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Notes : Organization of data Notes - Class 11

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   Page | 7 
  
Chapter 3:  Organization of Data 
1. Classification of Data:  The process of grouping data according to their characteristics is 
known as classification of data. 
2. Objectives of Classification: 
a] To simplify complex data 
b] To facilitate understanding 
c] To facilitate comparison 
d] To make analysis and interpretation easy. 
e] To arrange and put the data according to their common characteristics. 
3. Statistical Series:  Systematic arrangement of statistical data 
Statistical Series 
     
    
   Individual Series    Frequency Series 
           
Raw data Individual series Discrete Series Continuous series    
               
       Inclusive series Exclusive series 
I. Can be on the basis of individual units : 
The data can be individually presented in two forms: 
 i] Raw data:  Data collected in original form. 
ii] Individual Series:  The arrangement of raw data individually. It can be expressed in 
two ways. 
a] Alphabetical arrangement :  Alphabetical order 
b] Array:  Ascending or descending order.  
II. Can be on the basis of Frequency Distribution: 
Frequency distribution refers to a table in which observed values of a variable are 
classified according to their numerical magnitude.  
1. Discrete Series:  A variable is called discrete if the variable can take only some 
particular values.  
2. Continuous Series:  A variable is called continuous if it can take any value in a given 
range. In constructing continuous series we come across terms like: 
a] Class :  Each given internal is called a class e.g., 0-5, 5-10. 
b] Class limit:  There are two limits upper limit and lower limit. 
Page 2


 
   Page | 7 
  
Chapter 3:  Organization of Data 
1. Classification of Data:  The process of grouping data according to their characteristics is 
known as classification of data. 
2. Objectives of Classification: 
a] To simplify complex data 
b] To facilitate understanding 
c] To facilitate comparison 
d] To make analysis and interpretation easy. 
e] To arrange and put the data according to their common characteristics. 
3. Statistical Series:  Systematic arrangement of statistical data 
Statistical Series 
     
    
   Individual Series    Frequency Series 
           
Raw data Individual series Discrete Series Continuous series    
               
       Inclusive series Exclusive series 
I. Can be on the basis of individual units : 
The data can be individually presented in two forms: 
 i] Raw data:  Data collected in original form. 
ii] Individual Series:  The arrangement of raw data individually. It can be expressed in 
two ways. 
a] Alphabetical arrangement :  Alphabetical order 
b] Array:  Ascending or descending order.  
II. Can be on the basis of Frequency Distribution: 
Frequency distribution refers to a table in which observed values of a variable are 
classified according to their numerical magnitude.  
1. Discrete Series:  A variable is called discrete if the variable can take only some 
particular values.  
2. Continuous Series:  A variable is called continuous if it can take any value in a given 
range. In constructing continuous series we come across terms like: 
a] Class :  Each given internal is called a class e.g., 0-5, 5-10. 
b] Class limit:  There are two limits upper limit and lower limit. 
 
   Page | 8 
  
c] Class interval:  Difference between upper limit and lower limit. 
d] Range:  Difference between upper limit and lower limit. 
e] Mid-point or Mid Value:  Upper limit -  Lower limit 
      2 
f] Frequency:  Number of items [observations] falling within a particular class. 
 
 
i] Exclusive Series:  Excluding the upper limit of these classes, all the items of the class 
are included in the class itself. E.g., : 
Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 
Number of  Students 2 5 2 1 
 
ii] Inclusive Series:  Upper class limits of classes are included in the respective classes. 
E.g., 
Marks 0-9 10-19 20-29 
Number of  Students 2 5 2 
 
Open End Classes :  The lower limit of the first class and upper limit of the last class are 
not given. E.g., 
Marks Below 20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50 and 
above 
Number of Students 7 6 12 5 3 
 
iii] Cumulative Frequency Series:  It is obtained by successively adding the frequencies 
of the values of the classes according to a certain law. 
a] ‘Less than’ Cumulative Frequency Distribution : 
The frequencies of each class-internal are added successively. 
b] ‘More than’ Cumulative Frequency Distribution: 
The more than cumulative frequency is obtained by finding the cumulative totals of 
frequencies starting from the highest value of the variable to the lowest value. 
E.g., : 
Marks No. of 
Students 
 Marks No. of 
Students 
 Marks No. of 
Students 
0-10 
10-20 
20-30 
30-40 
40-50 
50-60 
2 
5 
10 
12 
17 
4 
 Less than 10 
Less than 20 
Less than 30 
Less than 40 
Less than 50 
Less than 60 
2 
7 
17 
29 
46 
50 
 More than 0 
More than 10 
More than 20 
More than 30 
More than 40 
More than 50 
50 
48 
43 
33 
21 
4 
 
Page 3


 
   Page | 7 
  
Chapter 3:  Organization of Data 
1. Classification of Data:  The process of grouping data according to their characteristics is 
known as classification of data. 
2. Objectives of Classification: 
a] To simplify complex data 
b] To facilitate understanding 
c] To facilitate comparison 
d] To make analysis and interpretation easy. 
e] To arrange and put the data according to their common characteristics. 
3. Statistical Series:  Systematic arrangement of statistical data 
Statistical Series 
     
    
   Individual Series    Frequency Series 
           
Raw data Individual series Discrete Series Continuous series    
               
       Inclusive series Exclusive series 
I. Can be on the basis of individual units : 
The data can be individually presented in two forms: 
 i] Raw data:  Data collected in original form. 
ii] Individual Series:  The arrangement of raw data individually. It can be expressed in 
two ways. 
a] Alphabetical arrangement :  Alphabetical order 
b] Array:  Ascending or descending order.  
II. Can be on the basis of Frequency Distribution: 
Frequency distribution refers to a table in which observed values of a variable are 
classified according to their numerical magnitude.  
1. Discrete Series:  A variable is called discrete if the variable can take only some 
particular values.  
2. Continuous Series:  A variable is called continuous if it can take any value in a given 
range. In constructing continuous series we come across terms like: 
a] Class :  Each given internal is called a class e.g., 0-5, 5-10. 
b] Class limit:  There are two limits upper limit and lower limit. 
 
   Page | 8 
  
c] Class interval:  Difference between upper limit and lower limit. 
d] Range:  Difference between upper limit and lower limit. 
e] Mid-point or Mid Value:  Upper limit -  Lower limit 
      2 
f] Frequency:  Number of items [observations] falling within a particular class. 
 
 
i] Exclusive Series:  Excluding the upper limit of these classes, all the items of the class 
are included in the class itself. E.g., : 
Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 
Number of  Students 2 5 2 1 
 
ii] Inclusive Series:  Upper class limits of classes are included in the respective classes. 
E.g., 
Marks 0-9 10-19 20-29 
Number of  Students 2 5 2 
 
Open End Classes :  The lower limit of the first class and upper limit of the last class are 
not given. E.g., 
Marks Below 20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50 and 
above 
Number of Students 7 6 12 5 3 
 
iii] Cumulative Frequency Series:  It is obtained by successively adding the frequencies 
of the values of the classes according to a certain law. 
a] ‘Less than’ Cumulative Frequency Distribution : 
The frequencies of each class-internal are added successively. 
b] ‘More than’ Cumulative Frequency Distribution: 
The more than cumulative frequency is obtained by finding the cumulative totals of 
frequencies starting from the highest value of the variable to the lowest value. 
E.g., : 
Marks No. of 
Students 
 Marks No. of 
Students 
 Marks No. of 
Students 
0-10 
10-20 
20-30 
30-40 
40-50 
50-60 
2 
5 
10 
12 
17 
4 
 Less than 10 
Less than 20 
Less than 30 
Less than 40 
Less than 50 
Less than 60 
2 
7 
17 
29 
46 
50 
 More than 0 
More than 10 
More than 20 
More than 30 
More than 40 
More than 50 
50 
48 
43 
33 
21 
4 
 
 
   Page | 9 
  
1 mark questions : 
1. What is meant by classification of data? 
2. What is meant by discrete series? 
3. What is meant by inclusive series? 
3 mark questions: 
1. Distinguish between Exclusive series and inclusive series. 
2. Distinguish between discrete series and continuous series.  
 
4 mark questions: 
1. Construct a frequency distribution table for the following marks of 30 students in the form 
of a 4 continuous series according to exclusive method. 
12 33 23 25 18 35 37 49 54 51 
37 15 37 15 33 42 45 47 55 69 
65 63 46 29 18 37 46 59 29 35 
45 27         
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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