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Noun (संज्ञा) - Basic English Grammar for Competitive Exams - Banking Exams

Introduction of Noun (संज्ञा का परिचय)

A noun (संज्ञा) is a word that represents a person, place, thing, or idea. In both Hindi and English, nouns are an essential part of the language and used in almost every sentence.
संज्ञा वह शब्द होता है जो किसी व्यक्ति, स्थान, वस्तु, या विचार को दर्शाता है।

Types of Nouns (संज्ञा के प्रकार)

1. Proper Noun (व्यक्ति वाचक संज्ञा): It refers to a specific person, place, or thing.

  • Example: Ram (राम), India (भारत), Taj Mahal (ताजमहल)

2. Common Noun (जाति वाचक संज्ञा): It refers to a general category or class of people, places, or things.

  • Example: boy (लड़का), city (शहर), book (किताब)

3. Collective Noun (समूह वाचक संज्ञा): It refers to a group or collection of people, animals, or things.

  • Example: team (टीम), crowd (भीड़), army (सेना)

4. Material Noun (द्रव्य वाचक संज्ञा): It refers to a substance or material from which things are made.

  • Example: gold (सोना), water (पानी), wood (लकड़ी)

5. Abstract Noun (भाव वाचक संज्ञा): It refers to an idea, quality, or state that cannot be seen or touched.

  • Example: love (प्यार), honesty (ईमानदारी), freedom (आज़ादी)

6. Countable Noun (गिनती योग्य संज्ञा): Countable nouns are those nouns that can be counted, and they have both singular and plural forms. In Hindi, these nouns are called "गिनती योग्य संज्ञा". They can be used with numbers, and they can also be used with words like 'some', 'many', 'few', 'several', etc.

  • Examples: Pen (पेन) - कलम
    Sentence: I have three pens. (मेरे पास तीन कलमें हैं।)
    Book (बुक) - किताब
    Sentence: She has ten books. (उसके पास दस किताबें हैं।)

7. Non-countable noun (अगणनीय संज्ञा) in Hindi refers to nouns that cannot be counted or quantified directly. They are usually used with indefinite quantities like 'some,' 'a lot,' or 'little' (कुछ, बहुत, थोड़ा).

  • Examples of non-countable nouns in English and Hindi with sentences:
    Water (पानी) - I need some water to drink. (मुझे पीने के लिए कुछ पानी चाहिए।)
    Rice (चावल) - We bought a lot of rice from the market. (हमने बाजार से बहुत सारा चावल खरीदा।)

Note: Non-countable nouns (अगणनीय संज्ञा) do not have a plural form and cannot be used with numbers directly. To quantify them, we need to use measurement units or other expressions like 'a glass of water' (एक गिलास पानी) or 'a piece of advice' (एक सलाह).

8. Concrete Noun: Concrete nouns are words that represent an object, person, place, or animal. These can be experienced through our five senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell).
ठोस संज्ञा वे शब्द होते हैं जो किसी वस्तु, व्यक्ति, स्थान, या पशु को दर्शाते हैं। इन्हें हम अपनी पांचों इंद्रियों (दृष्टि, सुनाई, स्पर्श, स्वाद और गंध) के माध्यम से अनुभव कर सकते हैं।

  • Examples:
    कुत्ता (Dog): राम के पास एक काला कुत्ता है। (Ram has a black dog.)
    घर (House): हमारा घर नदी के किनारे है। (Our house is by the river.)

  • Singular and Plural Nouns: In English, nouns can be either singular (referring to one thing) or plural (referring to more than one thing). Plural nouns are generally formed by adding -s to the singular noun, but there are many irregular plurals as well (e.g., man/men, foot/feet, child/children).
  • Proper and Common Nouns: Proper nouns are the specific names of people, places, or things (e.g., John, London, Coca-Cola), whereas common nouns refer to general categories or classes of things (e.g., man, city, beverage). Proper nouns should always be capitalized.
  • Countable and Uncountable Nouns: Countable nouns are things that can be counted (e.g., books, cats, ideas), while uncountable nouns cannot be counted because they refer to a mass or substance (e.g., water, air, information). Uncountable nouns usually take a singular verb and cannot be used with a/an or a number.
  • Collective Nouns: Collective nouns refer to a group of people or things (e.g., team, family, jury). Although they represent more than one individual, they are often treated as singular nouns when referring to the group as a whole, taking a singular verb.
  • Possessive Nouns: Possessive nouns show ownership or possession by adding an apostrophe and -s to the noun (e.g., John's book, the cat's tail). For plural nouns ending in -s, only an apostrophe is added (e.g., the dogs' toys).
  • Gender-specific Nouns: Some nouns indicate the gender of the person or animal they refer to (e.g., actor/actress, waiter/waitress, lion/lioness). In recent years, many gender-specific nouns have been replaced with gender-neutral terms (e.g., server, firefighter, chairperson).
  • Compound Nouns: Compound nouns are formed by combining two or more words (e.g., basketball, greenhouse, toothpaste). They can be written as one word, hyphenated, or as separate words, but the meaning is often different depending on the form (e.g., blackboard vs. black board).
  • Abstract and Concrete Nouns: Abstract nouns represent intangible concepts or ideas (e.g., love, freedom, knowledge), while concrete nouns represent tangible, physical things that can be seen or touched (e.g., table, cat, tree).
  • Gerund Nouns: Gerunds are nouns formed from verbs by adding -ing (e.g., swimming, thinking, writing). They can function as subjects or objects in a sentence, and are often used to express actions or processes.
  • Agreement between noun and verb: In sentences, the subject noun and the verb must agree in number. That is, if the subject is singular, the verb should also be singular, and if the subject is plural, the verb should be plural (e.g., the cat sleeps, the cats sleep).
  • Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement: Pronouns should agree in number, gender, and person with the noun they replace (called the antecedent). For example, if the antecedent is a singular female noun, the pronoun should also be singular and female (e.g., the girl lost her book).
  • Noun Modifiers: Nouns can be modified by adjectives (e.g., a red car, the tall man), by other nouns (e.g., a book cover, a soccer team), or by phrases and clauses (e.g., the man in the hat, the book that I read).

By understanding and applying these rules related to nouns, you will be better prepared to identify and use nouns correctly in competitive exams.

Function of Nouns with Examples

1. Subject (कर्ता - kartā) - The noun that performs the action in a sentence.

  • Example: The dog (subject) is barking. (कुत्ता (kartā) भौंक रहा है।)

2. Object (कर्म - karma) - The noun that receives the action in a sentence.

  • Example: The boy is playing with the ball (object). (लड़का बॉल (karma) के साथ खेल रहा है।)

3. Indirect Object (करण - karaṇ) - The noun that indirectly receives the action in a sentence.

  • Example: She gave the book (indirect object) to him. (उसने उसे किताब (karaṇ) दी।)

4. Possessive (संबंध - sambandh) - The noun that shows ownership or possession.

  • Example: This is Rohit's (possessive) car. (यह रोहित (sambandh) की कार है।)

5. Appositive (समानाधिकरण - samānādhikaraṇ) - The noun that renames or explains another noun.

  • Example: Rahul, the teacher (appositive), is very kind. (राहुल, शिक्षक (samānādhikaraṇ), बहुत दयालु हैं।)

6. Complement (पूरक - pūrak) - The noun that completes the meaning of the subject or the object.

  • Example: He became a doctor (complement). (वह डॉक्टर (pūrak) बन गया।)

7. Direct Address (संबोधन - sambodhan) - The noun used to call or address someone directly.

  • Example: Sunita (direct address), please pass the salt. (सुनिता (sambodhan), नमक पास कर दो।)

Solved Exercises

Exercise 1: Identify the nouns in the following sentences and categorize them as proper or common nouns.
Sarah went to Paris for a vacation.

Sarah (proper noun), Paris (proper noun), vacation (common noun)

The dog chased the cat in the park.

dog (common noun), cat (common noun), park (common noun)

I bought a new book from the library.

book (common noun), library (common noun)

Tom and Jerry are my favorite cartoon characters.

Tom (proper noun), Jerry (proper noun), cartoon characters (common noun)

She works at Microsoft as a software engineer.

Microsoft (proper noun), software engineer (common noun)

Explanation: Proper nouns are unique and specific names like names of people, cities, or companies. Common nouns are general names of things, places, or people.

Exercise 2: Identify the countable and uncountable nouns in the following sentences.

She has a collection of beautiful dresses.

collection (countable), dresses (countable)

The recipe requires sugar, milk, and flour.

sugar (uncountable), milk (uncountable), flour (uncountable)

There are many stars in the sky.

stars (countable), sky (uncountable)

I need to buy some bread and cheese for lunch.

bread (uncountable), cheese (uncountable), lunch (uncountable)

We planted several trees in our backyard.

trees (countable), backyard (uncountable)

Explanation: Countable nouns can be counted and have plural forms, while uncountable nouns cannot be counted and do not have a plural form.

Exercise 3: Choose the correct form of the noun (singular or plural) to complete the following sentences.
The (child/children) are playing in the park.

The children are playing in the park.

I have three (dog/dogs) at home.

I have three dogs at home.

She bought a (book/books) on history.

She bought a book on history.

There are many (leaf/leaves) on the ground.

There are many leaves on the ground.

The (mouse/mice) ran across the kitchen floor.

The mice ran across the kitchen floor.

Spotting Errors (Noun)

1. Incorrect: The informations given in the report were inaccurate.
Correct: The information given in the report was inaccurate.

The word "information" is an uncountable noun and should not be pluralized.

2. Incorrect: The two criterias for admission are grades and test scores.
Correct: The two criteria for admission are grades and test scores.

The word "criteria" is already plural (singular form: criterion).

3. Incorrect: The childrens were playing in the park.
Correct: The children were playing in the park.

The word "children" is already plural (singular form: child).

4. Incorrect: The data we collected show a significant discrepancys.
Correct: The data we collected show significant discrepancies.

The correct plural form of "discrepancy" is "discrepancies."

5. Incorrect: The police has arrested the suspect.
Correct: The police have arrested the suspect.

"Police" is a plural noun even though it doesn't end in -s. Therefore, it requires a plural verb ("have").

6. Incorrect: The series of lectures is starting next week.
Correct: The series of lectures are starting next week.

"Series" can be both singular and plural. In this context, it refers to multiple lectures, so it should be treated as plural.

7. Incorrect: The mice population has been wreaking havoc on the farmer's crops.
Correct: The mouse population has been wreaking havoc on the farmer's crops.

The collective noun should be singular, even though it refers to a group of plural animals (mice).

8. Incorrect: The womens' restroom is on the second floor.
Correct: The women's restroom is on the second floor.

When using a plural noun that doesn't end in -s (women), the apostrophe should appear before the -s for the possessive form (women's).

9. Incorrect: The jury was divided in their opinions.
Correct: The jury was divided in its opinion.

"Jury" is a collective noun, and it should be treated as a singular entity with a singular pronoun (its).

10. Incorrect: The sceneries in the mountains were breathtaking.
Correct: The scenery in the mountains was breathtaking.

"Scenery" is an uncountable noun and shouldn't be pluralized.

The document Noun (संज्ञा) | Basic English Grammar for Competitive Exams - Banking Exams is a part of the Banking Exams Course Basic English Grammar for Competitive Exams.
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FAQs on Noun (संज्ञा) - Basic English Grammar for Competitive Exams - Banking Exams

1. What is a noun?
Ans. A noun is a word that is used to name a person, place, thing, or idea. It is one of the eight parts of speech in English grammar.
2. What are the different types of nouns?
Ans. There are several types of nouns, including common nouns (e.g., dog, city), proper nouns (e.g., John, London), concrete nouns (e.g., table, car), abstract nouns (e.g., love, happiness), countable nouns (e.g., chair, apple), and uncountable nouns (e.g., water, information).
3. How do you identify a noun in a sentence?
Ans. To identify a noun in a sentence, you can look for words that name people, places, things, or ideas. Nouns can be the subject of a sentence, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.
4. What are the rules related to nouns?
Ans. Some common rules related to nouns include: - Nouns can be singular or plural. - Nouns can be possessive, indicating ownership. - Nouns can be used with articles (a, an, the). - Nouns can be used in different cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, etc.). - Nouns can be used in different genders (masculine, feminine, neuter).
5. Can you provide examples of errors related to nouns?
Ans. Yes, some examples of errors related to nouns include: - Using a plural noun with a singular verb (e.g., "The dogs is barking" instead of "The dogs are barking"). - Using an incorrect possessive form (e.g., "Its' a beautiful day" instead of "It's a beautiful day"). - Using a common noun when a proper noun is required (e.g., "I went to the hospital" instead of "I went to St. Mary's Hospital"). - Using an improper article with a noun (e.g., "I saw a elephant" instead of "I saw an elephant"). - Using an incorrect form of a noun in a specific case or gender (e.g., "I gave the book to him" instead of "I gave the book to he").
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