1: Choose the right answer from the alternatives given below:
(i) To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to?
d. Tropical Evergreen
(ii) Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than
a. 100 cm
b. 50 cm
c. 70 cm
d. less than 50 cm
(iii) In which of the following state is the Simlipal bio-reserve located?
d. West Bengal
(iv) Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network of bio-reserves?
c. Gulf of Mannar
d. Nanda Devi
Ans: (i) d. (ii) a. (iii) c. (iv) a.
2: Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Define an ecosystem.
(ii) What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India?
(iii) What is bio-reserve? Give two examples.
(iv) Name two animals having habitat in tropical and montane type of vegetation.
(i) Ecosystem -
All plants and animals in an area are interdependent and inter-related to each other in their physical environment. This life-supporting system comprising the physical environment i.e. non-living components, like - climate, soil, river etc. along with all organisms living therein, is called an Ecosystem.
(ii) Factors responsible for distribution of flora and fauna in India:
India is one of the twelve mega bio-diversity countries of the world having a wide spread plant and animal species. The various factors responsible for the distribution of plants and animals (flora and fauna) on the earth and also in India can be listed as below -
(a) Relief including land, soil type, drainage etc.
(b) Climate which include temperature, photoperiod, precipitation etc.
(iii) Bio-reserve or Biosphere Reserves are large areas of protected land for conservation of wild-life, plant and animal resources (especially endangered species of flora and fauna) including micro-organisms and traditional life of the tribals in their natural habitat. Thus, a bio-reserve helps to maintain the bio-diversity and culture of that area. It may also contain other protected areas in it. For example, Pachmari biosphere reserve consists of one National Park named Satpura and two Wild Life Sanctuaries named Bori and Pachmari.
Examples of two other reserves are - Nilgiri, Nanda Devi.
(iv) Tropical type animals - Elephants, Monkeys, Rats etc.
Montane type animals - Spotted deer, Kashmir stag, Antelope etc.
3: Distinguish between
(i) Flora and fauna
(ii) Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous forests.
Flora - Flora is the term used for the total vegetation or plant cover of a region. This includes flowering and non-flowering plants of all types and sizes.
Fauna - It is the term used to refer to all the varieties of animals found in an area. Thus, fauna is the animal life of a given area.
Tropical Evergreen Forest
• Found in the areas having heavy rainfall, more than 200 cm with short or no dry season. Warm and wet throughout the year.
• Luxuriant vegetation comprising trees, shrubs, and creepers giving a multilayered structure.
• Trees don’t shed leaves at a time appear green all the year.
• The thick canopies don’t allow the sunlight to penetrate the forests even during the daytime.
Ebony, Mahogany, Rosewood, Rubber and Cinchona.
Elephant, Monkey, One-horned rhinoceros, Deer, different types of Birds, Reptiles, Bats, Scorpions etc.
Rainy parts of Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, upper parts of Assam, Tamil Nadu Coast, some parts of Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa etc.
Tropical Deciduous Forest
• Most wide spread vegetation type in India.
• Rainfall between 200 - 70 cm.
• These regions experiences seasonal changes.
• Trees shed their leaves in the dry season and conserve water.
• On the basis of the availability of water these forests are further are subdivided into moist and dry deciduous.
• Commercially significant hardwood trees are found here.
• Teak is the most dominant species. Others are Bamboos, Sal, Shisham, Sandalwood, Khair, Neem, Kusum etc.
Lion, Tiger, Pig, Elephant, Deer, variety of Birds, Lizards, Snakes and Insects etc.
Northeastern states, Foothills of Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Orissa, Chhattisgarh, rainier parts of Peninsular Plateaus, eastern slopes of Western Ghats, Plains of Bihar and U.P.
4: Name different types of vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.
Ans: The names of different types of vegetation found in India are as follows -
1. Tropical Evergreen or Rain Forests
2. Tropical Deciduous Forests
3. Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
4. Montane Forests
5. Mangrove Forests (The Tidal Forests)
The type of vegetation found at the high altitudes is Montane Forest. The following are the descriptions of Montane Forests -
• Found at high altitudes in mountainous areas.
• There is a succession of natural vegetation belts as per altitude:
*1000m - 2000m: Wet temperate forests. Evergreen broad leaf trees like oaks and chestnuts predominate.
*1500m - 3000m: Temperate forest containing coniferous trees like Pine, Deodar, Silver Fir, Spruce and Cedar. Cover mostly the southern slopes of the Himalayas.
*3000m - 3600m: Temperate Grasslands.
*Above 3600m: Alpine Vegetation. Silver Fir, Junipers, Pines and Birches are common. At even higher altitudes and with the approach of the snow line the vegetation changes from shrubs and scrubs to alpine and Grasslands. Only mosses, lichens and very small shrubs grow during the very short summer which is called Tundra type of Vegetation.
The common animals found in these forests are Kashmir Stag, Spotted Deer, Wild Sheep, Antelope, Jack Rabbit, Snow Leopard, Yak, Squirrels, Red Panda, Sheep and Goats with thick hair etc.
5: Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?
Ans: Endangered species of plants and animals are those which face the danger of getting extinct. About 1300 plant species and quite a few animal species have been distinguished as endangered species in India. The main causes for this endangerment of plant and animal; species are as follows:
1. Hunting by greedy hunters for commercial purposes.
2. Pollution due to chemical and industrial wastes etc.
3. Increasing population.
4. Reckless cutting of plants and trees to bring the land under cultivation, expanding industrialization and in-habitation etc.
5. Introduction of alien species causing imbalance in the ecosystem.
6: Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna?
Ans: India has all the major physical features i.e. topography varying from mountains, plains, desserts, plateaus, islands etc. The different regions of the country have different soil types. Though India has an essentially monsoon type of climate, it has great variations in temperature and humidity across the country. Each of the factors responsible for the diversity in flora and fauna such as land, soil, temperature, photo-period, precipitation etc. is variation across the length and breadth of the country. As a result of which India has got rich heritage of flora and fauna.