Notes : How do Organisms Reproduce Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Class 8 : Notes : How do Organisms Reproduce Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 1 of 9 
 
 
Question 1: 
What is the importance of DNA copying in reproduction? 
Answer: 
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in the chromosomes, which 
are present in the nucleus of a cell. The DNA is the information site for making proteins 
and each specific type of protein leads to a specific type of body design. 
Thus, it is the DNA molecule that determines the body design of an individual. Therefore, 
it can be concluded that it is the DNA that gets transferred from parents to offsprings 
and makes them look similar. 
 
DNA determines body structure 
Question 2: 
Why is variation beneficial to the species but not necessarily for the individual? 
Answer: 
Variations are beneficial to the species than individual because sometimes for a species, 
the environmental conditions change so drastically that their survival becomes difficult. 
For example, if the temperature of water increases suddenly, then most of the bacteria 
living in that water would die. Only few variants that are resistant to heat would be able 
to survive. However, if these variants were not there, then the entire species of bacteria 
would have been destroyed. Thus, these variants help in the survival of the species. 
However, all variations are not necessarily beneficial for the individual organisms. 
 
 
Page 2


 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 1 of 9 
 
 
Question 1: 
What is the importance of DNA copying in reproduction? 
Answer: 
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in the chromosomes, which 
are present in the nucleus of a cell. The DNA is the information site for making proteins 
and each specific type of protein leads to a specific type of body design. 
Thus, it is the DNA molecule that determines the body design of an individual. Therefore, 
it can be concluded that it is the DNA that gets transferred from parents to offsprings 
and makes them look similar. 
 
DNA determines body structure 
Question 2: 
Why is variation beneficial to the species but not necessarily for the individual? 
Answer: 
Variations are beneficial to the species than individual because sometimes for a species, 
the environmental conditions change so drastically that their survival becomes difficult. 
For example, if the temperature of water increases suddenly, then most of the bacteria 
living in that water would die. Only few variants that are resistant to heat would be able 
to survive. However, if these variants were not there, then the entire species of bacteria 
would have been destroyed. Thus, these variants help in the survival of the species. 
However, all variations are not necessarily beneficial for the individual organisms. 
 
 
 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 2 of 9 
 
 
Question 1: 
How does binary fission differ from multiple fission? 
Answer: 
In binary fission, a single cell divides into two equal halves. Amoeba and  
Bacteria divide by binary fission. 
 
Binary fission in Amoeba 
In multiple fission, a single cell divides into many daughter cells simultaneously. Amoeba 
and Plasmodium divide by multiple fission. 
 
Multiple fission in Plasmodium 
Question 2: 
How will an organism be benefited if it reproduces through spores? 
Answer: 
There are many advantages, if an organism reproduces through spores. 
Advantages of spore formation: 
• Large numbers of spores are produced in one sporangium. 
• Spores are distributed easily by air to far-off places to avoid competition at one 
place. 
• Spores are covered by thick walls to prevent dehydration under unfavourable 
conditions. 
Question 3: 
Can you think of reasons why more complex organisms cannot give rise to new 
individuals through regeneration? 
Answer: 
Page 3


 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 1 of 9 
 
 
Question 1: 
What is the importance of DNA copying in reproduction? 
Answer: 
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in the chromosomes, which 
are present in the nucleus of a cell. The DNA is the information site for making proteins 
and each specific type of protein leads to a specific type of body design. 
Thus, it is the DNA molecule that determines the body design of an individual. Therefore, 
it can be concluded that it is the DNA that gets transferred from parents to offsprings 
and makes them look similar. 
 
DNA determines body structure 
Question 2: 
Why is variation beneficial to the species but not necessarily for the individual? 
Answer: 
Variations are beneficial to the species than individual because sometimes for a species, 
the environmental conditions change so drastically that their survival becomes difficult. 
For example, if the temperature of water increases suddenly, then most of the bacteria 
living in that water would die. Only few variants that are resistant to heat would be able 
to survive. However, if these variants were not there, then the entire species of bacteria 
would have been destroyed. Thus, these variants help in the survival of the species. 
However, all variations are not necessarily beneficial for the individual organisms. 
 
 
 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 2 of 9 
 
 
Question 1: 
How does binary fission differ from multiple fission? 
Answer: 
In binary fission, a single cell divides into two equal halves. Amoeba and  
Bacteria divide by binary fission. 
 
Binary fission in Amoeba 
In multiple fission, a single cell divides into many daughter cells simultaneously. Amoeba 
and Plasmodium divide by multiple fission. 
 
Multiple fission in Plasmodium 
Question 2: 
How will an organism be benefited if it reproduces through spores? 
Answer: 
There are many advantages, if an organism reproduces through spores. 
Advantages of spore formation: 
• Large numbers of spores are produced in one sporangium. 
• Spores are distributed easily by air to far-off places to avoid competition at one 
place. 
• Spores are covered by thick walls to prevent dehydration under unfavourable 
conditions. 
Question 3: 
Can you think of reasons why more complex organisms cannot give rise to new 
individuals through regeneration? 
Answer: 
 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 3 of 9 
 
 
Simple organisms such as Hydra and Planaria are capable of producing new individuals 
through the process of regeneration. The process of regeneration involves the formation 
of new organisms from its body parts. Simple organisms can utilize this method of 
reproduction as their entire body is made of similar kind of cells in which any part of 
their body can be formed by growth and development. 
However, complex organisms have organ-system level of organization. All the organ 
systems of their body work together as an interconnected unit. They can regenerate 
their lost body parts such as skin, muscles, blood, etc. However, they cannot give rise to 
new individuals through regeneration. 
Question 4: 
Which of the following is a plant hormone? 
(a) Insulin 
(b) Thyroxin 
(c) Oestrogen 
(d) Cytokinin 
Answer: 
 (d) Cytokinin is a plant hormone. 
Question 5: 
Why is DNA copying an essential part of the process of reproduction? 
Answer: 
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) copying is an essential part of reproduction as it passes 
genetic information from parents to offspring. It determines the body design of an 
individual. The reproducing cells produce a copy of their DNA through some chemical 
reactions and result in two copies of DNA. The copying of DNA always takes place along 
with the creation of additional cellular structure. This process is then followed by division 
of a cell to form two cells. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Page 4


 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 1 of 9 
 
 
Question 1: 
What is the importance of DNA copying in reproduction? 
Answer: 
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in the chromosomes, which 
are present in the nucleus of a cell. The DNA is the information site for making proteins 
and each specific type of protein leads to a specific type of body design. 
Thus, it is the DNA molecule that determines the body design of an individual. Therefore, 
it can be concluded that it is the DNA that gets transferred from parents to offsprings 
and makes them look similar. 
 
DNA determines body structure 
Question 2: 
Why is variation beneficial to the species but not necessarily for the individual? 
Answer: 
Variations are beneficial to the species than individual because sometimes for a species, 
the environmental conditions change so drastically that their survival becomes difficult. 
For example, if the temperature of water increases suddenly, then most of the bacteria 
living in that water would die. Only few variants that are resistant to heat would be able 
to survive. However, if these variants were not there, then the entire species of bacteria 
would have been destroyed. Thus, these variants help in the survival of the species. 
However, all variations are not necessarily beneficial for the individual organisms. 
 
 
 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 2 of 9 
 
 
Question 1: 
How does binary fission differ from multiple fission? 
Answer: 
In binary fission, a single cell divides into two equal halves. Amoeba and  
Bacteria divide by binary fission. 
 
Binary fission in Amoeba 
In multiple fission, a single cell divides into many daughter cells simultaneously. Amoeba 
and Plasmodium divide by multiple fission. 
 
Multiple fission in Plasmodium 
Question 2: 
How will an organism be benefited if it reproduces through spores? 
Answer: 
There are many advantages, if an organism reproduces through spores. 
Advantages of spore formation: 
• Large numbers of spores are produced in one sporangium. 
• Spores are distributed easily by air to far-off places to avoid competition at one 
place. 
• Spores are covered by thick walls to prevent dehydration under unfavourable 
conditions. 
Question 3: 
Can you think of reasons why more complex organisms cannot give rise to new 
individuals through regeneration? 
Answer: 
 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 3 of 9 
 
 
Simple organisms such as Hydra and Planaria are capable of producing new individuals 
through the process of regeneration. The process of regeneration involves the formation 
of new organisms from its body parts. Simple organisms can utilize this method of 
reproduction as their entire body is made of similar kind of cells in which any part of 
their body can be formed by growth and development. 
However, complex organisms have organ-system level of organization. All the organ 
systems of their body work together as an interconnected unit. They can regenerate 
their lost body parts such as skin, muscles, blood, etc. However, they cannot give rise to 
new individuals through regeneration. 
Question 4: 
Which of the following is a plant hormone? 
(a) Insulin 
(b) Thyroxin 
(c) Oestrogen 
(d) Cytokinin 
Answer: 
 (d) Cytokinin is a plant hormone. 
Question 5: 
Why is DNA copying an essential part of the process of reproduction? 
Answer: 
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) copying is an essential part of reproduction as it passes 
genetic information from parents to offspring. It determines the body design of an 
individual. The reproducing cells produce a copy of their DNA through some chemical 
reactions and result in two copies of DNA. The copying of DNA always takes place along 
with the creation of additional cellular structure. This process is then followed by division 
of a cell to form two cells. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 4 of 9 
 
 
Question 1: 
How is the process of pollination different from fertilization? 
Answer: 
Pollination is the process of transfer of pollens from anther to stigma. It occurs with the 
help of certain pollinators such as air, water, birds, or some insects. 
Fertilization, on the other hand, is the fusion of the male and female gametes. It occurs 
inside the ovule and leads to the formation of zygote. 
Question 2: 
What is the role of the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland? 
Answer: 
The secretions from seminal vesicles and prostate glands lubricate the sperms and 
provide a fluid medium for easy transport of sperms. Their secretion also provides 
nutrient in the form of fructose, calcium, and some enzymes. 
Question 3: 
What are the changes seen in girls at the time of puberty? 
Answer: 
Secondary sexual characteristics in girls: 
• Increase in breast size and darkening of skin of the nipples present at the tips of 
the breasts. 
• Appearance of hair in the genital area. 
• Appearance of hair in other areas of skin like underarms, face, hands, and legs. 
• Increase in the size of uterus and ovary. 
• Beginning of menstrual cycle. 
• More secretion of oil from the skin, which results in the appearance of pimples. 
Question 4: 
How does the embryo get nourishment inside the mother’s body? 
Answer: 
The embryo develops inside the mother’s body for about nine months. Inside the uterus, 
the outer tissue surrounding the embryo develops finger-like projections called villi. 
These villi are surrounded by uterine tissue and maternal blood. They provide a large 
surface area for exchange of oxygen and nutrients. Also, there is a special tissue called 
placenta, which is embedded in the uterine wall. The embryo receives the oxygen and 
Page 5


 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 1 of 9 
 
 
Question 1: 
What is the importance of DNA copying in reproduction? 
Answer: 
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in the chromosomes, which 
are present in the nucleus of a cell. The DNA is the information site for making proteins 
and each specific type of protein leads to a specific type of body design. 
Thus, it is the DNA molecule that determines the body design of an individual. Therefore, 
it can be concluded that it is the DNA that gets transferred from parents to offsprings 
and makes them look similar. 
 
DNA determines body structure 
Question 2: 
Why is variation beneficial to the species but not necessarily for the individual? 
Answer: 
Variations are beneficial to the species than individual because sometimes for a species, 
the environmental conditions change so drastically that their survival becomes difficult. 
For example, if the temperature of water increases suddenly, then most of the bacteria 
living in that water would die. Only few variants that are resistant to heat would be able 
to survive. However, if these variants were not there, then the entire species of bacteria 
would have been destroyed. Thus, these variants help in the survival of the species. 
However, all variations are not necessarily beneficial for the individual organisms. 
 
 
 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 2 of 9 
 
 
Question 1: 
How does binary fission differ from multiple fission? 
Answer: 
In binary fission, a single cell divides into two equal halves. Amoeba and  
Bacteria divide by binary fission. 
 
Binary fission in Amoeba 
In multiple fission, a single cell divides into many daughter cells simultaneously. Amoeba 
and Plasmodium divide by multiple fission. 
 
Multiple fission in Plasmodium 
Question 2: 
How will an organism be benefited if it reproduces through spores? 
Answer: 
There are many advantages, if an organism reproduces through spores. 
Advantages of spore formation: 
• Large numbers of spores are produced in one sporangium. 
• Spores are distributed easily by air to far-off places to avoid competition at one 
place. 
• Spores are covered by thick walls to prevent dehydration under unfavourable 
conditions. 
Question 3: 
Can you think of reasons why more complex organisms cannot give rise to new 
individuals through regeneration? 
Answer: 
 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 3 of 9 
 
 
Simple organisms such as Hydra and Planaria are capable of producing new individuals 
through the process of regeneration. The process of regeneration involves the formation 
of new organisms from its body parts. Simple organisms can utilize this method of 
reproduction as their entire body is made of similar kind of cells in which any part of 
their body can be formed by growth and development. 
However, complex organisms have organ-system level of organization. All the organ 
systems of their body work together as an interconnected unit. They can regenerate 
their lost body parts such as skin, muscles, blood, etc. However, they cannot give rise to 
new individuals through regeneration. 
Question 4: 
Which of the following is a plant hormone? 
(a) Insulin 
(b) Thyroxin 
(c) Oestrogen 
(d) Cytokinin 
Answer: 
 (d) Cytokinin is a plant hormone. 
Question 5: 
Why is DNA copying an essential part of the process of reproduction? 
Answer: 
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) copying is an essential part of reproduction as it passes 
genetic information from parents to offspring. It determines the body design of an 
individual. The reproducing cells produce a copy of their DNA through some chemical 
reactions and result in two copies of DNA. The copying of DNA always takes place along 
with the creation of additional cellular structure. This process is then followed by division 
of a cell to form two cells. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 4 of 9 
 
 
Question 1: 
How is the process of pollination different from fertilization? 
Answer: 
Pollination is the process of transfer of pollens from anther to stigma. It occurs with the 
help of certain pollinators such as air, water, birds, or some insects. 
Fertilization, on the other hand, is the fusion of the male and female gametes. It occurs 
inside the ovule and leads to the formation of zygote. 
Question 2: 
What is the role of the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland? 
Answer: 
The secretions from seminal vesicles and prostate glands lubricate the sperms and 
provide a fluid medium for easy transport of sperms. Their secretion also provides 
nutrient in the form of fructose, calcium, and some enzymes. 
Question 3: 
What are the changes seen in girls at the time of puberty? 
Answer: 
Secondary sexual characteristics in girls: 
• Increase in breast size and darkening of skin of the nipples present at the tips of 
the breasts. 
• Appearance of hair in the genital area. 
• Appearance of hair in other areas of skin like underarms, face, hands, and legs. 
• Increase in the size of uterus and ovary. 
• Beginning of menstrual cycle. 
• More secretion of oil from the skin, which results in the appearance of pimples. 
Question 4: 
How does the embryo get nourishment inside the mother’s body? 
Answer: 
The embryo develops inside the mother’s body for about nine months. Inside the uterus, 
the outer tissue surrounding the embryo develops finger-like projections called villi. 
These villi are surrounded by uterine tissue and maternal blood. They provide a large 
surface area for exchange of oxygen and nutrients. Also, there is a special tissue called 
placenta, which is embedded in the uterine wall. The embryo receives the oxygen and 
 
Class X Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce Science 
 
 
Page 5 of 9 
 
 
nutrients from the mother’s blood via the placenta. The waste materials produced by the 
embryo are also removed through the placenta. 
Question 5: 
If a woman is using a copper-T, will it help in protecting her from sexually transmitted 
diseases? 
Answer: 
No. Using a copper-T will not provide a protection from sexually transmitted diseases, as 
it does not prevent the entry of semen. It only prevents the implantation of the embryo 
in the uterus. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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