Ncert exemplar for Respiration in humans Notes - NEET

NEET: Ncert exemplar for Respiration in humans Notes - NEET

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 Page 1


96 BIOLOGY, EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 17
BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Respiration in insects is called direct because
a. The cell exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the air in the tubes
b. The tissues exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with coelomic fluid
c. The tissues exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the air outside through
body surface
d. Tracheal tubes exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the haemocoel which
then exchange with tissues
2. Regarding the functions of our respiratory system, mark the wrong entry.
a. Humidifies the air
b. Warms up the air
c. Exchange of gases
d. Cleans up the air
3. A person suffers punctures in his chest cavity in an accident without any
damage to the lungs. Its effect could be
a. Reduced breathing rate
b. Rapid increase in breathing rate
c. No change in respiration
d. Cessation of breathing
4. It is known that exposure to carbon monoxide is harmful to animals
because
a. It reduces CO
2
 transport
b. It reduces O
2
 transport
c. It increases CO
2
 transport
d. It increases O
2
 transport
18-04-2018
Page 2


96 BIOLOGY, EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 17
BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Respiration in insects is called direct because
a. The cell exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the air in the tubes
b. The tissues exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with coelomic fluid
c. The tissues exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the air outside through
body surface
d. Tracheal tubes exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the haemocoel which
then exchange with tissues
2. Regarding the functions of our respiratory system, mark the wrong entry.
a. Humidifies the air
b. Warms up the air
c. Exchange of gases
d. Cleans up the air
3. A person suffers punctures in his chest cavity in an accident without any
damage to the lungs. Its effect could be
a. Reduced breathing rate
b. Rapid increase in breathing rate
c. No change in respiration
d. Cessation of breathing
4. It is known that exposure to carbon monoxide is harmful to animals
because
a. It reduces CO
2
 transport
b. It reduces O
2
 transport
c. It increases CO
2
 transport
d. It increases O
2
 transport
18-04-2018
97 97 97 97 97
97 97 97 97 97 97 97 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES
5. Mark the true statement among the following with reference to normal
breathing
a. Inspiration is a passive process where as expiration is active
b. Inspiration is a active process where as expiration is passive
c. Inspiration and expiration are active processes
d. Inspiration and expiration are passive processes
6. A person breathes in some volume of air by forced inspiration after having
a forced expiration. This quantity of air taken in is
a. Total lung capacity
b. Tidal volume
c. Vital capacity
d. Inspiratory capacity
7. Mark the incorrect statement in context to O2 binding to Hb
a. Higher pH
b. Lower temperature
c. Lower pCO
2
d. Higher PO
2
8. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding respiratory
system?
a. Each terminal bronchiole give rise to a network of bronchi.
b. the alveoli are highly vascularised.
c. The lungs are covered by a double-layered membrane.
d. The plecral fluid reduces friction on the lung surface.
9. Incidence of Emphysema – a respiratory disorder is high in cigarette
smokers. In such cases
a. The bronchioles are found damaged
b. The alveolar walls are found damaged
c. The plasma membrane is found damaged
d. The  respiratory muscles are found damaged
10. Respiratory process is regulated by certain specialized centres in the
brain. One of the following centres can reduce the inspiratory duration
upon stimulation
a. Medullary inspiratory centre
b. Pneumotaxic centre
c. Apneustic centre
d. Chemosensitive centre
18-04-2018
Page 3


96 BIOLOGY, EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 17
BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Respiration in insects is called direct because
a. The cell exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the air in the tubes
b. The tissues exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with coelomic fluid
c. The tissues exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the air outside through
body surface
d. Tracheal tubes exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the haemocoel which
then exchange with tissues
2. Regarding the functions of our respiratory system, mark the wrong entry.
a. Humidifies the air
b. Warms up the air
c. Exchange of gases
d. Cleans up the air
3. A person suffers punctures in his chest cavity in an accident without any
damage to the lungs. Its effect could be
a. Reduced breathing rate
b. Rapid increase in breathing rate
c. No change in respiration
d. Cessation of breathing
4. It is known that exposure to carbon monoxide is harmful to animals
because
a. It reduces CO
2
 transport
b. It reduces O
2
 transport
c. It increases CO
2
 transport
d. It increases O
2
 transport
18-04-2018
97 97 97 97 97
97 97 97 97 97 97 97 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES
5. Mark the true statement among the following with reference to normal
breathing
a. Inspiration is a passive process where as expiration is active
b. Inspiration is a active process where as expiration is passive
c. Inspiration and expiration are active processes
d. Inspiration and expiration are passive processes
6. A person breathes in some volume of air by forced inspiration after having
a forced expiration. This quantity of air taken in is
a. Total lung capacity
b. Tidal volume
c. Vital capacity
d. Inspiratory capacity
7. Mark the incorrect statement in context to O2 binding to Hb
a. Higher pH
b. Lower temperature
c. Lower pCO
2
d. Higher PO
2
8. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding respiratory
system?
a. Each terminal bronchiole give rise to a network of bronchi.
b. the alveoli are highly vascularised.
c. The lungs are covered by a double-layered membrane.
d. The plecral fluid reduces friction on the lung surface.
9. Incidence of Emphysema – a respiratory disorder is high in cigarette
smokers. In such cases
a. The bronchioles are found damaged
b. The alveolar walls are found damaged
c. The plasma membrane is found damaged
d. The  respiratory muscles are found damaged
10. Respiratory process is regulated by certain specialized centres in the
brain. One of the following centres can reduce the inspiratory duration
upon stimulation
a. Medullary inspiratory centre
b. Pneumotaxic centre
c. Apneustic centre
d. Chemosensitive centre
18-04-2018
98 BIOLOGY, EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS
11. CO
2
 dissociates from carbaminohaemoglobin when
a. pCO
2
 is high & pO
2
 is low
b. pO
2
 is high and pCO
2
 is low
c. pCO
2
 and pO
2
 are equal
d. None of the above
12. In breathing movements, air volume can be estimated by
a. Stethoscope
b. Hygrometer
c. Sphigmomanometer
d. Spirometer
13. From the following relationships between respiratory volume and
capacities and mark the correct answer
i. Inspiratory capacity (IC) = Tidal Volume + Residual Volume
ii. Vital Capacity (VC) = Tidal Volume (TV) + Inspiratory Reserve
Volume (IRV) + Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV).
iii. Residual Volume (RV) = Vital Capacity (VC) – Inspiratory Reserve
Volume (IRV)
iv. Tidal Volume (TV) = Inspiratory Capacity (IC) – Inspiratory Reserve
Volume (IRV)
Options:
a. (i) Incorrect, (ii) Incorrect, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct
b. (i) Incorrect, (ii) Correct, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct
c. (i) Correct, (ii) Correct, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct
d. (i) Correct, (ii) Incorrect, (iii) Correct, (iv) Incorrect
14. The oxygen - haemoglobin dissociation curve will show a right shift in
case of
a. High pCO
2
b. High pO
2
c. Low pCO
2
d. Less H
+
 concentration
15. Match the following and mark the correct options
Animal Respiratory Organ
A. Earthworm i. Moist cuticle
B. Insects ii. Gills
C. Fishes iii. Lungs
D. Birds/Reptiles iv. Trachea
18-04-2018
Page 4


96 BIOLOGY, EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 17
BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Respiration in insects is called direct because
a. The cell exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the air in the tubes
b. The tissues exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with coelomic fluid
c. The tissues exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the air outside through
body surface
d. Tracheal tubes exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the haemocoel which
then exchange with tissues
2. Regarding the functions of our respiratory system, mark the wrong entry.
a. Humidifies the air
b. Warms up the air
c. Exchange of gases
d. Cleans up the air
3. A person suffers punctures in his chest cavity in an accident without any
damage to the lungs. Its effect could be
a. Reduced breathing rate
b. Rapid increase in breathing rate
c. No change in respiration
d. Cessation of breathing
4. It is known that exposure to carbon monoxide is harmful to animals
because
a. It reduces CO
2
 transport
b. It reduces O
2
 transport
c. It increases CO
2
 transport
d. It increases O
2
 transport
18-04-2018
97 97 97 97 97
97 97 97 97 97 97 97 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES
5. Mark the true statement among the following with reference to normal
breathing
a. Inspiration is a passive process where as expiration is active
b. Inspiration is a active process where as expiration is passive
c. Inspiration and expiration are active processes
d. Inspiration and expiration are passive processes
6. A person breathes in some volume of air by forced inspiration after having
a forced expiration. This quantity of air taken in is
a. Total lung capacity
b. Tidal volume
c. Vital capacity
d. Inspiratory capacity
7. Mark the incorrect statement in context to O2 binding to Hb
a. Higher pH
b. Lower temperature
c. Lower pCO
2
d. Higher PO
2
8. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding respiratory
system?
a. Each terminal bronchiole give rise to a network of bronchi.
b. the alveoli are highly vascularised.
c. The lungs are covered by a double-layered membrane.
d. The plecral fluid reduces friction on the lung surface.
9. Incidence of Emphysema – a respiratory disorder is high in cigarette
smokers. In such cases
a. The bronchioles are found damaged
b. The alveolar walls are found damaged
c. The plasma membrane is found damaged
d. The  respiratory muscles are found damaged
10. Respiratory process is regulated by certain specialized centres in the
brain. One of the following centres can reduce the inspiratory duration
upon stimulation
a. Medullary inspiratory centre
b. Pneumotaxic centre
c. Apneustic centre
d. Chemosensitive centre
18-04-2018
98 BIOLOGY, EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS
11. CO
2
 dissociates from carbaminohaemoglobin when
a. pCO
2
 is high & pO
2
 is low
b. pO
2
 is high and pCO
2
 is low
c. pCO
2
 and pO
2
 are equal
d. None of the above
12. In breathing movements, air volume can be estimated by
a. Stethoscope
b. Hygrometer
c. Sphigmomanometer
d. Spirometer
13. From the following relationships between respiratory volume and
capacities and mark the correct answer
i. Inspiratory capacity (IC) = Tidal Volume + Residual Volume
ii. Vital Capacity (VC) = Tidal Volume (TV) + Inspiratory Reserve
Volume (IRV) + Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV).
iii. Residual Volume (RV) = Vital Capacity (VC) – Inspiratory Reserve
Volume (IRV)
iv. Tidal Volume (TV) = Inspiratory Capacity (IC) – Inspiratory Reserve
Volume (IRV)
Options:
a. (i) Incorrect, (ii) Incorrect, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct
b. (i) Incorrect, (ii) Correct, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct
c. (i) Correct, (ii) Correct, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct
d. (i) Correct, (ii) Incorrect, (iii) Correct, (iv) Incorrect
14. The oxygen - haemoglobin dissociation curve will show a right shift in
case of
a. High pCO
2
b. High pO
2
c. Low pCO
2
d. Less H
+
 concentration
15. Match the following and mark the correct options
Animal Respiratory Organ
A. Earthworm i. Moist cuticle
B. Insects ii. Gills
C. Fishes iii. Lungs
D. Birds/Reptiles iv. Trachea
18-04-2018
99 99 99 99 99
99 99 99 99 99 99 99 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES
Options:
a. A-ii, B-i, C-iv, D-iii
b. A-i, B-iv, C-ii, D-iii
c. A-i, B-iii, C-ii, D-iv
d. A-i, B-ii, C-i.v, D-iii
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Define the following terms?
a. Tidal volume
b. Residual volume
c. Asthma
2. A fluid filled double membranous layer surrounds the lungs. Name it
and mention its important function.
3. Name the primary site of exchange of gases in our body?
4. Cigarette smoking causes emphysema. Give reason.
5. What is the amount of O
2 
supplied to tissues through every 100 ml. of
oxygenated blood under normal physiological conditions?
6. A major percentage (97%) of O
2
 is transported by RBCs in the blood.
How does the remaining percentage (3%) of O
2
 transported?
7. Arrange the following terms based on their volumes in an ascending
order
a. Tidal Volume (TV)
b. Residual Volume (RV)
c. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
d. Expiratory Capacity (EC)
8. Complete the missing terms
a. Inspiratory Capacity (IC) = _____ +IRV
b. ___________________  = TV + ERV
c. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) = ERV + ____
9. Name the organs of respiration in the following organisms:
a. Flatworm - _________________________________________
b. Birds - _____________________________________________
c. Frog- ______________________________________________
d. Cockroach - ________________________________________
18-04-2018
Page 5


96 BIOLOGY, EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 17
BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Respiration in insects is called direct because
a. The cell exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the air in the tubes
b. The tissues exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with coelomic fluid
c. The tissues exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the air outside through
body surface
d. Tracheal tubes exchange O
2
/ CO
2
 directly with the haemocoel which
then exchange with tissues
2. Regarding the functions of our respiratory system, mark the wrong entry.
a. Humidifies the air
b. Warms up the air
c. Exchange of gases
d. Cleans up the air
3. A person suffers punctures in his chest cavity in an accident without any
damage to the lungs. Its effect could be
a. Reduced breathing rate
b. Rapid increase in breathing rate
c. No change in respiration
d. Cessation of breathing
4. It is known that exposure to carbon monoxide is harmful to animals
because
a. It reduces CO
2
 transport
b. It reduces O
2
 transport
c. It increases CO
2
 transport
d. It increases O
2
 transport
18-04-2018
97 97 97 97 97
97 97 97 97 97 97 97 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES
5. Mark the true statement among the following with reference to normal
breathing
a. Inspiration is a passive process where as expiration is active
b. Inspiration is a active process where as expiration is passive
c. Inspiration and expiration are active processes
d. Inspiration and expiration are passive processes
6. A person breathes in some volume of air by forced inspiration after having
a forced expiration. This quantity of air taken in is
a. Total lung capacity
b. Tidal volume
c. Vital capacity
d. Inspiratory capacity
7. Mark the incorrect statement in context to O2 binding to Hb
a. Higher pH
b. Lower temperature
c. Lower pCO
2
d. Higher PO
2
8. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding respiratory
system?
a. Each terminal bronchiole give rise to a network of bronchi.
b. the alveoli are highly vascularised.
c. The lungs are covered by a double-layered membrane.
d. The plecral fluid reduces friction on the lung surface.
9. Incidence of Emphysema – a respiratory disorder is high in cigarette
smokers. In such cases
a. The bronchioles are found damaged
b. The alveolar walls are found damaged
c. The plasma membrane is found damaged
d. The  respiratory muscles are found damaged
10. Respiratory process is regulated by certain specialized centres in the
brain. One of the following centres can reduce the inspiratory duration
upon stimulation
a. Medullary inspiratory centre
b. Pneumotaxic centre
c. Apneustic centre
d. Chemosensitive centre
18-04-2018
98 BIOLOGY, EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS
11. CO
2
 dissociates from carbaminohaemoglobin when
a. pCO
2
 is high & pO
2
 is low
b. pO
2
 is high and pCO
2
 is low
c. pCO
2
 and pO
2
 are equal
d. None of the above
12. In breathing movements, air volume can be estimated by
a. Stethoscope
b. Hygrometer
c. Sphigmomanometer
d. Spirometer
13. From the following relationships between respiratory volume and
capacities and mark the correct answer
i. Inspiratory capacity (IC) = Tidal Volume + Residual Volume
ii. Vital Capacity (VC) = Tidal Volume (TV) + Inspiratory Reserve
Volume (IRV) + Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV).
iii. Residual Volume (RV) = Vital Capacity (VC) – Inspiratory Reserve
Volume (IRV)
iv. Tidal Volume (TV) = Inspiratory Capacity (IC) – Inspiratory Reserve
Volume (IRV)
Options:
a. (i) Incorrect, (ii) Incorrect, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct
b. (i) Incorrect, (ii) Correct, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct
c. (i) Correct, (ii) Correct, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct
d. (i) Correct, (ii) Incorrect, (iii) Correct, (iv) Incorrect
14. The oxygen - haemoglobin dissociation curve will show a right shift in
case of
a. High pCO
2
b. High pO
2
c. Low pCO
2
d. Less H
+
 concentration
15. Match the following and mark the correct options
Animal Respiratory Organ
A. Earthworm i. Moist cuticle
B. Insects ii. Gills
C. Fishes iii. Lungs
D. Birds/Reptiles iv. Trachea
18-04-2018
99 99 99 99 99
99 99 99 99 99 99 99 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES
Options:
a. A-ii, B-i, C-iv, D-iii
b. A-i, B-iv, C-ii, D-iii
c. A-i, B-iii, C-ii, D-iv
d. A-i, B-ii, C-i.v, D-iii
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Define the following terms?
a. Tidal volume
b. Residual volume
c. Asthma
2. A fluid filled double membranous layer surrounds the lungs. Name it
and mention its important function.
3. Name the primary site of exchange of gases in our body?
4. Cigarette smoking causes emphysema. Give reason.
5. What is the amount of O
2 
supplied to tissues through every 100 ml. of
oxygenated blood under normal physiological conditions?
6. A major percentage (97%) of O
2
 is transported by RBCs in the blood.
How does the remaining percentage (3%) of O
2
 transported?
7. Arrange the following terms based on their volumes in an ascending
order
a. Tidal Volume (TV)
b. Residual Volume (RV)
c. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
d. Expiratory Capacity (EC)
8. Complete the missing terms
a. Inspiratory Capacity (IC) = _____ +IRV
b. ___________________  = TV + ERV
c. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) = ERV + ____
9. Name the organs of respiration in the following organisms:
a. Flatworm - _________________________________________
b. Birds - _____________________________________________
c. Frog- ______________________________________________
d. Cockroach - ________________________________________
18-04-2018
100 BIOLOGY, EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS
10. Name the important parts involved in creating a pressure gradient
between lungs and the atmosphere during normal respiration.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. State the different modes of CO
2
 transport in blood.
2. Compared to O
2
, diffusion rate of CO
2
 through the diffusion membrane
per unit difference in partial pressure is much higher. Explain.
3. For completion of respiration process, write the given steps in sequential
manner
a. Diffusion of gases (O
2
 and CO
2
) across alveolar membrane.
b. Transport of gases by blood.
c. Utilisation of O
2
 by the cells for catabolic reactions and resultant
 release of CO
2.
d. Pulmonary ventilation by which atmospheric air is drawn in and
CO
2
 rich alveolar air is released out.
e. Diffusion of O
2
 and CO
2
 between blood and tissues.
4. Differentiate between
a. Inspiratory and expiratory reserve volume
b. Vital capacity and total lung capacity
c. Emphysema and occupational respiratory disorder
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Explain the transport of O
2
 and CO
2
 between alveoli and tissue with
diagram.
2. Explain the mechanism of breathing with neat labelled sketches.
3. Explain the role of neural system in regulation of respiration.
18-04-2018
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