NCERT Textbook chapter 6 : DEMOCRATIC POLITICS , Class 9, CBSE Class 9 Notes | EduRev

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Class 9 : NCERT Textbook chapter 6 : DEMOCRATIC POLITICS , Class 9, CBSE Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


96 DEMOCRATIC POLITICS
OVERVIEW
In the previous two chapters we have looked at two major elements of a
democratic government. In Chapter Four we saw how a democratic
government has to be periodically elected by the people in a free and fair
manner. In Chapter Five we learnt that a democracy must be based on
institutions that follow certain rules and procedures. These elements are
necessary but not sufficient for a democracy. Elections and institutions
need to be combined with a third element – enjoyment of rights – to make
a government democratic. Even the most properly elected rulers working
through the established institutional process must learn not to cross some
limits. Citizens’ democratic rights set those limits in a democracy.
This is what we take up in this final chapter of the book. We begin by
discussing some real life cases to imagine what it means to live without
rights. This leads to a discussion on what we mean by rights and why do
we need them. As in the previous chapters, the general discussion is
followed by a focus on India. We discuss one by one the Fundamental
Rights in the Indian Constitution. Then we turn to how these rights can
be used by ordinary citizens. Who will protect and enforce them? Finally
we take a look at how the scope of rights has been expanding.
CHAPTER 6
DEMOCRATIC
RIGHTS
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


96 DEMOCRATIC POLITICS
OVERVIEW
In the previous two chapters we have looked at two major elements of a
democratic government. In Chapter Four we saw how a democratic
government has to be periodically elected by the people in a free and fair
manner. In Chapter Five we learnt that a democracy must be based on
institutions that follow certain rules and procedures. These elements are
necessary but not sufficient for a democracy. Elections and institutions
need to be combined with a third element – enjoyment of rights – to make
a government democratic. Even the most properly elected rulers working
through the established institutional process must learn not to cross some
limits. Citizens’ democratic rights set those limits in a democracy.
This is what we take up in this final chapter of the book. We begin by
discussing some real life cases to imagine what it means to live without
rights. This leads to a discussion on what we mean by rights and why do
we need them. As in the previous chapters, the general discussion is
followed by a focus on India. We discuss one by one the Fundamental
Rights in the Indian Constitution. Then we turn to how these rights can
be used by ordinary citizens. Who will protect and enforce them? Finally
we take a look at how the scope of rights has been expanding.
CHAPTER 6
DEMOCRATIC
RIGHTS
© NCERT
not to be republished
97
Dear Mr Tony Blair,
Firstly, how are you? I sent a
letter two years ago, why didn’t
you reply?!? I was waiting for a
long time but you did not reply.
Please can you give me an answer
to my question? Why is my dad in
prison? Why is he far away in
that Guantánamo Bay?! I miss my
dad so much. I have not seen my
dad for three years. I know my
dad has not done anything,
because he is a good man. I hear
everybody speak about my dad in
a nice way. Your children spend
Christmas with you, but me and
my brothers, and sisters have
spent Eid alone without our dad
for 3 years. What do you think
about that?
I hope you will answer me this
time.
Thank you,
From: Anas Jamil El-Banna,
9 years old.
7/12/2005
6. 1 LIFE WITHOUT RIGHTS
Chapter Three: Our Constitution
makers believed that fundamental
rights were quite central to the
Constitution because …
Chapter Four: Every adult citizen of
India has the right to ... and to be ...
Chapter Five: If a law is against the
Constitution, every citizen has the
right to approach …
Let us now begin with three
examples of what it means to live in
the absence of rights.
P P P P Pr r r r rison in G ison in G ison in G ison in G ison in Guan uan uan uan uantanamo B tanamo B tanamo B tanamo B tanamo Ba a a a ay y y y y
About 600 people were secretly
picked up by the US forces from all
over the world and put in a prison
in Guantanamo Bay, an area near
Cuba controlled by Amercian Navy.
Anas’s father, Jamil El-Banna, was
among them. The American
government said that they were
enemies of the US and linked to the
attack on New York on 11
September 2001. In most cases the
governments of their countries were
not asked or even informed about
their imprisonment. Like other
prisoners, El-Banna’s family got to
know that he was in that prison only
through the media. Families of
prisoners, media or even UN
representatives were not allowed to
meet them. The US army arrested
them, interrogated them and
decided whether to keep them there
or not. There was no trial before any
magistrate in the US. Nor could
these prisoners approach courts in
their own country.
Amnesty International, an
international human rights
organisation, collected information
on the condition of the prisoners in
Guantanamo Bay and reported that
the prisoners were being tortured in
ways that violated the US laws. They
In this book we have mentioned
rights again and again. If you
remember, we have discussed rights
in each of the five preceding
chapters. Can you fill in the blanks
by recalling the rights dimension in
each chapter?
Chapter One: Chile under Pinochet
and Poland under Jaruzelsky were
not democratic because …
Chapter Two: A comprehensive
definition of democracy includes …
DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS
© NCERT
not to be republished
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