Notes : Improvement in Food Resources Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Class 9 : Notes : Improvement in Food Resources Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


CHAPTER - 15 
 
IMPROVEMENT  IN  FOOD 
RESOURCES 
 CLASS                             :- IX  
 MADE BY                       :- MANAS MAHAJAN 
 SCHOOL                         :- K.V . GANESHKHIND PUNE-7 
Page 2


CHAPTER - 15 
 
IMPROVEMENT  IN  FOOD 
RESOURCES 
 CLASS                             :- IX  
 MADE BY                       :- MANAS MAHAJAN 
 SCHOOL                         :- K.V . GANESHKHIND PUNE-7 
1) Need for increasing food production :- 
     Our population is more than one billion and it is still 
growing. We will need more than a billion tonnes of grain 
every year to  feed this growing population. 
    Since increasing the area of land for cultivation is 
limited, it is necessary to increase the production efficiency 
of crops and livestock. 
   The production efficiency of crops and livestock can be 
increased by adopting scientific management practices to 
improve crop yield, undertaking mixed farming, 
intercropping, and integrated farming practices like 
combining agriculture with livestock, poultry, fisheries, 
bee-keeping etc. 
Page 3


CHAPTER - 15 
 
IMPROVEMENT  IN  FOOD 
RESOURCES 
 CLASS                             :- IX  
 MADE BY                       :- MANAS MAHAJAN 
 SCHOOL                         :- K.V . GANESHKHIND PUNE-7 
1) Need for increasing food production :- 
     Our population is more than one billion and it is still 
growing. We will need more than a billion tonnes of grain 
every year to  feed this growing population. 
    Since increasing the area of land for cultivation is 
limited, it is necessary to increase the production efficiency 
of crops and livestock. 
   The production efficiency of crops and livestock can be 
increased by adopting scientific management practices to 
improve crop yield, undertaking mixed farming, 
intercropping, and integrated farming practices like 
combining agriculture with livestock, poultry, fisheries, 
bee-keeping etc. 
2) Different types of crops :- 
      Cereals like rice, wheat, maize, millets, sorghum etc. provide us 
carbohydrates. 
     Pulses like peas, beans, grams, lentils etc. provide us proteins. 
     Oil seeds like ground nut, sesame, castor, mustard, linseed, 
sunflower etc. provide us fats. 
     Vegetables, spices and fruits provide us vitamins and minerals along 
with small amounts of  carbohydrates, fats and proteins. 
     Fodder crops like berseem, oats or sudan grass are grown as food for 
livestock. 
     Different crops require different climatic conditions, temperature and 
duration of sunlight (photoperiods). 
     Kharif crops :- are crops grown during the rainy season from June to 
October like paddy, soyabean, maize, pigeon pea, green gram, black 
gram, cotton etc. 
     Rabi crops :- are crops grown during winter season from November 
to April like wheat, gram, peas, mustard, linseed etc. 
Page 4


CHAPTER - 15 
 
IMPROVEMENT  IN  FOOD 
RESOURCES 
 CLASS                             :- IX  
 MADE BY                       :- MANAS MAHAJAN 
 SCHOOL                         :- K.V . GANESHKHIND PUNE-7 
1) Need for increasing food production :- 
     Our population is more than one billion and it is still 
growing. We will need more than a billion tonnes of grain 
every year to  feed this growing population. 
    Since increasing the area of land for cultivation is 
limited, it is necessary to increase the production efficiency 
of crops and livestock. 
   The production efficiency of crops and livestock can be 
increased by adopting scientific management practices to 
improve crop yield, undertaking mixed farming, 
intercropping, and integrated farming practices like 
combining agriculture with livestock, poultry, fisheries, 
bee-keeping etc. 
2) Different types of crops :- 
      Cereals like rice, wheat, maize, millets, sorghum etc. provide us 
carbohydrates. 
     Pulses like peas, beans, grams, lentils etc. provide us proteins. 
     Oil seeds like ground nut, sesame, castor, mustard, linseed, 
sunflower etc. provide us fats. 
     Vegetables, spices and fruits provide us vitamins and minerals along 
with small amounts of  carbohydrates, fats and proteins. 
     Fodder crops like berseem, oats or sudan grass are grown as food for 
livestock. 
     Different crops require different climatic conditions, temperature and 
duration of sunlight (photoperiods). 
     Kharif crops :- are crops grown during the rainy season from June to 
October like paddy, soyabean, maize, pigeon pea, green gram, black 
gram, cotton etc. 
     Rabi crops :- are crops grown during winter season from November 
to April like wheat, gram, peas, mustard, linseed etc. 
3) Improvement in crop yield :- 
     Crop  yield can be improved by three main activities. They are :- 
  i) Crop variety improvement 
 ii) Crop production improvement 
iii) Crop protection management 
4) Crop variety improvement :- 
    Crop variety improvement is done by selecting good varieties of 
crops. This is done by hybridisation. Hybridisation is the crossing 
between genetically dissimalar plants to obtain crops having useful 
characteristics like disease resistance, good quality and high yields. 
   Hybridisation may be intervarietal (between different varieties, 
interspecific (between different species of the same genus) or 
intergeneric (between different genera). 
   Another way of improving crop variety is by introducing a gene to 
obtain the desired characteristic. This produces genetically modified 
crops. 
 
 
Page 5


CHAPTER - 15 
 
IMPROVEMENT  IN  FOOD 
RESOURCES 
 CLASS                             :- IX  
 MADE BY                       :- MANAS MAHAJAN 
 SCHOOL                         :- K.V . GANESHKHIND PUNE-7 
1) Need for increasing food production :- 
     Our population is more than one billion and it is still 
growing. We will need more than a billion tonnes of grain 
every year to  feed this growing population. 
    Since increasing the area of land for cultivation is 
limited, it is necessary to increase the production efficiency 
of crops and livestock. 
   The production efficiency of crops and livestock can be 
increased by adopting scientific management practices to 
improve crop yield, undertaking mixed farming, 
intercropping, and integrated farming practices like 
combining agriculture with livestock, poultry, fisheries, 
bee-keeping etc. 
2) Different types of crops :- 
      Cereals like rice, wheat, maize, millets, sorghum etc. provide us 
carbohydrates. 
     Pulses like peas, beans, grams, lentils etc. provide us proteins. 
     Oil seeds like ground nut, sesame, castor, mustard, linseed, 
sunflower etc. provide us fats. 
     Vegetables, spices and fruits provide us vitamins and minerals along 
with small amounts of  carbohydrates, fats and proteins. 
     Fodder crops like berseem, oats or sudan grass are grown as food for 
livestock. 
     Different crops require different climatic conditions, temperature and 
duration of sunlight (photoperiods). 
     Kharif crops :- are crops grown during the rainy season from June to 
October like paddy, soyabean, maize, pigeon pea, green gram, black 
gram, cotton etc. 
     Rabi crops :- are crops grown during winter season from November 
to April like wheat, gram, peas, mustard, linseed etc. 
3) Improvement in crop yield :- 
     Crop  yield can be improved by three main activities. They are :- 
  i) Crop variety improvement 
 ii) Crop production improvement 
iii) Crop protection management 
4) Crop variety improvement :- 
    Crop variety improvement is done by selecting good varieties of 
crops. This is done by hybridisation. Hybridisation is the crossing 
between genetically dissimalar plants to obtain crops having useful 
characteristics like disease resistance, good quality and high yields. 
   Hybridisation may be intervarietal (between different varieties, 
interspecific (between different species of the same genus) or 
intergeneric (between different genera). 
   Another way of improving crop variety is by introducing a gene to 
obtain the desired characteristic. This produces genetically modified 
crops. 
 
 
     Crop variety improvrment is done for the following :- 
  i) Higher yield :- To increase productivity of crop per acre. 
 ii) Biotic and abiotic resistance :- To increase resistance of  
     crops to biotic factors like insects, diseases etc. and  
     abiotic factors like draught, salinity, heat, cold etc. 
iii) Change in maturity duration :- To reduce the duration  
     between sowing and harvesting so that farmers can grow  
     multiple crops during the year. 
iv) Wider adaptibility :- To grow crops in different climatic  
     conditions. 
 v) Desirable agronomic characters :- Characters like  
     tallness and more branching are useful for fodder crops  
     and dwarfness (shortness) is desirable for cereal crops.  
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