Notes : Directing Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Class 12 : Notes : Directing Class 12 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


4 6  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
UNIT   7 
DIRECTION 
Meaning 
Directing as a function of managment, refers to the process of instructing, 
guiding counselling, motivating and leading people in the organisation to 
achieve its objectives. It does not mean only instructions but also include 
supervising the employess when they are performing the job, motivating them 
to perform more efficiently and leading them towards the achievement of 
organisational goal. 
Features : 
1. Directing initiate action : The other functions of management prepare 
a setting for action, but directing initiates action in the organisation. 
2. Directing takes place at every level of Management :- Every manager 
from top executive to supervisor performs the function of directing. 
3. Directing is a continous process of supervision, communication, 
leadership and motivation, It takes place throughout the life of the 
organisation. 
4. Directing flows from top to bottom :- It is first initiated at the top level 
and flows to the bottom through organisational hierarchy. 
Importance : 
1. Initiates Action : It helps to initiate action by people in the organisation 
towards attainment of desired objectives. The employees start working 
only when they get instructions and directions from their superiors. It 
is the directing function which starts actual work to convert plans into 
results. 
2. Integrate Employee s Efforts :- All the activities of the oranisation are 
interrelated so it in necessary to coordinate all the activities. It integrates 
the activities of subordinates by supervision, guidance and counselling.
Page 2


4 6  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
UNIT   7 
DIRECTION 
Meaning 
Directing as a function of managment, refers to the process of instructing, 
guiding counselling, motivating and leading people in the organisation to 
achieve its objectives. It does not mean only instructions but also include 
supervising the employess when they are performing the job, motivating them 
to perform more efficiently and leading them towards the achievement of 
organisational goal. 
Features : 
1. Directing initiate action : The other functions of management prepare 
a setting for action, but directing initiates action in the organisation. 
2. Directing takes place at every level of Management :- Every manager 
from top executive to supervisor performs the function of directing. 
3. Directing is a continous process of supervision, communication, 
leadership and motivation, It takes place throughout the life of the 
organisation. 
4. Directing flows from top to bottom :- It is first initiated at the top level 
and flows to the bottom through organisational hierarchy. 
Importance : 
1. Initiates Action : It helps to initiate action by people in the organisation 
towards attainment of desired objectives. The employees start working 
only when they get instructions and directions from their superiors. It 
is the directing function which starts actual work to convert plans into 
results. 
2. Integrate Employee s Efforts :- All the activities of the oranisation are 
interrelated so it in necessary to coordinate all the activities. It integrates 
the activities of subordinates by supervision, guidance and counselling.
4 7  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
3. Means of motivation - It motivates the subordinates to work efficiently 
and to contribute their maximum efforts towards the achievement of 
organisational goals. 
4. Facilitates change :- Employees often resist changes due to fear of 
adverse effects on their employment and promotion. Directing facilitate 
adjustment in the organisation to cope with changes in the environment. 
5. Stability and Balance in the organisation :- It helps to achieve balance 
between individual interests of employees and organisational interests. 
Principles of Directing :- 
1. Maximum Individual Contribution : - Directing techniques must help 
every individual in the organisation to contribute his maximum potential 
for achievement of organisational objectives. 
2. Harmony of objectives - The objectives of individual and organisation 
must be in harmony with each other. But good directing should provide 
harmony by convincing the employees that organisational objectives are 
in their own interest. 
3. Unity of Command :- An individual or subordinate in the organisation 
should receive instructions from one superior only otherwise it creates 
confusion conflict and disorder in the organisation. 
4. Appropriateness of Direction Technique : According to this principle the 
technique like motivation, supervision, communication and leadership 
should be appropriate - according to the attitude and need of the 
employees. 
5. Managerial Communication : The two way flow of information is the 
most effective means of securing cooperation of the subordinates because 
it provides them an opportunity to express their feelings. 
6. Use of Informal organisation :- An informal organisation exist within 
formal organisation structure. So managers must make use of informal 
structure also for getting correct and real feed back. 
7. Leadership - A manager by becoming a good leader can make direction 
effective with the trust and confidence of his subordinates. 
8. Follow through : Mere giving of an order is not sufficient managers 
should follow it up by reviewing continuously.
Page 3


4 6  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
UNIT   7 
DIRECTION 
Meaning 
Directing as a function of managment, refers to the process of instructing, 
guiding counselling, motivating and leading people in the organisation to 
achieve its objectives. It does not mean only instructions but also include 
supervising the employess when they are performing the job, motivating them 
to perform more efficiently and leading them towards the achievement of 
organisational goal. 
Features : 
1. Directing initiate action : The other functions of management prepare 
a setting for action, but directing initiates action in the organisation. 
2. Directing takes place at every level of Management :- Every manager 
from top executive to supervisor performs the function of directing. 
3. Directing is a continous process of supervision, communication, 
leadership and motivation, It takes place throughout the life of the 
organisation. 
4. Directing flows from top to bottom :- It is first initiated at the top level 
and flows to the bottom through organisational hierarchy. 
Importance : 
1. Initiates Action : It helps to initiate action by people in the organisation 
towards attainment of desired objectives. The employees start working 
only when they get instructions and directions from their superiors. It 
is the directing function which starts actual work to convert plans into 
results. 
2. Integrate Employee s Efforts :- All the activities of the oranisation are 
interrelated so it in necessary to coordinate all the activities. It integrates 
the activities of subordinates by supervision, guidance and counselling.
4 7  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
3. Means of motivation - It motivates the subordinates to work efficiently 
and to contribute their maximum efforts towards the achievement of 
organisational goals. 
4. Facilitates change :- Employees often resist changes due to fear of 
adverse effects on their employment and promotion. Directing facilitate 
adjustment in the organisation to cope with changes in the environment. 
5. Stability and Balance in the organisation :- It helps to achieve balance 
between individual interests of employees and organisational interests. 
Principles of Directing :- 
1. Maximum Individual Contribution : - Directing techniques must help 
every individual in the organisation to contribute his maximum potential 
for achievement of organisational objectives. 
2. Harmony of objectives - The objectives of individual and organisation 
must be in harmony with each other. But good directing should provide 
harmony by convincing the employees that organisational objectives are 
in their own interest. 
3. Unity of Command :- An individual or subordinate in the organisation 
should receive instructions from one superior only otherwise it creates 
confusion conflict and disorder in the organisation. 
4. Appropriateness of Direction Technique : According to this principle the 
technique like motivation, supervision, communication and leadership 
should be appropriate - according to the attitude and need of the 
employees. 
5. Managerial Communication : The two way flow of information is the 
most effective means of securing cooperation of the subordinates because 
it provides them an opportunity to express their feelings. 
6. Use of Informal organisation :- An informal organisation exist within 
formal organisation structure. So managers must make use of informal 
structure also for getting correct and real feed back. 
7. Leadership - A manager by becoming a good leader can make direction 
effective with the trust and confidence of his subordinates. 
8. Follow through : Mere giving of an order is not sufficient managers 
should follow it up by reviewing continuously.
4 8  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
Elements of Direction 
1. Supervision - It means observing the subordinates at work to see that 
they are working in according with plans and to help them in solving 
their problems. The important thing in supervision is it involves face to 
face contact between superior and subordinates. Supervisor s position is 
immediately above the worker. 
Importance of Supervision / Role of a Supervisor 
1. Link between workers and management because the supervisor explains 
management policies to worker and brings workers problems to the notice 
of the management. 
2. Ensures issuing Instructions : To make sure that the instructions are 
communicated to each and every employee. 
3. Facilities Control : - Control means match between actual and planned 
output. It ensures checking on the methods in use and progress of work 
according to planned schedule. 
4. Maintainence of Discipline : The strict supervision and guidance of 
supervisor encourages the employees and workers to be more disciplined 
in the activities. 
5. Feedback - The supervisors are directly dealing with the subordinates, 
As a result feedback in the form of suggestions, grievances keeps coming 
to the management. 
6. Improved Motivation - A supervisor with good leadership qualities can 
build up high morale among workers. 
7. Optimum utilisation of resources   All the activities are under the 
observation of supervisor so less wastages and optimum utilisation of 
resources is possible. 
Motivations :- 
Meaning :- It is the process of stimulating people to act to their best ability 
to accomplish desired goals. It depends upon satisfying needs of people.
Page 4


4 6  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
UNIT   7 
DIRECTION 
Meaning 
Directing as a function of managment, refers to the process of instructing, 
guiding counselling, motivating and leading people in the organisation to 
achieve its objectives. It does not mean only instructions but also include 
supervising the employess when they are performing the job, motivating them 
to perform more efficiently and leading them towards the achievement of 
organisational goal. 
Features : 
1. Directing initiate action : The other functions of management prepare 
a setting for action, but directing initiates action in the organisation. 
2. Directing takes place at every level of Management :- Every manager 
from top executive to supervisor performs the function of directing. 
3. Directing is a continous process of supervision, communication, 
leadership and motivation, It takes place throughout the life of the 
organisation. 
4. Directing flows from top to bottom :- It is first initiated at the top level 
and flows to the bottom through organisational hierarchy. 
Importance : 
1. Initiates Action : It helps to initiate action by people in the organisation 
towards attainment of desired objectives. The employees start working 
only when they get instructions and directions from their superiors. It 
is the directing function which starts actual work to convert plans into 
results. 
2. Integrate Employee s Efforts :- All the activities of the oranisation are 
interrelated so it in necessary to coordinate all the activities. It integrates 
the activities of subordinates by supervision, guidance and counselling.
4 7  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
3. Means of motivation - It motivates the subordinates to work efficiently 
and to contribute their maximum efforts towards the achievement of 
organisational goals. 
4. Facilitates change :- Employees often resist changes due to fear of 
adverse effects on their employment and promotion. Directing facilitate 
adjustment in the organisation to cope with changes in the environment. 
5. Stability and Balance in the organisation :- It helps to achieve balance 
between individual interests of employees and organisational interests. 
Principles of Directing :- 
1. Maximum Individual Contribution : - Directing techniques must help 
every individual in the organisation to contribute his maximum potential 
for achievement of organisational objectives. 
2. Harmony of objectives - The objectives of individual and organisation 
must be in harmony with each other. But good directing should provide 
harmony by convincing the employees that organisational objectives are 
in their own interest. 
3. Unity of Command :- An individual or subordinate in the organisation 
should receive instructions from one superior only otherwise it creates 
confusion conflict and disorder in the organisation. 
4. Appropriateness of Direction Technique : According to this principle the 
technique like motivation, supervision, communication and leadership 
should be appropriate - according to the attitude and need of the 
employees. 
5. Managerial Communication : The two way flow of information is the 
most effective means of securing cooperation of the subordinates because 
it provides them an opportunity to express their feelings. 
6. Use of Informal organisation :- An informal organisation exist within 
formal organisation structure. So managers must make use of informal 
structure also for getting correct and real feed back. 
7. Leadership - A manager by becoming a good leader can make direction 
effective with the trust and confidence of his subordinates. 
8. Follow through : Mere giving of an order is not sufficient managers 
should follow it up by reviewing continuously.
4 8  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
Elements of Direction 
1. Supervision - It means observing the subordinates at work to see that 
they are working in according with plans and to help them in solving 
their problems. The important thing in supervision is it involves face to 
face contact between superior and subordinates. Supervisor s position is 
immediately above the worker. 
Importance of Supervision / Role of a Supervisor 
1. Link between workers and management because the supervisor explains 
management policies to worker and brings workers problems to the notice 
of the management. 
2. Ensures issuing Instructions : To make sure that the instructions are 
communicated to each and every employee. 
3. Facilities Control : - Control means match between actual and planned 
output. It ensures checking on the methods in use and progress of work 
according to planned schedule. 
4. Maintainence of Discipline : The strict supervision and guidance of 
supervisor encourages the employees and workers to be more disciplined 
in the activities. 
5. Feedback - The supervisors are directly dealing with the subordinates, 
As a result feedback in the form of suggestions, grievances keeps coming 
to the management. 
6. Improved Motivation - A supervisor with good leadership qualities can 
build up high morale among workers. 
7. Optimum utilisation of resources   All the activities are under the 
observation of supervisor so less wastages and optimum utilisation of 
resources is possible. 
Motivations :- 
Meaning :- It is the process of stimulating people to act to their best ability 
to accomplish desired goals. It depends upon satisfying needs of people.
4 9  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
Features : 
1. Psychological phonomenon - It is personal and internal feelings which 
arises from the needs and wants of a person. 
2. Goal Directed Behaviour - It includes people to behave in such a manner 
so that they can achieve their goal. 
3. Motivation can be either positive or Negative - Positive motivation 
means inspiring people to work better and appreciating a work that is 
well done. Negative motivation means forcing people to work by 
threatening or punishing them. 
4. Complex Process :- It is a complex and difficult process. Individuals differ 
in their needs and wants and moreover human needs change from time 
to time. 
Motivation Process - 
It is based on human needs. 
? 
Unsatisfied Needs 
? 
Tension 
? 
Drives 
? 
Search Behaviour 
? 
Satisfied Need 
? 
Reduction of Tension 
An Unsatisfied needs of an individual creates tension which stimulates 
his or her drives. These drives generate a search behaviour to satisfy such 
need. If such need is satisfied, the individual is relieved of tension. 
Importance - 
1. Achievement of Organisational Goal : Motivation puts human resources 
into action by satisfying their needs through appropriate rewards. 
Motivated employees cooperate and contribute their maximum efforts 
towards the organisational goals. 
2. Higher Efficiency of Employees - Depends upon their abilities and 
willingness to work hard. It bridges the gap between the ability to work 
and willingness to work and willingness always improves efficiency.
Page 5


4 6  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
UNIT   7 
DIRECTION 
Meaning 
Directing as a function of managment, refers to the process of instructing, 
guiding counselling, motivating and leading people in the organisation to 
achieve its objectives. It does not mean only instructions but also include 
supervising the employess when they are performing the job, motivating them 
to perform more efficiently and leading them towards the achievement of 
organisational goal. 
Features : 
1. Directing initiate action : The other functions of management prepare 
a setting for action, but directing initiates action in the organisation. 
2. Directing takes place at every level of Management :- Every manager 
from top executive to supervisor performs the function of directing. 
3. Directing is a continous process of supervision, communication, 
leadership and motivation, It takes place throughout the life of the 
organisation. 
4. Directing flows from top to bottom :- It is first initiated at the top level 
and flows to the bottom through organisational hierarchy. 
Importance : 
1. Initiates Action : It helps to initiate action by people in the organisation 
towards attainment of desired objectives. The employees start working 
only when they get instructions and directions from their superiors. It 
is the directing function which starts actual work to convert plans into 
results. 
2. Integrate Employee s Efforts :- All the activities of the oranisation are 
interrelated so it in necessary to coordinate all the activities. It integrates 
the activities of subordinates by supervision, guidance and counselling.
4 7  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
3. Means of motivation - It motivates the subordinates to work efficiently 
and to contribute their maximum efforts towards the achievement of 
organisational goals. 
4. Facilitates change :- Employees often resist changes due to fear of 
adverse effects on their employment and promotion. Directing facilitate 
adjustment in the organisation to cope with changes in the environment. 
5. Stability and Balance in the organisation :- It helps to achieve balance 
between individual interests of employees and organisational interests. 
Principles of Directing :- 
1. Maximum Individual Contribution : - Directing techniques must help 
every individual in the organisation to contribute his maximum potential 
for achievement of organisational objectives. 
2. Harmony of objectives - The objectives of individual and organisation 
must be in harmony with each other. But good directing should provide 
harmony by convincing the employees that organisational objectives are 
in their own interest. 
3. Unity of Command :- An individual or subordinate in the organisation 
should receive instructions from one superior only otherwise it creates 
confusion conflict and disorder in the organisation. 
4. Appropriateness of Direction Technique : According to this principle the 
technique like motivation, supervision, communication and leadership 
should be appropriate - according to the attitude and need of the 
employees. 
5. Managerial Communication : The two way flow of information is the 
most effective means of securing cooperation of the subordinates because 
it provides them an opportunity to express their feelings. 
6. Use of Informal organisation :- An informal organisation exist within 
formal organisation structure. So managers must make use of informal 
structure also for getting correct and real feed back. 
7. Leadership - A manager by becoming a good leader can make direction 
effective with the trust and confidence of his subordinates. 
8. Follow through : Mere giving of an order is not sufficient managers 
should follow it up by reviewing continuously.
4 8  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
Elements of Direction 
1. Supervision - It means observing the subordinates at work to see that 
they are working in according with plans and to help them in solving 
their problems. The important thing in supervision is it involves face to 
face contact between superior and subordinates. Supervisor s position is 
immediately above the worker. 
Importance of Supervision / Role of a Supervisor 
1. Link between workers and management because the supervisor explains 
management policies to worker and brings workers problems to the notice 
of the management. 
2. Ensures issuing Instructions : To make sure that the instructions are 
communicated to each and every employee. 
3. Facilities Control : - Control means match between actual and planned 
output. It ensures checking on the methods in use and progress of work 
according to planned schedule. 
4. Maintainence of Discipline : The strict supervision and guidance of 
supervisor encourages the employees and workers to be more disciplined 
in the activities. 
5. Feedback - The supervisors are directly dealing with the subordinates, 
As a result feedback in the form of suggestions, grievances keeps coming 
to the management. 
6. Improved Motivation - A supervisor with good leadership qualities can 
build up high morale among workers. 
7. Optimum utilisation of resources   All the activities are under the 
observation of supervisor so less wastages and optimum utilisation of 
resources is possible. 
Motivations :- 
Meaning :- It is the process of stimulating people to act to their best ability 
to accomplish desired goals. It depends upon satisfying needs of people.
4 9  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
Features : 
1. Psychological phonomenon - It is personal and internal feelings which 
arises from the needs and wants of a person. 
2. Goal Directed Behaviour - It includes people to behave in such a manner 
so that they can achieve their goal. 
3. Motivation can be either positive or Negative - Positive motivation 
means inspiring people to work better and appreciating a work that is 
well done. Negative motivation means forcing people to work by 
threatening or punishing them. 
4. Complex Process :- It is a complex and difficult process. Individuals differ 
in their needs and wants and moreover human needs change from time 
to time. 
Motivation Process - 
It is based on human needs. 
? 
Unsatisfied Needs 
? 
Tension 
? 
Drives 
? 
Search Behaviour 
? 
Satisfied Need 
? 
Reduction of Tension 
An Unsatisfied needs of an individual creates tension which stimulates 
his or her drives. These drives generate a search behaviour to satisfy such 
need. If such need is satisfied, the individual is relieved of tension. 
Importance - 
1. Achievement of Organisational Goal : Motivation puts human resources 
into action by satisfying their needs through appropriate rewards. 
Motivated employees cooperate and contribute their maximum efforts 
towards the organisational goals. 
2. Higher Efficiency of Employees - Depends upon their abilities and 
willingness to work hard. It bridges the gap between the ability to work 
and willingness to work and willingness always improves efficiency.
5 0  XII –  Business Studies 
AK 
3. Reduction in resistance to change :- It helps to overcome resistance to 
change. 
4. Stability in workforce - It brings confidence in employees and also 
improve their loyality and commitment towards the organisation. As a 
result the rates of labour absenteeism and labour turnover reduce. 
5. Optimum Utilisation of Resources - The motivated workers would 
handle machines and materials properly. This would ensure optimum 
utilisation of resources and reduction of wastage. 
Financial and Non-Financial Incentives - Incentive means all measures 
which are used to motivate people to improve performance. 
Financial Non-Financial 
  Profit sharing   Status 
  Pay and Allowances   Career Advancement 
  Bonus   Opportunity 
  Retirement Benefits   Job enrichment 
  Perquisites   Employee Recognition 
programmer 
  Productivity linked wage   Employees participation 
in centuries 
  Co-partnership/stock option   Job security 
  Employees empowerment 
Maslow s Need Hierarchy Theory of Motivation :- Maslow s Theory focuses 
on the needs as the basis for motivation
Read More
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