Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Class 10 : Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


 
 
Chapter 3 
Nationalism in India 
 
? Nationalism 
It involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in 
national terms, i.e., a nation. 
? Modern nationalism was associated with the formation of nation-states. 
? In India, as in many other colonies, the growth of nationalism is connected to the 
anti-colonial movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. 
? The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement 
The war played an important role in shaping India?s freedom struggle. 
? Increase in defence expenditure due to the war led to the increase in taxes, custom 
duties, prices and the introduction of war loans. 
? Extreme hardships, poverty and forced recruitments in the army made people 
hostile to the British rule. 
? During 1918–19 and 1920–21, food shortages due to the failure of crops and 
famines and epidemics, that took a heavy toll of life, created resentment among the 
people of India against the foreign rule. 
? Satyagraha 
Satyagraha means appeal for truth. Mahatma Gandhi introduced this concept during his stay 
in South Africa. It is based on the ideals of truth and non- violence. 
? January, 1915: Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa. 
? Champaran Satyagraha, 1916: First Gandhian mass-movement in India against 
the oppressive plantation system in Champaran (Bihar). 
? Kheda Satyagraha, 1917: Gandhiji led the movement in Kheda district of 
Gujarat, demanding relaxation of the revenue tax owing to the poverty experienced 
by the farmers because of the outbreak of plague and crop failure. 
? Ahmedabad Mill Strike, 1918: Gandhiji organised a Satyagraha against the 
cotton mill owners demanding an increase in the workers? wages and bonus. 
? The Rowlatt Act (1919)  
? Passed by the British Government. 
? The Act gave the government enormous powers for repressing political activities 
and allowed detention of political prisoners for two years without any trail. 
? 6
th
 April, 1919: Gandhi started the non-violent civil disobedience movement for 
opposing the Rowlatt Act with a nation-wide hartal. 
? Shops were closed down, rallies were organised and rail workshop workers went on 
strike. Widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations took place. 
? Government brutally repressed the nationalists. Martial law was imposed and 
General Dyer took command.   
? Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, 13
th
 April, 1919  
Page 2


 
 
Chapter 3 
Nationalism in India 
 
? Nationalism 
It involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in 
national terms, i.e., a nation. 
? Modern nationalism was associated with the formation of nation-states. 
? In India, as in many other colonies, the growth of nationalism is connected to the 
anti-colonial movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. 
? The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement 
The war played an important role in shaping India?s freedom struggle. 
? Increase in defence expenditure due to the war led to the increase in taxes, custom 
duties, prices and the introduction of war loans. 
? Extreme hardships, poverty and forced recruitments in the army made people 
hostile to the British rule. 
? During 1918–19 and 1920–21, food shortages due to the failure of crops and 
famines and epidemics, that took a heavy toll of life, created resentment among the 
people of India against the foreign rule. 
? Satyagraha 
Satyagraha means appeal for truth. Mahatma Gandhi introduced this concept during his stay 
in South Africa. It is based on the ideals of truth and non- violence. 
? January, 1915: Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa. 
? Champaran Satyagraha, 1916: First Gandhian mass-movement in India against 
the oppressive plantation system in Champaran (Bihar). 
? Kheda Satyagraha, 1917: Gandhiji led the movement in Kheda district of 
Gujarat, demanding relaxation of the revenue tax owing to the poverty experienced 
by the farmers because of the outbreak of plague and crop failure. 
? Ahmedabad Mill Strike, 1918: Gandhiji organised a Satyagraha against the 
cotton mill owners demanding an increase in the workers? wages and bonus. 
? The Rowlatt Act (1919)  
? Passed by the British Government. 
? The Act gave the government enormous powers for repressing political activities 
and allowed detention of political prisoners for two years without any trail. 
? 6
th
 April, 1919: Gandhi started the non-violent civil disobedience movement for 
opposing the Rowlatt Act with a nation-wide hartal. 
? Shops were closed down, rallies were organised and rail workshop workers went on 
strike. Widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations took place. 
? Government brutally repressed the nationalists. Martial law was imposed and 
General Dyer took command.   
? Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, 13
th
 April, 1919  
 
 
? A number of people had assembled at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar for 
attending the annual Baisakhi fair. 
? General Dyer surrounded the park and opened fire on the crowd, killing 
hundreds of people. 
? Aftermath of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 
? Crowds took to the streets in many north Indian towns. Strikes, clashes with 
the police and attacks on government buildings were extensively witnessed. 
? The British used brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise 
people. People were flogged and villages were bombed. 
? This violence forced Gandhi to stop the movement. 
? Criticism: The Rowlatt Satyagraha was limited mostly to cities and towns. 
? Non-Cooperation Movement  
Began in January 1921 
? Causes 
? Khilafat issue: After the First World War, the British sought to overthrow 
the Khalifa, the spiritual head of the Islamic world and the Turkish Emperor. 
This was deeply resented by Muslims all over the world, including the 
Indian Muslims. 
? Rowlatt Act: The dissatisfaction from the Rowlatt Act and the failure of 
the Rowlatt Satyagraha. 
? Jallianwala Bagh: The atrocious killing of hundreds of innocent people by 
the British at Jallianwala Bagh had made the Indian masses resentful towards 
the British rule. 
? Gandhiji wanted to launch a mass movement encompassing the entire nation 
and all communities. 
? Methods: Surrendering of government titles, boycott of civil services, army, 
police, courts and legislative councils, school, and foreign goods; and a full civil 
disobedience campaign. 
? Disagreements   
? Few Congress members were not in support of the idea of boycotting the 
council elections as they wanted to bring about changes in the system by 
being in power. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party 
within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics. 
? Some leaders feared the movement to turn violent. 
? Events 
? March, 1919 (Bombay): Khilafat Committee was formed with leaders 
such as Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. 
? September, 1920: Gandhi, in the Calcutta session of the Congress, 
convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in 
support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj. 
Page 3


 
 
Chapter 3 
Nationalism in India 
 
? Nationalism 
It involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in 
national terms, i.e., a nation. 
? Modern nationalism was associated with the formation of nation-states. 
? In India, as in many other colonies, the growth of nationalism is connected to the 
anti-colonial movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. 
? The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement 
The war played an important role in shaping India?s freedom struggle. 
? Increase in defence expenditure due to the war led to the increase in taxes, custom 
duties, prices and the introduction of war loans. 
? Extreme hardships, poverty and forced recruitments in the army made people 
hostile to the British rule. 
? During 1918–19 and 1920–21, food shortages due to the failure of crops and 
famines and epidemics, that took a heavy toll of life, created resentment among the 
people of India against the foreign rule. 
? Satyagraha 
Satyagraha means appeal for truth. Mahatma Gandhi introduced this concept during his stay 
in South Africa. It is based on the ideals of truth and non- violence. 
? January, 1915: Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa. 
? Champaran Satyagraha, 1916: First Gandhian mass-movement in India against 
the oppressive plantation system in Champaran (Bihar). 
? Kheda Satyagraha, 1917: Gandhiji led the movement in Kheda district of 
Gujarat, demanding relaxation of the revenue tax owing to the poverty experienced 
by the farmers because of the outbreak of plague and crop failure. 
? Ahmedabad Mill Strike, 1918: Gandhiji organised a Satyagraha against the 
cotton mill owners demanding an increase in the workers? wages and bonus. 
? The Rowlatt Act (1919)  
? Passed by the British Government. 
? The Act gave the government enormous powers for repressing political activities 
and allowed detention of political prisoners for two years without any trail. 
? 6
th
 April, 1919: Gandhi started the non-violent civil disobedience movement for 
opposing the Rowlatt Act with a nation-wide hartal. 
? Shops were closed down, rallies were organised and rail workshop workers went on 
strike. Widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations took place. 
? Government brutally repressed the nationalists. Martial law was imposed and 
General Dyer took command.   
? Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, 13
th
 April, 1919  
 
 
? A number of people had assembled at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar for 
attending the annual Baisakhi fair. 
? General Dyer surrounded the park and opened fire on the crowd, killing 
hundreds of people. 
? Aftermath of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 
? Crowds took to the streets in many north Indian towns. Strikes, clashes with 
the police and attacks on government buildings were extensively witnessed. 
? The British used brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise 
people. People were flogged and villages were bombed. 
? This violence forced Gandhi to stop the movement. 
? Criticism: The Rowlatt Satyagraha was limited mostly to cities and towns. 
? Non-Cooperation Movement  
Began in January 1921 
? Causes 
? Khilafat issue: After the First World War, the British sought to overthrow 
the Khalifa, the spiritual head of the Islamic world and the Turkish Emperor. 
This was deeply resented by Muslims all over the world, including the 
Indian Muslims. 
? Rowlatt Act: The dissatisfaction from the Rowlatt Act and the failure of 
the Rowlatt Satyagraha. 
? Jallianwala Bagh: The atrocious killing of hundreds of innocent people by 
the British at Jallianwala Bagh had made the Indian masses resentful towards 
the British rule. 
? Gandhiji wanted to launch a mass movement encompassing the entire nation 
and all communities. 
? Methods: Surrendering of government titles, boycott of civil services, army, 
police, courts and legislative councils, school, and foreign goods; and a full civil 
disobedience campaign. 
? Disagreements   
? Few Congress members were not in support of the idea of boycotting the 
council elections as they wanted to bring about changes in the system by 
being in power. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party 
within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics. 
? Some leaders feared the movement to turn violent. 
? Events 
? March, 1919 (Bombay): Khilafat Committee was formed with leaders 
such as Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. 
? September, 1920: Gandhi, in the Calcutta session of the Congress, 
convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in 
support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj. 
 
 
? December, 1920 (Nagpur): Non-cooperation programme adopted by the 
Congress. 
? The Movement in the Towns: The students left government schools and 
colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, lawyers gave up their legal 
practices and the council elections were boycotted in most provinces except 
Madras. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign 
cloth burnt in huge bonfires. 
? 1921 and 1922: The import of foreign cloth dropped. Merchants and 
traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. 
Production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up. 
? Rebellion in the Countryside: The peasants had to do begar and work 
without pay in the farms of oppressive landlords. The peasant movement 
demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of 
oppressive landlords. In Awadh, the peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra. 
The houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted 
and grain hoards were taken over in many places. Local leaders told the 
peasants that Gandhiji had declared that no taxes were to be paid and land 
was to be redistributed among the poor. 
? Nai-dhobi bands were organised by the panchayats for depriving landlords of 
the services of even barbers and washer men. 
? October, 1920: The Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up headed by Jawaharlal 
Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and few others.  
? Revolt by Tribals: The government had closed large forest areas, 
preventing people from entering the forest to graze their cattle or to collect 
fuel wood and fruits. Alluri Sitaram Raju led the guerrilla warfare in the 
Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh. The rebels attacked police stations, 
attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for 
achieving swaraj. 
? Swaraj in the Plantations: Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, 
the plantation workers were not allowed to leave the tea gardens without 
permission. Thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations 
and headed home. They believed that Gandhi raj was coming and everyone 
would be given land in their own villages. 
? Impediments 
? Movement slowed because khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-
produced mill cloth and therefore, expensive for the poor people. 
? Indian educational institutions were slow to come in place of the boycotted 
British ones. 
? February, 1922: Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation 
Movement because of its violent face in many places. 
? Simon Commission 
Page 4


 
 
Chapter 3 
Nationalism in India 
 
? Nationalism 
It involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in 
national terms, i.e., a nation. 
? Modern nationalism was associated with the formation of nation-states. 
? In India, as in many other colonies, the growth of nationalism is connected to the 
anti-colonial movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. 
? The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement 
The war played an important role in shaping India?s freedom struggle. 
? Increase in defence expenditure due to the war led to the increase in taxes, custom 
duties, prices and the introduction of war loans. 
? Extreme hardships, poverty and forced recruitments in the army made people 
hostile to the British rule. 
? During 1918–19 and 1920–21, food shortages due to the failure of crops and 
famines and epidemics, that took a heavy toll of life, created resentment among the 
people of India against the foreign rule. 
? Satyagraha 
Satyagraha means appeal for truth. Mahatma Gandhi introduced this concept during his stay 
in South Africa. It is based on the ideals of truth and non- violence. 
? January, 1915: Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa. 
? Champaran Satyagraha, 1916: First Gandhian mass-movement in India against 
the oppressive plantation system in Champaran (Bihar). 
? Kheda Satyagraha, 1917: Gandhiji led the movement in Kheda district of 
Gujarat, demanding relaxation of the revenue tax owing to the poverty experienced 
by the farmers because of the outbreak of plague and crop failure. 
? Ahmedabad Mill Strike, 1918: Gandhiji organised a Satyagraha against the 
cotton mill owners demanding an increase in the workers? wages and bonus. 
? The Rowlatt Act (1919)  
? Passed by the British Government. 
? The Act gave the government enormous powers for repressing political activities 
and allowed detention of political prisoners for two years without any trail. 
? 6
th
 April, 1919: Gandhi started the non-violent civil disobedience movement for 
opposing the Rowlatt Act with a nation-wide hartal. 
? Shops were closed down, rallies were organised and rail workshop workers went on 
strike. Widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations took place. 
? Government brutally repressed the nationalists. Martial law was imposed and 
General Dyer took command.   
? Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, 13
th
 April, 1919  
 
 
? A number of people had assembled at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar for 
attending the annual Baisakhi fair. 
? General Dyer surrounded the park and opened fire on the crowd, killing 
hundreds of people. 
? Aftermath of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 
? Crowds took to the streets in many north Indian towns. Strikes, clashes with 
the police and attacks on government buildings were extensively witnessed. 
? The British used brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise 
people. People were flogged and villages were bombed. 
? This violence forced Gandhi to stop the movement. 
? Criticism: The Rowlatt Satyagraha was limited mostly to cities and towns. 
? Non-Cooperation Movement  
Began in January 1921 
? Causes 
? Khilafat issue: After the First World War, the British sought to overthrow 
the Khalifa, the spiritual head of the Islamic world and the Turkish Emperor. 
This was deeply resented by Muslims all over the world, including the 
Indian Muslims. 
? Rowlatt Act: The dissatisfaction from the Rowlatt Act and the failure of 
the Rowlatt Satyagraha. 
? Jallianwala Bagh: The atrocious killing of hundreds of innocent people by 
the British at Jallianwala Bagh had made the Indian masses resentful towards 
the British rule. 
? Gandhiji wanted to launch a mass movement encompassing the entire nation 
and all communities. 
? Methods: Surrendering of government titles, boycott of civil services, army, 
police, courts and legislative councils, school, and foreign goods; and a full civil 
disobedience campaign. 
? Disagreements   
? Few Congress members were not in support of the idea of boycotting the 
council elections as they wanted to bring about changes in the system by 
being in power. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party 
within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics. 
? Some leaders feared the movement to turn violent. 
? Events 
? March, 1919 (Bombay): Khilafat Committee was formed with leaders 
such as Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. 
? September, 1920: Gandhi, in the Calcutta session of the Congress, 
convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in 
support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj. 
 
 
? December, 1920 (Nagpur): Non-cooperation programme adopted by the 
Congress. 
? The Movement in the Towns: The students left government schools and 
colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, lawyers gave up their legal 
practices and the council elections were boycotted in most provinces except 
Madras. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign 
cloth burnt in huge bonfires. 
? 1921 and 1922: The import of foreign cloth dropped. Merchants and 
traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. 
Production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up. 
? Rebellion in the Countryside: The peasants had to do begar and work 
without pay in the farms of oppressive landlords. The peasant movement 
demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of 
oppressive landlords. In Awadh, the peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra. 
The houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted 
and grain hoards were taken over in many places. Local leaders told the 
peasants that Gandhiji had declared that no taxes were to be paid and land 
was to be redistributed among the poor. 
? Nai-dhobi bands were organised by the panchayats for depriving landlords of 
the services of even barbers and washer men. 
? October, 1920: The Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up headed by Jawaharlal 
Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and few others.  
? Revolt by Tribals: The government had closed large forest areas, 
preventing people from entering the forest to graze their cattle or to collect 
fuel wood and fruits. Alluri Sitaram Raju led the guerrilla warfare in the 
Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh. The rebels attacked police stations, 
attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for 
achieving swaraj. 
? Swaraj in the Plantations: Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, 
the plantation workers were not allowed to leave the tea gardens without 
permission. Thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations 
and headed home. They believed that Gandhi raj was coming and everyone 
would be given land in their own villages. 
? Impediments 
? Movement slowed because khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-
produced mill cloth and therefore, expensive for the poor people. 
? Indian educational institutions were slow to come in place of the boycotted 
British ones. 
? February, 1922: Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation 
Movement because of its violent face in many places. 
? Simon Commission 
 
 
? Constituted by the Tory government of Britain under pressure of mass movements 
in India. 
? Sir John Simon was the Chairman. 
? Sought to look into the demands of the nationalists and suggest changes in the 
constitutional structure of India. 
? Arrived in India in 1928.Congress and the Muslim League along with the other 
parties received the commission with black flags and slogans such as “Go back 
Simon”. 
? October, 1929: The Commission recommended a „dominion status’ for India in 
coming future and a Round Table Conference for discussing a future constitution 
for India.  
? Effects of Simon Commission  
? December, 1929: Under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Lahore session of 
Congress formalized the demand of “Purna Swaraj”. 26
th
 January, 1930 was 
celebrated as the Independence Day. 
? 1930: Dr. B. R. Ambedkar established the Depressed Classes Association. 
? Civil Disobedience Movement  
? Medium: Gandhiji chose salt as the medium for protesting against the British rule. 
? 31
st
 January, 1930: Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands 
ranging from industrialists to peasants. The most important of the demands was the 
abolition of salt tax as salt was the most essential commodity for the common man. 
? The government was asked to accept the demands by 11
th
 march, failing which a 
civil disobedience movement would be started. 
? Salt March 
? Marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. 
? Started from Gandhi?s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of 
Dandi, spanning a distance of 240 miles. 
? 6
th
 April, 1930: Gandhi reached Dandi with thousands of followers and 
ceremonially violated the law by manufacturing salt from sea water. 
? Spread 
? Soon, the movement spread to the entire nation. 
? Colonial laws were violated, salt was manufactured in numerous places, 
foreign clothes were burnt and liquor shops were picketed. 
? Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes. 
? Village officials resigned and at many places people violated forest laws by 
going into reserved forests for collecting wood.   
? Government’s Response 
? April, 1930: Abdul Ghaffar Khan was arrested 
? May, 1930: Gandhiji was arrested 
Page 5


 
 
Chapter 3 
Nationalism in India 
 
? Nationalism 
It involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in 
national terms, i.e., a nation. 
? Modern nationalism was associated with the formation of nation-states. 
? In India, as in many other colonies, the growth of nationalism is connected to the 
anti-colonial movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. 
? The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement 
The war played an important role in shaping India?s freedom struggle. 
? Increase in defence expenditure due to the war led to the increase in taxes, custom 
duties, prices and the introduction of war loans. 
? Extreme hardships, poverty and forced recruitments in the army made people 
hostile to the British rule. 
? During 1918–19 and 1920–21, food shortages due to the failure of crops and 
famines and epidemics, that took a heavy toll of life, created resentment among the 
people of India against the foreign rule. 
? Satyagraha 
Satyagraha means appeal for truth. Mahatma Gandhi introduced this concept during his stay 
in South Africa. It is based on the ideals of truth and non- violence. 
? January, 1915: Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa. 
? Champaran Satyagraha, 1916: First Gandhian mass-movement in India against 
the oppressive plantation system in Champaran (Bihar). 
? Kheda Satyagraha, 1917: Gandhiji led the movement in Kheda district of 
Gujarat, demanding relaxation of the revenue tax owing to the poverty experienced 
by the farmers because of the outbreak of plague and crop failure. 
? Ahmedabad Mill Strike, 1918: Gandhiji organised a Satyagraha against the 
cotton mill owners demanding an increase in the workers? wages and bonus. 
? The Rowlatt Act (1919)  
? Passed by the British Government. 
? The Act gave the government enormous powers for repressing political activities 
and allowed detention of political prisoners for two years without any trail. 
? 6
th
 April, 1919: Gandhi started the non-violent civil disobedience movement for 
opposing the Rowlatt Act with a nation-wide hartal. 
? Shops were closed down, rallies were organised and rail workshop workers went on 
strike. Widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations took place. 
? Government brutally repressed the nationalists. Martial law was imposed and 
General Dyer took command.   
? Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, 13
th
 April, 1919  
 
 
? A number of people had assembled at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar for 
attending the annual Baisakhi fair. 
? General Dyer surrounded the park and opened fire on the crowd, killing 
hundreds of people. 
? Aftermath of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 
? Crowds took to the streets in many north Indian towns. Strikes, clashes with 
the police and attacks on government buildings were extensively witnessed. 
? The British used brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise 
people. People were flogged and villages were bombed. 
? This violence forced Gandhi to stop the movement. 
? Criticism: The Rowlatt Satyagraha was limited mostly to cities and towns. 
? Non-Cooperation Movement  
Began in January 1921 
? Causes 
? Khilafat issue: After the First World War, the British sought to overthrow 
the Khalifa, the spiritual head of the Islamic world and the Turkish Emperor. 
This was deeply resented by Muslims all over the world, including the 
Indian Muslims. 
? Rowlatt Act: The dissatisfaction from the Rowlatt Act and the failure of 
the Rowlatt Satyagraha. 
? Jallianwala Bagh: The atrocious killing of hundreds of innocent people by 
the British at Jallianwala Bagh had made the Indian masses resentful towards 
the British rule. 
? Gandhiji wanted to launch a mass movement encompassing the entire nation 
and all communities. 
? Methods: Surrendering of government titles, boycott of civil services, army, 
police, courts and legislative councils, school, and foreign goods; and a full civil 
disobedience campaign. 
? Disagreements   
? Few Congress members were not in support of the idea of boycotting the 
council elections as they wanted to bring about changes in the system by 
being in power. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party 
within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics. 
? Some leaders feared the movement to turn violent. 
? Events 
? March, 1919 (Bombay): Khilafat Committee was formed with leaders 
such as Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. 
? September, 1920: Gandhi, in the Calcutta session of the Congress, 
convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in 
support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj. 
 
 
? December, 1920 (Nagpur): Non-cooperation programme adopted by the 
Congress. 
? The Movement in the Towns: The students left government schools and 
colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, lawyers gave up their legal 
practices and the council elections were boycotted in most provinces except 
Madras. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign 
cloth burnt in huge bonfires. 
? 1921 and 1922: The import of foreign cloth dropped. Merchants and 
traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. 
Production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up. 
? Rebellion in the Countryside: The peasants had to do begar and work 
without pay in the farms of oppressive landlords. The peasant movement 
demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of 
oppressive landlords. In Awadh, the peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra. 
The houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted 
and grain hoards were taken over in many places. Local leaders told the 
peasants that Gandhiji had declared that no taxes were to be paid and land 
was to be redistributed among the poor. 
? Nai-dhobi bands were organised by the panchayats for depriving landlords of 
the services of even barbers and washer men. 
? October, 1920: The Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up headed by Jawaharlal 
Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and few others.  
? Revolt by Tribals: The government had closed large forest areas, 
preventing people from entering the forest to graze their cattle or to collect 
fuel wood and fruits. Alluri Sitaram Raju led the guerrilla warfare in the 
Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh. The rebels attacked police stations, 
attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for 
achieving swaraj. 
? Swaraj in the Plantations: Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, 
the plantation workers were not allowed to leave the tea gardens without 
permission. Thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations 
and headed home. They believed that Gandhi raj was coming and everyone 
would be given land in their own villages. 
? Impediments 
? Movement slowed because khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-
produced mill cloth and therefore, expensive for the poor people. 
? Indian educational institutions were slow to come in place of the boycotted 
British ones. 
? February, 1922: Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation 
Movement because of its violent face in many places. 
? Simon Commission 
 
 
? Constituted by the Tory government of Britain under pressure of mass movements 
in India. 
? Sir John Simon was the Chairman. 
? Sought to look into the demands of the nationalists and suggest changes in the 
constitutional structure of India. 
? Arrived in India in 1928.Congress and the Muslim League along with the other 
parties received the commission with black flags and slogans such as “Go back 
Simon”. 
? October, 1929: The Commission recommended a „dominion status’ for India in 
coming future and a Round Table Conference for discussing a future constitution 
for India.  
? Effects of Simon Commission  
? December, 1929: Under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Lahore session of 
Congress formalized the demand of “Purna Swaraj”. 26
th
 January, 1930 was 
celebrated as the Independence Day. 
? 1930: Dr. B. R. Ambedkar established the Depressed Classes Association. 
? Civil Disobedience Movement  
? Medium: Gandhiji chose salt as the medium for protesting against the British rule. 
? 31
st
 January, 1930: Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands 
ranging from industrialists to peasants. The most important of the demands was the 
abolition of salt tax as salt was the most essential commodity for the common man. 
? The government was asked to accept the demands by 11
th
 march, failing which a 
civil disobedience movement would be started. 
? Salt March 
? Marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. 
? Started from Gandhi?s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of 
Dandi, spanning a distance of 240 miles. 
? 6
th
 April, 1930: Gandhi reached Dandi with thousands of followers and 
ceremonially violated the law by manufacturing salt from sea water. 
? Spread 
? Soon, the movement spread to the entire nation. 
? Colonial laws were violated, salt was manufactured in numerous places, 
foreign clothes were burnt and liquor shops were picketed. 
? Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes. 
? Village officials resigned and at many places people violated forest laws by 
going into reserved forests for collecting wood.   
? Government’s Response 
? April, 1930: Abdul Ghaffar Khan was arrested 
? May, 1930: Gandhiji was arrested 
 
 
? Women and children were beaten by the government and peaceful 
satyagrahis were attacked. 
? About 100,000 people were arrested. 
? Gandhi-Irwin Pact and End of Movement 
? 5
th
 March, 1931: Gandhiji called off the movement entering into a pact 
with Viceroy Lord Irwin. He consented to participate in the Round Table 
Conference and the government agreed to release the political prisoners. 
? December, 1931: Gandhiji went to London for the Second Round Table 
Conference. The conference was a futile exercise as nothing fruitful came 
out of it for India. 
? The Civil disobedience movement was re-launched but by 1934 it lost momentum. 
? Participation by People 
? Rich peasant communities such as the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar 
Pradesh took part in the movement. Trade depression and falling prices 
caused a decrease in the cash income of these rich peasant communities. 
They decided to oppose the high revenue demands of the government 
through their participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement. 
? The poorer peasantry found difficulties in paying their rent due to the 
depression and the decrease in the cash income. They wanted the unpaid 
rent to the landlord to be remitted.  
? The business class wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and a 
rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports. They 
also opposed the colonial policies that restricted business activities. 
? The business class, under the leadership of prominent industrialists such as 
Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G.D. Birla, attacked colonial control over the 
Indian economy, gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell 
imported goods. 
? Causes of Failure 
? The Civil Disobedience Movement was called off without the fulfilment of 
the demand of the rich peasant communities. 
? Many rich peasant communities decided not to join the restarted Civil 
Disobedience Movement. 
? The Congress was unwilling to support the „no rent? campaigns due to the 
fear of upsetting the rich peasants and landlords. 
? The spread of militant activities, worries of prolonged business disruptions, 
growing influences of socialism amongst the young Congress members and 
the failure of the Round Table Conference led to the withdrawal of support 
to the movement by the business class. 
? Industrial workers did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement 
except in Nagpur. 
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