)_ flusek i<+us osQ
rjhosQ (flus vkykspuk)_ ejQ izns'k vkSj vU; dfork,¡ (Vh-
,l- bfy;V)] ;g pkowQ le; (vW¯ryk ;ks>siQ)] dkysokyk
(fiQuySaM dk jk"VªdkO;)(vuqokn)
izeq[k iqjLdkj % j?kqohj lgk; lEeku] ¯gnh vdkneh
(fnYyh) dk lEeku] f'k[kj lEeku] eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr lEeku]
fiQuySaM dk jk"Vªh; lEeku ukbV vkWI
+
kQ fn vkWMZj vkWI
+
kQ fn
OgkbV jks”k
gj dyko`Qfr ftruh og i<+h tkrh gS] lqukbZ ;k fn[kkbZ nsrh gS
mlls dgha ”;knk gksrh gS vkSj fI
+
kQYe dks ysdj 'kk;n ;g oqQN vfèkd lR; gSA
ledkyhu ¯gnh dfork vkSj vkykspuk esa fo".kq [kjs ,d fof'k"V gLrk{kj gSaA mUgksaus
¯gnh txr dks vR;ar xgjh fopkjijd dfork,¡ nh gSa] rks lkFk gh csckd vkykspukRed
ys[k Hkh fn, gSaA fo'o lkfgR; dk xgu vè;;u muosQ jpukRed vkSj vkykspukRed
ys[ku esa iwjh jaxr osQ lkFk fn[kykbZ iM+rk gSA fo'o flusek osQ Hkh os xgjs tkudkj gSa vkSj
fiNys dbZ o"kks± ls yxkrkj flusek dh foèkk ij xaHkhj ys[ku djrs jgs gSaA 1971&73 osQ
vius fons'k&izokl osQ njE;ku mUgksaus rRdkyhu psdksLyksokfd;k dh jktèkkuh izkx osQ
izfrf"Br fI
+
kQYe Dyc dh lnL;rk izkIr dj lalkj&Hkj dh lSdM+ksa mRo`Q"V fI
+
kQYesa ns[khaA
;gk¡ ls flusek&ys[ku dks oSpkfjd xfjek vkSj xaHkhjrk nsus dk mudk lI
+
kQj 'kq: gqvkA
^fnueku*] ^uoHkkjr VkbEl*] ^fn ik;ksfu;j*] ^fn ¯gnqLrku*] ^tulÙkk*] ^nSfud HkkLdj*]
^gal*] ^dFkkns'k*] tSlh i=k&if=kdkvksa esa mudk flusek fo"k;d ys[ku izdkf'kr gksrk jgk
gSA os mu fo'ks"kKksa esa ls gSa ftUgksaus fI
+
kQYe dks lekt] le; vkSj fopkjèkkjk osQ vkyksd
15
esa ns[kk rFkk bfrgkl] laxhr] vfHku;] funsZ'ku dh ckjhfd;ksa osQ flyflys esa mldk
fo'ys"k.k fd;kA vius ys[ku osQ }kjk mUgksaus ¯gnh osQ ml vHkko dks FkksM+k Hkjus esa
liQyrk ikbZ gS] ftlosQ ckjs esa viuh ,d fdrkc dh Hkwfedk esa os fy[krs gSaµ ¶;g Bhd
gS fd vc Hkkjr esa Hkh flusek osQ egÙo vkSj 'kkL=kh;rk dks igpku fy;k x;k gS vkSj
mlosQ fl¼kardkj Hkh mHkj vk, gSa ysfdu nqHkkZX;o'k ftruk xaHkhj dke gekjs flusek ij
;wjksi vkSj vesfjdk esa gks jgk gS 'kk;n mldk 'krka'k Hkh gekjs ;gk¡ ugha gSA ¯gnh esa flusek
osQ fl¼karksa ij 'kk;n gh dksbZ vPNh ewy iqLrd gksA gekjk yxHkx iwjk lekt vHkh Hkh
flusek tkus ;k ns[kus dks ,d gYkosQ vijkèk dh rjg ns[krk gSA¸
fo'o&flusek fo'o&lkfgR; osQ lekukarj iQy&iwQy jgk gS! nks egk;q¼ksa osQ ckn dh
ng'kr] uo&Lora=k ns'kksa dk uSfrd Hkwxksy] vkSifuosf'kd nklrk dk ekufld vo{ksi.k%
fo'o flusek ftl dkS'ky ls ;s fo"k; yxkrkj fcafcr djrk jgk gSµ mlosQ fodkl esa pkyhZ
pSfIyu uked egku vfHkusrk dk cM+k ;ksxnku gSA blhfy, ^pkyhZ pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc*
uked ikB bl egku vfHkusrk osQ Hkhrj osQ bulku dks tkuus dk volj nsrk gSA
lkèkkj.k dh vikj èkkj.k {kerk vkSj mlosQ èkqvk¡rs uk;dRo dks vius <ax ls pkyhZ
pSfIyu ls tqM+s ukVd vkSj fI
+
kQYesa idM+rs jgs gSaA vius ;gk¡ jktdiwj dh vkokjk] Jh
420] vukM+h vkSj esjk uke tksdj vkfn fI
+
kQYesa Hkh ftl rjg osQ Hkksys lM+dNki dh
=kkln&dken xkFkk jprh gSa] og Hkh pkyhZ pSfIyu dk gh izHkko gSA
gkL; fI
+
kQYeksa osQ egku vfHkusrk vkSj funsZ'kd pkyhZ pSfIyu ij fy[ks x, bl ikB
esa ys[kd us pkyhZ osQ dykdeZ dh oqQN ewyHkwr fo'ks"krkvksa dks js[kkafdr fd;k gSA djQ.kk
vkSj gkL; osQ rRoksa dk lkeatL;] mudh n`f"V esa] pkyhZ dh lcls cM+h fo'ks"krk jgh gSA
bls ns[krs gq, Hkkjr tSls eqYd esa] tgk¡ fl¼kar vkSj jpuk nksuksa Lrjksa ij gkL; vkSj djQ.kk osQ
esy dh dksbZ ijaijk ugha jgh gS] pkyhZ pSfIyu dh yksdfiz;rk ;g r; djrh gS fd dyk
Lora=k gksrh gS c¡èkrh ughaA ,d&ls&,d gkL; dykdkj gq,] ij os pSfIyu dh rjg gj ns'k]
gj mez vkSj gj Lrj osQ n'kZdksa dh ialn ugha cu ik,A bldk dkj.k 'kk;n ;g gS fd pkyhZ
gh og 'kf[l;r gks ldrk gS ftuesa lcdks viuh Nfo fn[krh gS os fdlh Hkh laLo`Qfr oQks
fons'kh ugha yxrs gSaA ;g iwjk ikB pkyhZ pSfIyu osQ blh Tkknw dh O;k[;k dk ,d iz;kl gSA
fo".kq [kjs
119
   16 vizSy 1989 dks buds tUe osQ lkS lky iwjs gks x,A
1936 esa cuh ekWMuZ VkbEl fI
+
kQYe dk ,d n`';
pky pky pky pky pkyhhhhhZ pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc
;fn ;g o"kZ pSfIyu dh tUe'krh dk u gksrk rks Hkh pSfIyu
osQ thou dk ,d egÙoiw.kZ o"kZ gksrk D;ksafd vkt mudh
igyh fI
+
kQYe ^esfoaQx , fyfoax* osQ 75o"kZ iwjs gksrs gSaA ikSu
'krkCnh ls pSfIyu dh dyk nqfu;k osQ lkeus gS vkSj ik¡p
ihf<+;ksa dks eqXèk dj pqdh gSA le;] Hkwxksy vkSj laLo`Qfr;ksa
dh lhekvksa ls f[kyokM+ djrk gqvk pkyhZ vkt Hkkjr osQ
yk[kksa cPpksa dks g¡lk jgk gS tks mls vius cq<+kis rd ;kn
j[ksaxsA if'pe esa rks ckj&ckj pkyhZ dk iquthZou gksrk gh gS] fodkl'khy nqfu;k esa
tSls&tSls Vsyhfo”ku vkSj ohfM;ks dk izlkj gks jgk gS] ,d cgqr cM+k n'kZd oxZ u, fljs
ls pkyhZ dks ?kM+h ^lqèkkjrs* ;k twrs ^[kkus* dh dksf'k'k djrs gq, ns[k jgk gSA pSfIyu dh
,slh oqQN fI
+
kQYesa ;k bLrseky u dh xbZ jhysa Hkh feyh gSa ftuosQ ckjs esa dksbZ tkurk u
FkkA vHkh pSfIyu ij djhc 50 o"kks± rd dkI
+
kQh oqQN dgk tk,xkA
mudh fI
+
kQYesa Hkkoukvksa ij fVdh gqbZ gSa] cqf¼ ij ughaA ^esVªksiksfyl*] ^nh oSQfcusV
vkWI
+
kQ MkWDVj oSQfyxkjh*] ^n jksoaFk lhy*] ^ykLV b;j bu ekfj,uckM*] ^n lSSfozQiQkbl*
tSlh fI
+
kQYesa n'kZd ls ,d mPprj vglkl dh ek¡x djrh gSaA pSfIyu dk peRdkj ;gh
gS fd mudh fI
+
kQYeksa dks ikxy[kkus osQ ejh”kksa] fody efLr"d yksxksa ls ysdj vkbULVkbu
tSls egku izfrHkk okys O;fDr rd dgha ,d Lrj ij vkSj dgha lw{ere jlkLoknu osQ
lkFk ns[k ldrs gSaA pSfIyu us u flI
+
kZQ fI
+
kQYe dyk dks yksdrkaf=kd cuk;k cfYd n'kZdksa
dh oxZ rFkk o.kZ&O;oLFkk dks rksM+kA ;g vdkj.k ugha gS fd tks Hkh O;fDr] lewg ;k ra=k
xSj cjkcjh ugha feVkuk pkgrk og vU; laLFkkvksa osQ vykok pSfIyu dh fI
+
kQYeksa ij Hkh
geyk djrk gSA pSfIyu HkhM+ dk og cPpk gS tks b'kkjs ls cryk nsrk gS fd jktk Hkh
mruk gh uaxk gS ftruk eSa gw¡ vkSj HkhM+ g¡l nsrh gSA dksbZ Hkh 'kkld ;k ra=k turk dk
vius mQij g¡luk ilan ugha djrkA ,d ifjR;Drk] nwljs ntsZ dh LVst vfHkus=kh dk csVk
gksuk] ckn esa Hk;kog xjhch vkSj ek¡ osQ ikxyiu ls la?k"kZ djuk] lkezkT;] vkS|ksfxd
ozQkafr] iw¡thokn rFkk lkear'kkgh ls ex:j ,d lekt }kjk nqjnqjk;k tkukµbu lcls pSfIyu
dks os thou&ewY; feys tks djksM+ifr gks tkus osQ ckotwn var rd muesa jgsA viuh ukuh
dh rjI
+
kQ ls pSfIyu [kkukcnks'kksa ls tqM+s gq, Fks vkSj ;g ,d lqnwwj :ekuh laHkkouk cuh
gqbZ gS fd 'kk;n ml [kkukcnks'k vkSjr esa
Hkkjrh;rk jgh gks D;ksafd ;wjksi osQ ftIlh
Hkkjr ls gh x, Fksµ vkSj vius firk dh
rjI
+
kQ ls os ;gwnhoa'kh FksA bu tfVy
ifjfLFkfr;ksa us pkyhZ dks ges'kk ,d
^ckgjh*] ^?kqearw* pfj=k cuk fn;kA os
dHkh eè;oxhZ] cqTkZqvk ;k mPpoxhZ
thou&ewY; u viuk losQA ;fn mUgksaus
viuh fI
+
kQYeksa esa viuh fiz; Nfo ^VSªEi*
(cíw] [kkukcnks'k] vkokjkxnZ) dh izLrqr
dh gS rks mlosQ dkj.k muosQ vopsru
rd igq¡prs gSaA
pkyhZ ij dbZ fI
+
kQYe leh{kdksa
us ugha] fI
+
kQYe dyk osQ mLrknksa vkSj
ekufodh osQ fo}kuksa us flj èkqus gSa vkSj
mUgsa usfr&usfr dgrs gq, Hkh ;g ekuuk
pkyhZ pSifyu ;kuh ge lc
121
Page 5


fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs fo".kq [kjs
tUe % lu~ 1940] ¯NnokM+k (eè; izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % ,d xSj :ekuh le; esa] [kqn viuh vk¡[k
ls] lcdh vkok”k osQ insZ esa] fiNyk ckdh (dfork&laxzg)_
vkykspuk dh igyh fdrkc (vkykspuk)_ flusek i<+us osQ
rjhosQ (flus vkykspuk)_ ejQ izns'k vkSj vU; dfork,¡ (Vh-
,l- bfy;V)] ;g pkowQ le; (vW¯ryk ;ks>siQ)] dkysokyk
(fiQuySaM dk jk"VªdkO;)(vuqokn)
izeq[k iqjLdkj % j?kqohj lgk; lEeku] ¯gnh vdkneh
(fnYyh) dk lEeku] f'k[kj lEeku] eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr lEeku]
fiQuySaM dk jk"Vªh; lEeku ukbV vkWI
+
kQ fn vkWMZj vkWI
+
kQ fn
OgkbV jks”k
gj dyko`Qfr ftruh og i<+h tkrh gS] lqukbZ ;k fn[kkbZ nsrh gS
mlls dgha ”;knk gksrh gS vkSj fI
+
kQYe dks ysdj 'kk;n ;g oqQN vfèkd lR; gSA
ledkyhu ¯gnh dfork vkSj vkykspuk esa fo".kq [kjs ,d fof'k"V gLrk{kj gSaA mUgksaus
¯gnh txr dks vR;ar xgjh fopkjijd dfork,¡ nh gSa] rks lkFk gh csckd vkykspukRed
ys[k Hkh fn, gSaA fo'o lkfgR; dk xgu vè;;u muosQ jpukRed vkSj vkykspukRed
ys[ku esa iwjh jaxr osQ lkFk fn[kykbZ iM+rk gSA fo'o flusek osQ Hkh os xgjs tkudkj gSa vkSj
fiNys dbZ o"kks± ls yxkrkj flusek dh foèkk ij xaHkhj ys[ku djrs jgs gSaA 1971&73 osQ
vius fons'k&izokl osQ njE;ku mUgksaus rRdkyhu psdksLyksokfd;k dh jktèkkuh izkx osQ
izfrf"Br fI
+
kQYe Dyc dh lnL;rk izkIr dj lalkj&Hkj dh lSdM+ksa mRo`Q"V fI
+
kQYesa ns[khaA
;gk¡ ls flusek&ys[ku dks oSpkfjd xfjek vkSj xaHkhjrk nsus dk mudk lI
+
kQj 'kq: gqvkA
^fnueku*] ^uoHkkjr VkbEl*] ^fn ik;ksfu;j*] ^fn ¯gnqLrku*] ^tulÙkk*] ^nSfud HkkLdj*]
^gal*] ^dFkkns'k*] tSlh i=k&if=kdkvksa esa mudk flusek fo"k;d ys[ku izdkf'kr gksrk jgk
gSA os mu fo'ks"kKksa esa ls gSa ftUgksaus fI
+
kQYe dks lekt] le; vkSj fopkjèkkjk osQ vkyksd
15
esa ns[kk rFkk bfrgkl] laxhr] vfHku;] funsZ'ku dh ckjhfd;ksa osQ flyflys esa mldk
fo'ys"k.k fd;kA vius ys[ku osQ }kjk mUgksaus ¯gnh osQ ml vHkko dks FkksM+k Hkjus esa
liQyrk ikbZ gS] ftlosQ ckjs esa viuh ,d fdrkc dh Hkwfedk esa os fy[krs gSaµ ¶;g Bhd
gS fd vc Hkkjr esa Hkh flusek osQ egÙo vkSj 'kkL=kh;rk dks igpku fy;k x;k gS vkSj
mlosQ fl¼kardkj Hkh mHkj vk, gSa ysfdu nqHkkZX;o'k ftruk xaHkhj dke gekjs flusek ij
;wjksi vkSj vesfjdk esa gks jgk gS 'kk;n mldk 'krka'k Hkh gekjs ;gk¡ ugha gSA ¯gnh esa flusek
osQ fl¼karksa ij 'kk;n gh dksbZ vPNh ewy iqLrd gksA gekjk yxHkx iwjk lekt vHkh Hkh
flusek tkus ;k ns[kus dks ,d gYkosQ vijkèk dh rjg ns[krk gSA¸
fo'o&flusek fo'o&lkfgR; osQ lekukarj iQy&iwQy jgk gS! nks egk;q¼ksa osQ ckn dh
ng'kr] uo&Lora=k ns'kksa dk uSfrd Hkwxksy] vkSifuosf'kd nklrk dk ekufld vo{ksi.k%
fo'o flusek ftl dkS'ky ls ;s fo"k; yxkrkj fcafcr djrk jgk gSµ mlosQ fodkl esa pkyhZ
pSfIyu uked egku vfHkusrk dk cM+k ;ksxnku gSA blhfy, ^pkyhZ pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc*
uked ikB bl egku vfHkusrk osQ Hkhrj osQ bulku dks tkuus dk volj nsrk gSA
lkèkkj.k dh vikj èkkj.k {kerk vkSj mlosQ èkqvk¡rs uk;dRo dks vius <ax ls pkyhZ
pSfIyu ls tqM+s ukVd vkSj fI
+
kQYesa idM+rs jgs gSaA vius ;gk¡ jktdiwj dh vkokjk] Jh
420] vukM+h vkSj esjk uke tksdj vkfn fI
+
kQYesa Hkh ftl rjg osQ Hkksys lM+dNki dh
=kkln&dken xkFkk jprh gSa] og Hkh pkyhZ pSfIyu dk gh izHkko gSA
gkL; fI
+
kQYeksa osQ egku vfHkusrk vkSj funsZ'kd pkyhZ pSfIyu ij fy[ks x, bl ikB
esa ys[kd us pkyhZ osQ dykdeZ dh oqQN ewyHkwr fo'ks"krkvksa dks js[kkafdr fd;k gSA djQ.kk
vkSj gkL; osQ rRoksa dk lkeatL;] mudh n`f"V esa] pkyhZ dh lcls cM+h fo'ks"krk jgh gSA
bls ns[krs gq, Hkkjr tSls eqYd esa] tgk¡ fl¼kar vkSj jpuk nksuksa Lrjksa ij gkL; vkSj djQ.kk osQ
esy dh dksbZ ijaijk ugha jgh gS] pkyhZ pSfIyu dh yksdfiz;rk ;g r; djrh gS fd dyk
Lora=k gksrh gS c¡èkrh ughaA ,d&ls&,d gkL; dykdkj gq,] ij os pSfIyu dh rjg gj ns'k]
gj mez vkSj gj Lrj osQ n'kZdksa dh ialn ugha cu ik,A bldk dkj.k 'kk;n ;g gS fd pkyhZ
gh og 'kf[l;r gks ldrk gS ftuesa lcdks viuh Nfo fn[krh gS os fdlh Hkh laLo`Qfr oQks
fons'kh ugha yxrs gSaA ;g iwjk ikB pkyhZ pSfIyu osQ blh Tkknw dh O;k[;k dk ,d iz;kl gSA
fo".kq [kjs
119
   16 vizSy 1989 dks buds tUe osQ lkS lky iwjs gks x,A
1936 esa cuh ekWMuZ VkbEl fI
+
kQYe dk ,d n`';
pky pky pky pky pkyhhhhhZ pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc pSfIyu ;kuh ge lc
;fn ;g o"kZ pSfIyu dh tUe'krh dk u gksrk rks Hkh pSfIyu
osQ thou dk ,d egÙoiw.kZ o"kZ gksrk D;ksafd vkt mudh
igyh fI
+
kQYe ^esfoaQx , fyfoax* osQ 75o"kZ iwjs gksrs gSaA ikSu
'krkCnh ls pSfIyu dh dyk nqfu;k osQ lkeus gS vkSj ik¡p
ihf<+;ksa dks eqXèk dj pqdh gSA le;] Hkwxksy vkSj laLo`Qfr;ksa
dh lhekvksa ls f[kyokM+ djrk gqvk pkyhZ vkt Hkkjr osQ
yk[kksa cPpksa dks g¡lk jgk gS tks mls vius cq<+kis rd ;kn
j[ksaxsA if'pe esa rks ckj&ckj pkyhZ dk iquthZou gksrk gh gS] fodkl'khy nqfu;k esa
tSls&tSls Vsyhfo”ku vkSj ohfM;ks dk izlkj gks jgk gS] ,d cgqr cM+k n'kZd oxZ u, fljs
ls pkyhZ dks ?kM+h ^lqèkkjrs* ;k twrs ^[kkus* dh dksf'k'k djrs gq, ns[k jgk gSA pSfIyu dh
,slh oqQN fI
+
kQYesa ;k bLrseky u dh xbZ jhysa Hkh feyh gSa ftuosQ ckjs esa dksbZ tkurk u
FkkA vHkh pSfIyu ij djhc 50 o"kks± rd dkI
+
kQh oqQN dgk tk,xkA
mudh fI
+
kQYesa Hkkoukvksa ij fVdh gqbZ gSa] cqf¼ ij ughaA ^esVªksiksfyl*] ^nh oSQfcusV
vkWI
+
kQ MkWDVj oSQfyxkjh*] ^n jksoaFk lhy*] ^ykLV b;j bu ekfj,uckM*] ^n lSSfozQiQkbl*
tSlh fI
+
kQYesa n'kZd ls ,d mPprj vglkl dh ek¡x djrh gSaA pSfIyu dk peRdkj ;gh
gS fd mudh fI
+
kQYeksa dks ikxy[kkus osQ ejh”kksa] fody efLr"d yksxksa ls ysdj vkbULVkbu
tSls egku izfrHkk okys O;fDr rd dgha ,d Lrj ij vkSj dgha lw{ere jlkLoknu osQ
lkFk ns[k ldrs gSaA pSfIyu us u flI
+
kZQ fI
+
kQYe dyk dks yksdrkaf=kd cuk;k cfYd n'kZdksa
dh oxZ rFkk o.kZ&O;oLFkk dks rksM+kA ;g vdkj.k ugha gS fd tks Hkh O;fDr] lewg ;k ra=k
xSj cjkcjh ugha feVkuk pkgrk og vU; laLFkkvksa osQ vykok pSfIyu dh fI
+
kQYeksa ij Hkh
geyk djrk gSA pSfIyu HkhM+ dk og cPpk gS tks b'kkjs ls cryk nsrk gS fd jktk Hkh
mruk gh uaxk gS ftruk eSa gw¡ vkSj HkhM+ g¡l nsrh gSA dksbZ Hkh 'kkld ;k ra=k turk dk
vius mQij g¡luk ilan ugha djrkA ,d ifjR;Drk] nwljs ntsZ dh LVst vfHkus=kh dk csVk
gksuk] ckn esa Hk;kog xjhch vkSj ek¡ osQ ikxyiu ls la?k"kZ djuk] lkezkT;] vkS|ksfxd
ozQkafr] iw¡thokn rFkk lkear'kkgh ls ex:j ,d lekt }kjk nqjnqjk;k tkukµbu lcls pSfIyu
dks os thou&ewY; feys tks djksM+ifr gks tkus osQ ckotwn var rd muesa jgsA viuh ukuh
dh rjI
+
kQ ls pSfIyu [kkukcnks'kksa ls tqM+s gq, Fks vkSj ;g ,d lqnwwj :ekuh laHkkouk cuh
gqbZ gS fd 'kk;n ml [kkukcnks'k vkSjr esa
Hkkjrh;rk jgh gks D;ksafd ;wjksi osQ ftIlh
Hkkjr ls gh x, Fksµ vkSj vius firk dh
rjI
+
kQ ls os ;gwnhoa'kh FksA bu tfVy
ifjfLFkfr;ksa us pkyhZ dks ges'kk ,d
^ckgjh*] ^?kqearw* pfj=k cuk fn;kA os
dHkh eè;oxhZ] cqTkZqvk ;k mPpoxhZ
thou&ewY; u viuk losQA ;fn mUgksaus
viuh fI
+
kQYeksa esa viuh fiz; Nfo ^VSªEi*
(cíw] [kkukcnks'k] vkokjkxnZ) dh izLrqr
dh gS rks mlosQ dkj.k muosQ vopsru
rd igq¡prs gSaA
pkyhZ ij dbZ fI
+
kQYe leh{kdksa
us ugha] fI
+
kQYe dyk osQ mLrknksa vkSj
ekufodh osQ fo}kuksa us flj èkqus gSa vkSj
mUgsa usfr&usfr dgrs gq, Hkh ;g ekuuk
pkyhZ pSifyu ;kuh ge lc
121
vkjksg
122
iM+rk gS fd pkyhZ ij oqQN u;k fy[kuk dfBu gksrk tk jgk gSaA njvly fl¼akr dyk
dks tUe ugha nsrs] dyk Lo;a vius fl¼akr ;k rks ysdj vkrh gS ;k ckn esa mUgsa x<+uk
iM+rk gSA tks djksM+ksa yksx pkyhZ dks ns[kdj vius isV nq[kk ysrs gSa mUgsa eSy vksfVaxj ;k
tsEl ,th dh csgn lkjxfHkZr leh{kkvksa ls D;k ysuk&nsuk\ os pkyhZ dks le; vkSj Hkwxksy
ls dkV dj ns[krs gSa vkSj tks ns[krs gSa mldh rkdr vc rd T;ksa&dh&R;ksa cuh gqbZ gSA ;g
dguk fd os pkyhZ esa [kqn dks ns[krs gSa nwj dh dkSM+h ykuk gS ysfdu cs'kd tSlk pkyhZ os
ns[krs gSa og mUgsa tkuk&igpkuk yxrk gS] ftl eqlhcr esa og vius dks gj nlosa lsoasQM
esa Mky nsrk gS og lqifjfpr yxrh gSA vius dks ugha ysfdu os vius fdlh ifjfpr ;k
ns[ks gq, dks pkyhZ ekuus yxrs gSaA dyk esa csgrj D;k gSµ cqf¼ dks izsfjr djus okyh Hkkouk
;k Hkkouk dks mdlkus okyh cqf¼\ mlus Hkkouk dks pquk vkSj mlosQ dkj.k FksA cpiu dh
nks ?kVukvksa us pSfIyu ij xgjk] LFkk;h izHkko Mkyk FkkA ,d ckj tc os chekj Fks rc mudh ek¡
us mUgsa bZlk elhg dk thou ckbfcy ls i<+dj lquk;k FkkA bZlk osQ lwyh ij p<+us osQ izdj.k
rd vkrs&vkrs ek¡ vkSj pkyhZ nksukssa jksus yxsA viuh vkRedFkk esa pSfIyu fy[krs gSa %
^vksdys LVªhV osQ rg[kkus osQ ml v¡fèk;kjs dejs esa ek¡ us esjs lkeus lalkj dh
og lcls n;kyq T;ksfr mtkxj dh ftlus lkfgR; vkSj ukV~; dks muosQ egkure vkSj
le`¼re fo"k; fn, gSa % Lusg] d#.kk vkSj ekuorkA*
nwljh ?kVuk Hkh de ekfeZd ugha gSA ckyd pkyhZ mu fnuksa ,d ,sls ?kj esa jgrk
Fkk tgk¡ ls dlkbZ[kkuk nwj ugha FkkA og jkst lSdM+ksa tkuojksa dks ogk¡ ys tk;k tkrk ns[krk
FkkA ,d ckj ,d HksM+ fdlh rjg tku NqM+kdj Hkkx fudyhA mls idM+us okys mldk
ihNk djrs gq, dbZ ckj fiQlys] fxjs vkSj iwjh lM+d ij BgkosQ yxus yxsA vkf[kjdkj
ml xjhc tkuoj dks idM+ fy;k x;k vkSj mls fiQj dlkbZ osQ ikl ys tkus yxsA rc
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