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 Page 1


NCERT
MBBS (KGMU)
38
Page 2


NCERT
MBBS (KGMU)
38
1
st
 Floor, Pratap Bhawan, Hazratganj, Lucknow.
Cont. : 0522-4109-582, 8400-582-582, 8604-582-582
NCERT Tablet
Dr. Hariom Gangwar
GANGWAR I NSTI TUTE 1
Scientists and Related Fields
1. Ernst Mayr (1904-2004) : Evolutionary Biologist
2. Matthias Schleiden : German Botanist
3. Julius von Sachs : German Botanist
4. Theodore Schwann : British Zoologist
5. Cornelius van Niel : Microbiologist
6. Alfonso Corti : Italian Anatomist
7. Dr. W. Dudgeon : American Missionary Teacher.
8. P. Maheshwari : Indian Botanist
9. Reginald C. Punnet : British Geneticist
10. George Gammow : Physicist
11. Alfred Wallace : Naturalist
12. Lamarck : French Naturalist
13. Edward Wilson : Sociobiologist.
14. Paul Ehrlich : Stanford Ecologist
15. Ramdeo Misra : Indian Ecologist
16. Francois Jacob : Geneticist
17. Jacque Monad : Biochemist
18. Alexander von Humboldt : German Naturalist & Geographer
19. Rene Descartes : French Philosopher,
Mathematician and Biologist.
Sizes in NCERT Biology
1. Diameter of pollen grain : 25-50 micrometer.
2. Diameter of RBC : 7 micrometer.
3. Smallest cell : Mycoplasma (0.3 micron in length)
4. Largest cell : Egg of an ostrich
5. Typical eukaryotic cell : 10-20 Micron
Page 3


NCERT
MBBS (KGMU)
38
1
st
 Floor, Pratap Bhawan, Hazratganj, Lucknow.
Cont. : 0522-4109-582, 8400-582-582, 8604-582-582
NCERT Tablet
Dr. Hariom Gangwar
GANGWAR I NSTI TUTE 1
Scientists and Related Fields
1. Ernst Mayr (1904-2004) : Evolutionary Biologist
2. Matthias Schleiden : German Botanist
3. Julius von Sachs : German Botanist
4. Theodore Schwann : British Zoologist
5. Cornelius van Niel : Microbiologist
6. Alfonso Corti : Italian Anatomist
7. Dr. W. Dudgeon : American Missionary Teacher.
8. P. Maheshwari : Indian Botanist
9. Reginald C. Punnet : British Geneticist
10. George Gammow : Physicist
11. Alfred Wallace : Naturalist
12. Lamarck : French Naturalist
13. Edward Wilson : Sociobiologist.
14. Paul Ehrlich : Stanford Ecologist
15. Ramdeo Misra : Indian Ecologist
16. Francois Jacob : Geneticist
17. Jacque Monad : Biochemist
18. Alexander von Humboldt : German Naturalist & Geographer
19. Rene Descartes : French Philosopher,
Mathematician and Biologist.
Sizes in NCERT Biology
1. Diameter of pollen grain : 25-50 micrometer.
2. Diameter of RBC : 7 micrometer.
3. Smallest cell : Mycoplasma (0.3 micron in length)
4. Largest cell : Egg of an ostrich
5. Typical eukaryotic cell : 10-20 Micron
NCERT Tablet
Dr. Hariom Gangwar
1
st
 Floor, Pratap Bhawan, Hazratganj, Lucknow.
Cont. : 0522-4109-582, 8400-582-582, 8604-582-582
GANGWAR I NSTI TUTE 2
6. Typical eukaryotic plant cell : 50 micrometer
7. Typical plant cell : Onion cell
8. Typical eukaryotic cell cycle : Human cells in culture.
9. Size of bacteria : 3-5 micron
10. Typical bacteria : 1-2 micrometer
11. Viruses : 0.02 - 0.2 micrometer
12. Diameter of G.B. cisternae : 0.5-1 Micron
13. Diameter of mitochondria : 0.2-1 µm (Average 0.5 µm)
14. Length of mitochondria : 1-4.1 micron
15. Length of chloroplast : 5-10 micrometer (µm)
16. Width of chloroplast : 2-4 micrometer
17. Length of E. coli DNA : 1.36 mm
18. Length of Human DNA : 2.2 m
Experimental Materials
1. Engleman experiment : Cladophora (green algae).
2. Priestely experiment : Mint plant
3. Van Niel experiment : Purple & green sulphur bacteria
4. Mendel’s work : Garden pea (Pisum sativum).
5. Hugo de Vries work on mutation : Evening primrose.
6. Morgan’s work : Drosophila melanogaster.
7. Griffith experiment : Streptococcus pneumoniae.
8. Hershy & Chase experiment : Bacteriophage [Bacterial viruses]
9. Meselson & Stahl experiment : E. coli bacteria.
10. Taylor’s work : Vicia faba (faba beans)
11. Melvin Calvin’s work : Algal photosynthesis.
Ph.D.
1. 1931 : Katherine Esau (United state).
2. 1937 : Ramdeo Misra - In Ecology (From Leeds University, U.K.)
3. 1949 : G.N. Ramachanadaran (From Cambridge university)
4. 1950 : Watson-The effect of hard X-rays on bacteriophage multiplication
5. 1954 : Crick - X-ray diffraction: polypeptides & protein.
6. 1935 : Melvin Calvin-Ph.D. in chemistry (from University of Minnesota).
NOBEL PRIZES
1. 1945 : Fleming, Chain & Florey.
Page 4


NCERT
MBBS (KGMU)
38
1
st
 Floor, Pratap Bhawan, Hazratganj, Lucknow.
Cont. : 0522-4109-582, 8400-582-582, 8604-582-582
NCERT Tablet
Dr. Hariom Gangwar
GANGWAR I NSTI TUTE 1
Scientists and Related Fields
1. Ernst Mayr (1904-2004) : Evolutionary Biologist
2. Matthias Schleiden : German Botanist
3. Julius von Sachs : German Botanist
4. Theodore Schwann : British Zoologist
5. Cornelius van Niel : Microbiologist
6. Alfonso Corti : Italian Anatomist
7. Dr. W. Dudgeon : American Missionary Teacher.
8. P. Maheshwari : Indian Botanist
9. Reginald C. Punnet : British Geneticist
10. George Gammow : Physicist
11. Alfred Wallace : Naturalist
12. Lamarck : French Naturalist
13. Edward Wilson : Sociobiologist.
14. Paul Ehrlich : Stanford Ecologist
15. Ramdeo Misra : Indian Ecologist
16. Francois Jacob : Geneticist
17. Jacque Monad : Biochemist
18. Alexander von Humboldt : German Naturalist & Geographer
19. Rene Descartes : French Philosopher,
Mathematician and Biologist.
Sizes in NCERT Biology
1. Diameter of pollen grain : 25-50 micrometer.
2. Diameter of RBC : 7 micrometer.
3. Smallest cell : Mycoplasma (0.3 micron in length)
4. Largest cell : Egg of an ostrich
5. Typical eukaryotic cell : 10-20 Micron
NCERT Tablet
Dr. Hariom Gangwar
1
st
 Floor, Pratap Bhawan, Hazratganj, Lucknow.
Cont. : 0522-4109-582, 8400-582-582, 8604-582-582
GANGWAR I NSTI TUTE 2
6. Typical eukaryotic plant cell : 50 micrometer
7. Typical plant cell : Onion cell
8. Typical eukaryotic cell cycle : Human cells in culture.
9. Size of bacteria : 3-5 micron
10. Typical bacteria : 1-2 micrometer
11. Viruses : 0.02 - 0.2 micrometer
12. Diameter of G.B. cisternae : 0.5-1 Micron
13. Diameter of mitochondria : 0.2-1 µm (Average 0.5 µm)
14. Length of mitochondria : 1-4.1 micron
15. Length of chloroplast : 5-10 micrometer (µm)
16. Width of chloroplast : 2-4 micrometer
17. Length of E. coli DNA : 1.36 mm
18. Length of Human DNA : 2.2 m
Experimental Materials
1. Engleman experiment : Cladophora (green algae).
2. Priestely experiment : Mint plant
3. Van Niel experiment : Purple & green sulphur bacteria
4. Mendel’s work : Garden pea (Pisum sativum).
5. Hugo de Vries work on mutation : Evening primrose.
6. Morgan’s work : Drosophila melanogaster.
7. Griffith experiment : Streptococcus pneumoniae.
8. Hershy & Chase experiment : Bacteriophage [Bacterial viruses]
9. Meselson & Stahl experiment : E. coli bacteria.
10. Taylor’s work : Vicia faba (faba beans)
11. Melvin Calvin’s work : Algal photosynthesis.
Ph.D.
1. 1931 : Katherine Esau (United state).
2. 1937 : Ramdeo Misra - In Ecology (From Leeds University, U.K.)
3. 1949 : G.N. Ramachanadaran (From Cambridge university)
4. 1950 : Watson-The effect of hard X-rays on bacteriophage multiplication
5. 1954 : Crick - X-ray diffraction: polypeptides & protein.
6. 1935 : Melvin Calvin-Ph.D. in chemistry (from University of Minnesota).
NOBEL PRIZES
1. 1945 : Fleming, Chain & Florey.
1
st
 Floor, Pratap Bhawan, Hazratganj, Lucknow.
Cont. : 0522-4109-582, 8400-582-582, 8604-582-582
NCERT Tablet
Dr. Hariom Gangwar
GANGWAR I NSTI TUTE 3
2. 1961 : Calvin (in Chemistry)
3. 1962 : Watson, Crick & Wilkins.
4. 1968 : Holley, Nirenberg & Hargobind Khorana.
5. 2005 : Chavin, Grubbs & Shrock (in chemistry).
OTHER PRIZES
1. Padma Bhushan Award : M.S. Swaminathan
2. Sanjay Gandhi Award in Environment and Ecology : Ramdeo Misra.
3. Triple Crown (Balzan Prize in 1983, the international prize for biology
in 1994, and the crafoord prize in 1999) : Ernst Mayr.
4. Lasker Award : Watson & Crick.
Term coined by
1. Term Virus : Ivanowsky (NCERT Correction-2019-20)
2. Term Chromatin : Flemming
3. Term Linkage : Morgan
4. Term Recombination : Morgan
5. Term Mutation : Hugo de Vries
6. Term Biodiversity popularised by : Edward Wilson.
Units
1. Unit of classification : Taxon/category/rank.
2. Unit of Neural system : Neurons
3. Functional unit of kidney : Nephron.
4. Anatomical unit of muscle : Muscle fibre/muscle cell.
5. Functional unit of contraction : Sarcomere
6. Functional unit of inheritance : Genes.
7. Unit of Noise Pollution : dB (Decibel).
8. Unit of ozone layer thickness : DU (Dobson Units).
9. Functional unit of Nature : Ecosystem.
10. Structural and functional unit of all living organisms : Cell.
11. Reproductive unit in the angiosperms : Flower
12. Unit of water potential : Pascals (Pa) or any other pressure unit.
13. Structural and functional units of liver : Hepatic lobules
14. Structural and functional unit between developing embryo (foetus) and
maternal body : Placenta
15. Functional unit of kidney : Nephron
Data of NCERT for Humans
Page 5


NCERT
MBBS (KGMU)
38
1
st
 Floor, Pratap Bhawan, Hazratganj, Lucknow.
Cont. : 0522-4109-582, 8400-582-582, 8604-582-582
NCERT Tablet
Dr. Hariom Gangwar
GANGWAR I NSTI TUTE 1
Scientists and Related Fields
1. Ernst Mayr (1904-2004) : Evolutionary Biologist
2. Matthias Schleiden : German Botanist
3. Julius von Sachs : German Botanist
4. Theodore Schwann : British Zoologist
5. Cornelius van Niel : Microbiologist
6. Alfonso Corti : Italian Anatomist
7. Dr. W. Dudgeon : American Missionary Teacher.
8. P. Maheshwari : Indian Botanist
9. Reginald C. Punnet : British Geneticist
10. George Gammow : Physicist
11. Alfred Wallace : Naturalist
12. Lamarck : French Naturalist
13. Edward Wilson : Sociobiologist.
14. Paul Ehrlich : Stanford Ecologist
15. Ramdeo Misra : Indian Ecologist
16. Francois Jacob : Geneticist
17. Jacque Monad : Biochemist
18. Alexander von Humboldt : German Naturalist & Geographer
19. Rene Descartes : French Philosopher,
Mathematician and Biologist.
Sizes in NCERT Biology
1. Diameter of pollen grain : 25-50 micrometer.
2. Diameter of RBC : 7 micrometer.
3. Smallest cell : Mycoplasma (0.3 micron in length)
4. Largest cell : Egg of an ostrich
5. Typical eukaryotic cell : 10-20 Micron
NCERT Tablet
Dr. Hariom Gangwar
1
st
 Floor, Pratap Bhawan, Hazratganj, Lucknow.
Cont. : 0522-4109-582, 8400-582-582, 8604-582-582
GANGWAR I NSTI TUTE 2
6. Typical eukaryotic plant cell : 50 micrometer
7. Typical plant cell : Onion cell
8. Typical eukaryotic cell cycle : Human cells in culture.
9. Size of bacteria : 3-5 micron
10. Typical bacteria : 1-2 micrometer
11. Viruses : 0.02 - 0.2 micrometer
12. Diameter of G.B. cisternae : 0.5-1 Micron
13. Diameter of mitochondria : 0.2-1 µm (Average 0.5 µm)
14. Length of mitochondria : 1-4.1 micron
15. Length of chloroplast : 5-10 micrometer (µm)
16. Width of chloroplast : 2-4 micrometer
17. Length of E. coli DNA : 1.36 mm
18. Length of Human DNA : 2.2 m
Experimental Materials
1. Engleman experiment : Cladophora (green algae).
2. Priestely experiment : Mint plant
3. Van Niel experiment : Purple & green sulphur bacteria
4. Mendel’s work : Garden pea (Pisum sativum).
5. Hugo de Vries work on mutation : Evening primrose.
6. Morgan’s work : Drosophila melanogaster.
7. Griffith experiment : Streptococcus pneumoniae.
8. Hershy & Chase experiment : Bacteriophage [Bacterial viruses]
9. Meselson & Stahl experiment : E. coli bacteria.
10. Taylor’s work : Vicia faba (faba beans)
11. Melvin Calvin’s work : Algal photosynthesis.
Ph.D.
1. 1931 : Katherine Esau (United state).
2. 1937 : Ramdeo Misra - In Ecology (From Leeds University, U.K.)
3. 1949 : G.N. Ramachanadaran (From Cambridge university)
4. 1950 : Watson-The effect of hard X-rays on bacteriophage multiplication
5. 1954 : Crick - X-ray diffraction: polypeptides & protein.
6. 1935 : Melvin Calvin-Ph.D. in chemistry (from University of Minnesota).
NOBEL PRIZES
1. 1945 : Fleming, Chain & Florey.
1
st
 Floor, Pratap Bhawan, Hazratganj, Lucknow.
Cont. : 0522-4109-582, 8400-582-582, 8604-582-582
NCERT Tablet
Dr. Hariom Gangwar
GANGWAR I NSTI TUTE 3
2. 1961 : Calvin (in Chemistry)
3. 1962 : Watson, Crick & Wilkins.
4. 1968 : Holley, Nirenberg & Hargobind Khorana.
5. 2005 : Chavin, Grubbs & Shrock (in chemistry).
OTHER PRIZES
1. Padma Bhushan Award : M.S. Swaminathan
2. Sanjay Gandhi Award in Environment and Ecology : Ramdeo Misra.
3. Triple Crown (Balzan Prize in 1983, the international prize for biology
in 1994, and the crafoord prize in 1999) : Ernst Mayr.
4. Lasker Award : Watson & Crick.
Term coined by
1. Term Virus : Ivanowsky (NCERT Correction-2019-20)
2. Term Chromatin : Flemming
3. Term Linkage : Morgan
4. Term Recombination : Morgan
5. Term Mutation : Hugo de Vries
6. Term Biodiversity popularised by : Edward Wilson.
Units
1. Unit of classification : Taxon/category/rank.
2. Unit of Neural system : Neurons
3. Functional unit of kidney : Nephron.
4. Anatomical unit of muscle : Muscle fibre/muscle cell.
5. Functional unit of contraction : Sarcomere
6. Functional unit of inheritance : Genes.
7. Unit of Noise Pollution : dB (Decibel).
8. Unit of ozone layer thickness : DU (Dobson Units).
9. Functional unit of Nature : Ecosystem.
10. Structural and functional unit of all living organisms : Cell.
11. Reproductive unit in the angiosperms : Flower
12. Unit of water potential : Pascals (Pa) or any other pressure unit.
13. Structural and functional units of liver : Hepatic lobules
14. Structural and functional unit between developing embryo (foetus) and
maternal body : Placenta
15. Functional unit of kidney : Nephron
Data of NCERT for Humans
NCERT Tablet
Dr. Hariom Gangwar
1
st
 Floor, Pratap Bhawan, Hazratganj, Lucknow.
Cont. : 0522-4109-582, 8400-582-582, 8604-582-582
GANGWAR I NSTI TUTE 4
1. Weight of Liver : 1.2 to 1.5 kg
2. Weight of Kidney : 120 to 170 gm
3. Number of lobes in Liver : 2
4. Number of salivary glands : 3 pairs
5. Number of portions in stomach : 4 (Cardiac, fundic, body & Pyloric).
6. Stomach stores food for : 4 to 5 hours.
7. pH of saliva : 6.8
8. pH of gastric juice : 1.8
9. pH in duodenum : 7.8
10. pH of urine : 6.0
11. Breathing rate : 12-16 times/minute
12. Tidal volume : 500 mL
13. IRV : 2500 - 3000 mL
14. ERV : 1000 - 1100 mL
15. RV : 1100 - 1200 mL
16. Water in plasma : 90-92%
17. Water in watermelon : 92%.
18. Water in herbaceous plants : 85-90%.
19. Water in human cell : 70-90%.
20. Colon is divided in : 4 parts (Ascending, transverse, descending and
sigmoid parts). (NCERT Correction-2019-20)
21. Solubility of CO
2
 is 20-25 times higher than that of O
2
.
22. Diffusion membrane is made up of 3 layers.
23. Total thickness of diffusion membrane : < 1 mm
24. No. of wall layers in alimentary canal (from oesophagus to rectum) : 4
25. Gastric gland have 3 type of cells : Mucus neck cells, chief cells and
parietal cells
26. Every 100 ml of oxygenated blood can deliver how much O
2
 to tissues
: 5 mL
27. Every 100 ml of deoxygenated blood delivers how much CO
2
 to the
alveoli : 4 mL
Shapes in NCERT Biology
1. Pollen grains are generally : Spherical
2. Nucleolus : Spherical
3. Centriole : Cylindrical
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