NEET Biology Syllabus 2019
The Biology syllabus for NEET can be divided into more sections as given below:
- Diversity in Living World
- Cell Structure and Function
- Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
- Plant Physiology
- Human Physiology
- Genetics and Evolution
- Biotechnology and Its Applications
- Biology and Human Welfare
- Ecology and Environment
|Class XI|| Weightage||Class XII||Weightage |
|The Living World|| 0.56||Reproduction in Organisms||0.9|
|Biological Classification|| 1.33||Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants || 2.67|
|Plant Kingdom|| 2.83||Human Reproduction || 1.61|
|Animal Kingdom|| 2.11||Reproductive Health|| 0.78|
|Morphology of Flowering Plants|| 2.33||Principles of Inheritance and variation|| 2.22|
|Anatomy of Flowering plant|| 1.39|| Molecular basis of Inheritance|| 1.83|
|Structural organisation in animals|| 0.83|| Genetics and Evolution|| 2.06|
|Cell: The unit of Life|| 1.89|| Human Health and Disease|| 1.94|
|Biomolecules|| 1.83|| Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production|| 0.78|
|Cell Cycle and Cell Division|| 1.44|| Microbes in human welfare|| 1.17|
| Transport in Plants|| 0.89|| Biotechnology Principles and processes|| 2.17|
| Mineral Nutrition|| 0.56|| Organism and Population|| 0.94|
| Photosynthesis|| 1.39|| Ecosystem|| 1.17|
| Respiration in Plants|| 0.11|| Biodiversity and Conservation|| 1.39|
| Plant Growth and Development|| 0.67|| Environmental Issues|| 0.94|
| Digestion and absorption|| 1.39|
|Breathing and exchange of gases|| 1.17|
|Body fluids and Circulation|| 0.78|
|Excretory Products and their elimination|| 1.11|
|Locomotion and Movement|| 0.78|
|Neural Control and Coordination|| 1.22|
|Chemical Coordination and Integration|| 1.72|
NEET Biology Chapter Wise Weightage
NEET 2019 Detailed Biology Syllabus for Class XI
UNIT I: Diversity in Living World
- What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
- Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
- Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).
- Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).
UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
- Morphology and modifications.
- Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and racemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
- Animal Tissues.
- Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach).
UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function
- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life.
- Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.
- Plant cell and animal cell.
- Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall.
- Cell organelles-structure and function.
- Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles.
- Mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies.
- Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function).
- Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
- Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids.
- Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
- B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
UNIT IV: Plant Physiology
- Transport in plants:
- Movement of water, gases and nutrients.
- Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport.
- Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis.
- Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation.
- Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata.
- Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis.
- Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
- Mineral nutrition:
- Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role.
- Deficiency symptoms.
- Mineral toxicity.
- Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition.
- Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
- Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition.
- Site of photosynthesis take place.
- Pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea).
- Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis.
- Cyclic and non-cyclic and photophosphorylation.
- Chemiosmotic hypothesis.
- Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways.
- Factors affecting photosynthesis.
- Exchange gases
- Ellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic).
- Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated.
- Amphibolic pathways.
- Respiratory quotient.
- Plant growth and development:
- Seed germination.
- Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate.
- Conditions of growth.
- Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation.
- The sequence of developmental process in a plant cell.
- Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA.
- Seed dormancy.
UNIT V: Human Physiology
- Digestion and absorption;
- Alimentary canal and digestive glands.
- Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones.
- Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
- Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
- Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
- Breathing and Respiration:
- Respiratory organs in animals (recall only).
- Respiratory system in humans.
- Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes.
- Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
- Body fluids and circulation:
- Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood.
- Composition of lymph and its function.
- Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels.
- Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation.
- Regulation of cardiac activity.
- Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
- Excretory products and their elimination:
- Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism.
- Human excretory system-structure and function.
- Urine formation, Osmoregulation.
- Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus.
- Role of other organs in excretion.
- Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis.
- Dialysis and artificial kidney.
- Locomotion and Movement:
- Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular.
- Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction.
- Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus).
- Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
- Neural control and coordination:
- Neuron and nerves.
- Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system.
- Generation and conduction of nerve impulse.
- Reflex action.
- Sense organs.
- Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
- Chemical coordination and regulation:
- Endocrine glands and hormones.
- Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads.
- Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea).
- Role of hormones as messengers and regulators.
- Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).
- Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.
NEET 2019 Detailed Biology Syllabus for Class XII
UNIT I: Reproduction
- Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for the continuation of species.
- Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual.
- Asexual reproduction.
- Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation.
- Vegetative propagation in plants.
- Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure.
- Development of male and female gametophytes.
- Pollination-types, agencies and examples.
- Outbreeding devices.
- Pollen-Pistil interaction.
- Double fertilization.
- Post-fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit.
- Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony.
- The significance of seed and fruit formation.
- Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems.
- Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary.
- Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis.
- Menstrual cycle.
- Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation.
- Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea).
- Parturition (Elementary idea).
- Lactation (Elementary idea).
- Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD).
- Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP).
- Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution
- Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance.
- Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy.
- Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance.
- Chromosome theory of inheritance.
- Chromosomes and genes.
- Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee.
- Linkage and crossing over.
- Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness.
- Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia.
- Chromosomal disorders in humans.
- Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
- Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material.
- Structure of DNA and RNA.
- DNA packaging.
- DNA replication.
- Central dogma.
- Transcription, genetic code, translation.
- Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon.
- Genome and human genome project.
- DNA fingerprinting.
- Evolution: Origin of life.
- Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence).
- Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution.
- Mechanism of evolution- Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection.
- Gene flow and genetic drift.
- Hardy-Weinberg’s principle.
- Adaptive Radiation.
- Human evolution.
UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare
- Health and Disease; Pathogens.
- Parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm).
- Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines.
- Cancer, HIV and AIDS.
- Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
- Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification.
- Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
- Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications
- Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
- Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy.
- Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops.
- Transgenic Animals.
- Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
UNIT V: Ecology and environment
- Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche.
- Population and ecological adaptations.
- Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism.
- Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
- Ecosystem: Patterns, components.
- Productivity and decomposition.
- Energy flow.
- Pyramids of number, biomass, energy.
- Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous).
- Ecological succession.
- Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
- Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity.
- Patterns of Biodiversity.
- Importance of Biodiversity.
- Loss of Biodiversity.
- Biodiversity conservation.
- Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
- Environmental issues:
- Air pollution and its control.
- Water pollution and its control.
- Agrochemicals and their effects.
- Solid waste management.
- Radioactive waste management.
- Greenhouse effect and global warming.
- Ozone depletion.
- Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
We strongly recommend you to cover these chapters from NCERT textbooks & exemplar for NEET 2018 Biology Preparation. Some of the important books include -Elementary Biology (Trueman's) and Objective NCERT at Your Fingertips for NEET- – Biology by MTG Editorial Board.