Notes - Fundamental Unit of Life Class 9 Notes | EduRev

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Class 9 : Notes - Fundamental Unit of Life Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Class IX: Biology 
Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. 
 
Chapter Notes 
Key learnings: 
 
 
1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. 
 
2) Cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms. 
 
3) Organisms may be unicellular or multicellular. A single cell constitutes the 
unicellular organism whereas many cells coordinately function in case of 
multicellular organism. 
 
4) The size, shape and volume of the cell are related to the specific function 
that they perform. 
 
5) A cell generally shows plasma membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm 
6) Plasma membrane is a thin, selectively permeable membrane, covering 
the cell and is made up of lipids and proteins. 
 
7) Functions of plasma membrane : 
i) It separates the contents of a cell from its outside environment. 
ii) It regulates the flow of substances to and from the cell through diffusion, 
facilitated diffusion, active transport and endocytosis. 
 
8) Osmosis is diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. 
 
9) A cell placed in different solutions: 
i. hypotonic solution : A cell placed in it will gain water. 
ii. hypertonic solution: A cell placed in it will lose water: Also known as 
plasmolysis.  
iii. isotonic solution: A cell placed in it will neither gain nor lose water 
 
 
10)  
 
Cells of Plants, fungi & bacteria: Contain both plasma membrane & cell wall. 
Cell wall is rigid, non-living & outer most covering, composed mainly of 
cellulose. 
 
11) When placed in hypertonic solution, a living plant cell shows plasmolysis 
12) Cell wall provides mechanical strength to the cell. It permits the cell to 
withstand huge changes in the surrounding medium.  
Page 2


Class IX: Biology 
Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. 
 
Chapter Notes 
Key learnings: 
 
 
1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. 
 
2) Cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms. 
 
3) Organisms may be unicellular or multicellular. A single cell constitutes the 
unicellular organism whereas many cells coordinately function in case of 
multicellular organism. 
 
4) The size, shape and volume of the cell are related to the specific function 
that they perform. 
 
5) A cell generally shows plasma membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm 
6) Plasma membrane is a thin, selectively permeable membrane, covering 
the cell and is made up of lipids and proteins. 
 
7) Functions of plasma membrane : 
i) It separates the contents of a cell from its outside environment. 
ii) It regulates the flow of substances to and from the cell through diffusion, 
facilitated diffusion, active transport and endocytosis. 
 
8) Osmosis is diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. 
 
9) A cell placed in different solutions: 
i. hypotonic solution : A cell placed in it will gain water. 
ii. hypertonic solution: A cell placed in it will lose water: Also known as 
plasmolysis.  
iii. isotonic solution: A cell placed in it will neither gain nor lose water 
 
 
10)  
 
Cells of Plants, fungi & bacteria: Contain both plasma membrane & cell wall. 
Cell wall is rigid, non-living & outer most covering, composed mainly of 
cellulose. 
 
11) When placed in hypertonic solution, a living plant cell shows plasmolysis 
12) Cell wall provides mechanical strength to the cell. It permits the cell to 
withstand huge changes in the surrounding medium.  
 
13) Nucleus is an important, spherical, usually centrally located constituent 
of the cell and is bounded by double layered nuclear envelope. 
 
14) The nucleus of a dividing cell shows rod-shaped chromosomes, made up 
of DNA and proteins. In a non-dividing cell, the chromosomes elongate and 
take the form of thread-like chromatin. 
 
15) DNA molecules are responsible for transmitting hereditary information 
from one generation to the next. 
 
16) Nucleus controls all metabolic activities of the cell. 
 
17) Depending on the presence or absence of nucleus, cells may be 
prokaryotic or eukaryotic. 
i) Prokaryotic cells lack a well-defined nucleus and instead show nucleoid, an 
undefined nuclear region containing the genetic material. 
ii) Eukaryotic cells possess a proper nucleus with nuclear membrane. 
 
18) Cytoplasm is the fluid content of the cell, occurring between nucleus and 
plasma membrane. It stores several vital chemicals and is the site of certain 
important metabolic pathways. 
 
19) Several specialized cell organelles are present in the cytoplasm. These 
organelles perform different kinds of metabolic activities and are kept 
separate from each other. 
 
20) The various cell organelles include endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi 
apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles and centrosome. 
 
21) Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an extensive, interconnected, membrane-
bound network of tubes and sheets. 
 
22) Ribosomes are attached to the surface of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum 
(RER) and are absent in Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) 
 
23) Functions of ER : 
i) It synthesizes important proteins (RER) and lipids (SER). 
ii) It provides a pathway for intracellular transport of materials. 
iii) SER of liver cells is important for detoxification. 
 
24) Golgi apparatus is a network of stacked, flattened, membrane bound 
sacs and vesicles. 
 
25) Golgi apparatus carries out the storage, modification and packaging of 
substances manufactured in the cell and is also involved in lysosome 
formation. 
 
Page 3


Class IX: Biology 
Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. 
 
Chapter Notes 
Key learnings: 
 
 
1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. 
 
2) Cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms. 
 
3) Organisms may be unicellular or multicellular. A single cell constitutes the 
unicellular organism whereas many cells coordinately function in case of 
multicellular organism. 
 
4) The size, shape and volume of the cell are related to the specific function 
that they perform. 
 
5) A cell generally shows plasma membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm 
6) Plasma membrane is a thin, selectively permeable membrane, covering 
the cell and is made up of lipids and proteins. 
 
7) Functions of plasma membrane : 
i) It separates the contents of a cell from its outside environment. 
ii) It regulates the flow of substances to and from the cell through diffusion, 
facilitated diffusion, active transport and endocytosis. 
 
8) Osmosis is diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. 
 
9) A cell placed in different solutions: 
i. hypotonic solution : A cell placed in it will gain water. 
ii. hypertonic solution: A cell placed in it will lose water: Also known as 
plasmolysis.  
iii. isotonic solution: A cell placed in it will neither gain nor lose water 
 
 
10)  
 
Cells of Plants, fungi & bacteria: Contain both plasma membrane & cell wall. 
Cell wall is rigid, non-living & outer most covering, composed mainly of 
cellulose. 
 
11) When placed in hypertonic solution, a living plant cell shows plasmolysis 
12) Cell wall provides mechanical strength to the cell. It permits the cell to 
withstand huge changes in the surrounding medium.  
 
13) Nucleus is an important, spherical, usually centrally located constituent 
of the cell and is bounded by double layered nuclear envelope. 
 
14) The nucleus of a dividing cell shows rod-shaped chromosomes, made up 
of DNA and proteins. In a non-dividing cell, the chromosomes elongate and 
take the form of thread-like chromatin. 
 
15) DNA molecules are responsible for transmitting hereditary information 
from one generation to the next. 
 
16) Nucleus controls all metabolic activities of the cell. 
 
17) Depending on the presence or absence of nucleus, cells may be 
prokaryotic or eukaryotic. 
i) Prokaryotic cells lack a well-defined nucleus and instead show nucleoid, an 
undefined nuclear region containing the genetic material. 
ii) Eukaryotic cells possess a proper nucleus with nuclear membrane. 
 
18) Cytoplasm is the fluid content of the cell, occurring between nucleus and 
plasma membrane. It stores several vital chemicals and is the site of certain 
important metabolic pathways. 
 
19) Several specialized cell organelles are present in the cytoplasm. These 
organelles perform different kinds of metabolic activities and are kept 
separate from each other. 
 
20) The various cell organelles include endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi 
apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles and centrosome. 
 
21) Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an extensive, interconnected, membrane-
bound network of tubes and sheets. 
 
22) Ribosomes are attached to the surface of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum 
(RER) and are absent in Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) 
 
23) Functions of ER : 
i) It synthesizes important proteins (RER) and lipids (SER). 
ii) It provides a pathway for intracellular transport of materials. 
iii) SER of liver cells is important for detoxification. 
 
24) Golgi apparatus is a network of stacked, flattened, membrane bound 
sacs and vesicles. 
 
25) Golgi apparatus carries out the storage, modification and packaging of 
substances manufactured in the cell and is also involved in lysosome 
formation. 
 
26) The spherical, sac-like lysosomes contain powerful digestive enzymes 
and form the waste disposal system of the cell. They are also known as 
‘suicide bags’. 
 
27) Mitochondria and plastids are each covered by 2 membranes and possess 
their own DNA and ribosomes. 
 
28) Mitochondria are the ‘powerhouses of the cell’, providing energy for 
various metabolic activities. 
 
29) Chromoplasts and leucoplasts are the 2 types of plastids present in plant 
cells. 
 
30) Chloroplasts are chromoplasts containing chlorophyll and carry out 
photosynthesis in plants. 
 
31) Leucoplasts store starch, oil and protein granules. 
 
32) The large central vacuole of mature plant cells provides turgidity to the 
cell and also stores important substances.  
 
33) In unicellular organisms, vacuoles play important roles in nutrition and 
osmoregulation. 
 
34) Ribososmes are sites of protein synthesis. 
 
35) Centrosome is found only in animal cells and consists of 2 centrioles. 
Centrosome helps in cell division. 
 
37) The membrane-bound cell organelles are absent in prokaryotic cells.  
 
38) Differences between plant cell and animal cell. 
 
 Plant cell Animal cell 
1 Plant cells are generally large in 
size. 
Animal cells are smaller than plant 
cells. 
2 Plant cells possess plastids. Animal cells lack plastids. 
3 Cell wall is present  Cell wall is absent. 
4 Mature plant cells possess a large, 
central and permanent vacuole. 
Animal cells possess many small 
and temporary vacuoles. 
5 Centrosome and centrioles are 
absent in plant cells. 
Centrosome and centrioles are 
present in animal cells. 
 
 
39) The basic structural organization of the cell helps it to perform important 
functions like respiration, nutrition, excretion and protein synthesis. 
 
 
Page 4


Class IX: Biology 
Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. 
 
Chapter Notes 
Key learnings: 
 
 
1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. 
 
2) Cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms. 
 
3) Organisms may be unicellular or multicellular. A single cell constitutes the 
unicellular organism whereas many cells coordinately function in case of 
multicellular organism. 
 
4) The size, shape and volume of the cell are related to the specific function 
that they perform. 
 
5) A cell generally shows plasma membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm 
6) Plasma membrane is a thin, selectively permeable membrane, covering 
the cell and is made up of lipids and proteins. 
 
7) Functions of plasma membrane : 
i) It separates the contents of a cell from its outside environment. 
ii) It regulates the flow of substances to and from the cell through diffusion, 
facilitated diffusion, active transport and endocytosis. 
 
8) Osmosis is diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. 
 
9) A cell placed in different solutions: 
i. hypotonic solution : A cell placed in it will gain water. 
ii. hypertonic solution: A cell placed in it will lose water: Also known as 
plasmolysis.  
iii. isotonic solution: A cell placed in it will neither gain nor lose water 
 
 
10)  
 
Cells of Plants, fungi & bacteria: Contain both plasma membrane & cell wall. 
Cell wall is rigid, non-living & outer most covering, composed mainly of 
cellulose. 
 
11) When placed in hypertonic solution, a living plant cell shows plasmolysis 
12) Cell wall provides mechanical strength to the cell. It permits the cell to 
withstand huge changes in the surrounding medium.  
 
13) Nucleus is an important, spherical, usually centrally located constituent 
of the cell and is bounded by double layered nuclear envelope. 
 
14) The nucleus of a dividing cell shows rod-shaped chromosomes, made up 
of DNA and proteins. In a non-dividing cell, the chromosomes elongate and 
take the form of thread-like chromatin. 
 
15) DNA molecules are responsible for transmitting hereditary information 
from one generation to the next. 
 
16) Nucleus controls all metabolic activities of the cell. 
 
17) Depending on the presence or absence of nucleus, cells may be 
prokaryotic or eukaryotic. 
i) Prokaryotic cells lack a well-defined nucleus and instead show nucleoid, an 
undefined nuclear region containing the genetic material. 
ii) Eukaryotic cells possess a proper nucleus with nuclear membrane. 
 
18) Cytoplasm is the fluid content of the cell, occurring between nucleus and 
plasma membrane. It stores several vital chemicals and is the site of certain 
important metabolic pathways. 
 
19) Several specialized cell organelles are present in the cytoplasm. These 
organelles perform different kinds of metabolic activities and are kept 
separate from each other. 
 
20) The various cell organelles include endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi 
apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles and centrosome. 
 
21) Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an extensive, interconnected, membrane-
bound network of tubes and sheets. 
 
22) Ribosomes are attached to the surface of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum 
(RER) and are absent in Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) 
 
23) Functions of ER : 
i) It synthesizes important proteins (RER) and lipids (SER). 
ii) It provides a pathway for intracellular transport of materials. 
iii) SER of liver cells is important for detoxification. 
 
24) Golgi apparatus is a network of stacked, flattened, membrane bound 
sacs and vesicles. 
 
25) Golgi apparatus carries out the storage, modification and packaging of 
substances manufactured in the cell and is also involved in lysosome 
formation. 
 
26) The spherical, sac-like lysosomes contain powerful digestive enzymes 
and form the waste disposal system of the cell. They are also known as 
‘suicide bags’. 
 
27) Mitochondria and plastids are each covered by 2 membranes and possess 
their own DNA and ribosomes. 
 
28) Mitochondria are the ‘powerhouses of the cell’, providing energy for 
various metabolic activities. 
 
29) Chromoplasts and leucoplasts are the 2 types of plastids present in plant 
cells. 
 
30) Chloroplasts are chromoplasts containing chlorophyll and carry out 
photosynthesis in plants. 
 
31) Leucoplasts store starch, oil and protein granules. 
 
32) The large central vacuole of mature plant cells provides turgidity to the 
cell and also stores important substances.  
 
33) In unicellular organisms, vacuoles play important roles in nutrition and 
osmoregulation. 
 
34) Ribososmes are sites of protein synthesis. 
 
35) Centrosome is found only in animal cells and consists of 2 centrioles. 
Centrosome helps in cell division. 
 
37) The membrane-bound cell organelles are absent in prokaryotic cells.  
 
38) Differences between plant cell and animal cell. 
 
 Plant cell Animal cell 
1 Plant cells are generally large in 
size. 
Animal cells are smaller than plant 
cells. 
2 Plant cells possess plastids. Animal cells lack plastids. 
3 Cell wall is present  Cell wall is absent. 
4 Mature plant cells possess a large, 
central and permanent vacuole. 
Animal cells possess many small 
and temporary vacuoles. 
5 Centrosome and centrioles are 
absent in plant cells. 
Centrosome and centrioles are 
present in animal cells. 
 
 
39) The basic structural organization of the cell helps it to perform important 
functions like respiration, nutrition, excretion and protein synthesis. 
 
 
 
 Top definitions 
 
1) Cell - An autonomous self-replicating structure that forms the structural, 
functional and biological unit of all living organisms.  
2) Prokaryotic cell – A cell characterized by the absence of a distinct, 
membrane-bound nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, and by DNA that 
is not organized into chromosomes. 
 
2) Nucleoid – An undefined nuclear region of the prokaryotic cell, containing 
the genetic material (nucleic acids). 
 
3) Eukaryotic cell – A cell containing a membrane-bounded nucleus and 
membrane-bounded organelles. 
 
4) Unicellular organism – Organism having only one cell. 
 
5) Multicellular organism - Organism consisting of more than one cell, 
wherein the differentiated cells perform specialized functions in the organism. 
 
6) Diffusion – The spontaneous movement of a substance from a region of its 
higher concentration to a region of its lower concentration. 
 
7) Osmosis – The movement of water through a semi-permeable membrane 
from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water 
concentration. 
 
8) Hypertonic solution - A solution that has a higher solute concentration 
than the one to which it is compared (eg - some kind of cell). 
 
9) Hypotonic solution - A solution that has a lower solute concentration than 
the one to which it is compared (eg - some kind of cell). 
 
10) Isotonic solution - A solution that has the same tonicity as another 
solution with which it is compared. 
11) Plasmolysis - Shrinkage or contraction of the protoplasm away from the 
wall of a living plant or bacterial cell, caused by loss of water through 
osmosis. 
12) Cell organelle – A specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific 
function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own membrane. 
13) Genes - A hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies 
a specific location on a chromosome and determines a particular 
characteristic in an organism. 
Page 5


Class IX: Biology 
Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. 
 
Chapter Notes 
Key learnings: 
 
 
1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. 
 
2) Cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms. 
 
3) Organisms may be unicellular or multicellular. A single cell constitutes the 
unicellular organism whereas many cells coordinately function in case of 
multicellular organism. 
 
4) The size, shape and volume of the cell are related to the specific function 
that they perform. 
 
5) A cell generally shows plasma membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm 
6) Plasma membrane is a thin, selectively permeable membrane, covering 
the cell and is made up of lipids and proteins. 
 
7) Functions of plasma membrane : 
i) It separates the contents of a cell from its outside environment. 
ii) It regulates the flow of substances to and from the cell through diffusion, 
facilitated diffusion, active transport and endocytosis. 
 
8) Osmosis is diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. 
 
9) A cell placed in different solutions: 
i. hypotonic solution : A cell placed in it will gain water. 
ii. hypertonic solution: A cell placed in it will lose water: Also known as 
plasmolysis.  
iii. isotonic solution: A cell placed in it will neither gain nor lose water 
 
 
10)  
 
Cells of Plants, fungi & bacteria: Contain both plasma membrane & cell wall. 
Cell wall is rigid, non-living & outer most covering, composed mainly of 
cellulose. 
 
11) When placed in hypertonic solution, a living plant cell shows plasmolysis 
12) Cell wall provides mechanical strength to the cell. It permits the cell to 
withstand huge changes in the surrounding medium.  
 
13) Nucleus is an important, spherical, usually centrally located constituent 
of the cell and is bounded by double layered nuclear envelope. 
 
14) The nucleus of a dividing cell shows rod-shaped chromosomes, made up 
of DNA and proteins. In a non-dividing cell, the chromosomes elongate and 
take the form of thread-like chromatin. 
 
15) DNA molecules are responsible for transmitting hereditary information 
from one generation to the next. 
 
16) Nucleus controls all metabolic activities of the cell. 
 
17) Depending on the presence or absence of nucleus, cells may be 
prokaryotic or eukaryotic. 
i) Prokaryotic cells lack a well-defined nucleus and instead show nucleoid, an 
undefined nuclear region containing the genetic material. 
ii) Eukaryotic cells possess a proper nucleus with nuclear membrane. 
 
18) Cytoplasm is the fluid content of the cell, occurring between nucleus and 
plasma membrane. It stores several vital chemicals and is the site of certain 
important metabolic pathways. 
 
19) Several specialized cell organelles are present in the cytoplasm. These 
organelles perform different kinds of metabolic activities and are kept 
separate from each other. 
 
20) The various cell organelles include endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi 
apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles and centrosome. 
 
21) Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an extensive, interconnected, membrane-
bound network of tubes and sheets. 
 
22) Ribosomes are attached to the surface of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum 
(RER) and are absent in Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) 
 
23) Functions of ER : 
i) It synthesizes important proteins (RER) and lipids (SER). 
ii) It provides a pathway for intracellular transport of materials. 
iii) SER of liver cells is important for detoxification. 
 
24) Golgi apparatus is a network of stacked, flattened, membrane bound 
sacs and vesicles. 
 
25) Golgi apparatus carries out the storage, modification and packaging of 
substances manufactured in the cell and is also involved in lysosome 
formation. 
 
26) The spherical, sac-like lysosomes contain powerful digestive enzymes 
and form the waste disposal system of the cell. They are also known as 
‘suicide bags’. 
 
27) Mitochondria and plastids are each covered by 2 membranes and possess 
their own DNA and ribosomes. 
 
28) Mitochondria are the ‘powerhouses of the cell’, providing energy for 
various metabolic activities. 
 
29) Chromoplasts and leucoplasts are the 2 types of plastids present in plant 
cells. 
 
30) Chloroplasts are chromoplasts containing chlorophyll and carry out 
photosynthesis in plants. 
 
31) Leucoplasts store starch, oil and protein granules. 
 
32) The large central vacuole of mature plant cells provides turgidity to the 
cell and also stores important substances.  
 
33) In unicellular organisms, vacuoles play important roles in nutrition and 
osmoregulation. 
 
34) Ribososmes are sites of protein synthesis. 
 
35) Centrosome is found only in animal cells and consists of 2 centrioles. 
Centrosome helps in cell division. 
 
37) The membrane-bound cell organelles are absent in prokaryotic cells.  
 
38) Differences between plant cell and animal cell. 
 
 Plant cell Animal cell 
1 Plant cells are generally large in 
size. 
Animal cells are smaller than plant 
cells. 
2 Plant cells possess plastids. Animal cells lack plastids. 
3 Cell wall is present  Cell wall is absent. 
4 Mature plant cells possess a large, 
central and permanent vacuole. 
Animal cells possess many small 
and temporary vacuoles. 
5 Centrosome and centrioles are 
absent in plant cells. 
Centrosome and centrioles are 
present in animal cells. 
 
 
39) The basic structural organization of the cell helps it to perform important 
functions like respiration, nutrition, excretion and protein synthesis. 
 
 
 
 Top definitions 
 
1) Cell - An autonomous self-replicating structure that forms the structural, 
functional and biological unit of all living organisms.  
2) Prokaryotic cell – A cell characterized by the absence of a distinct, 
membrane-bound nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, and by DNA that 
is not organized into chromosomes. 
 
2) Nucleoid – An undefined nuclear region of the prokaryotic cell, containing 
the genetic material (nucleic acids). 
 
3) Eukaryotic cell – A cell containing a membrane-bounded nucleus and 
membrane-bounded organelles. 
 
4) Unicellular organism – Organism having only one cell. 
 
5) Multicellular organism - Organism consisting of more than one cell, 
wherein the differentiated cells perform specialized functions in the organism. 
 
6) Diffusion – The spontaneous movement of a substance from a region of its 
higher concentration to a region of its lower concentration. 
 
7) Osmosis – The movement of water through a semi-permeable membrane 
from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water 
concentration. 
 
8) Hypertonic solution - A solution that has a higher solute concentration 
than the one to which it is compared (eg - some kind of cell). 
 
9) Hypotonic solution - A solution that has a lower solute concentration than 
the one to which it is compared (eg - some kind of cell). 
 
10) Isotonic solution - A solution that has the same tonicity as another 
solution with which it is compared. 
11) Plasmolysis - Shrinkage or contraction of the protoplasm away from the 
wall of a living plant or bacterial cell, caused by loss of water through 
osmosis. 
12) Cell organelle – A specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific 
function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own membrane. 
13) Genes - A hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies 
a specific location on a chromosome and determines a particular 
characteristic in an organism. 
 
14) Membrane biogenesis – The process of synthesizing the biological 
membranes. 
15) Plasma membrane – The thin, selectively permeable membrane 
composed of lipids and proteins which surrounds an entire cell and regulates 
the flow of substances to and from the cell. 
16) Cell wall – The rigid, non-living, outer covering of certain cells (like plant 
and bacteria), composed mainly of cellulose and providing the cell with 
structural support and protection. 
17) Cytoplasm - The jellylike material of a cell that is enclosed within the 
plasma membrane, except the nucleus and contains the cell organelles. 
18) Chloroplasts – The plastids containing chlorophyll which are capable of 
carrying out photosynthesis in plants. 
 
 
 
Top diagrams 
 
 
 
 
Compound microscope 
 
 
 
 
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