Dairy Production and Indus Valley Civilisation
A recent study by Indian and Canadian archaeologists has recently discovered that the Harappans were producing milk products as far back as 2500 BCE. The discovery shows the earliest evidence of milk production.
- The study results are based on a molecular chemical analysis of the residue in pottery shards found at the Kotada Bhadli archaeological site in Gujarat.
Evidence of Milk Production in Indus Valley Civilization
- The presence of milk, which may have been boiled for consumption, is indicated by traces seen in cooking vessels. Remnants of a perforated vessel are also present, indicating the processing of milk in various forms.
- Pots are porous and absorb liquid from food. This makes it possible for the pots to preserve food molecules such as fats and proteins.
- The source of food can be identified using techniques like C16 and C18 analysis.
- The large herd indicates that surplus milk was generated so that it could be exchanged and some trade between settlements could have occurred.
- This could have also given rise to an industrial level of dairy production.
- The researchers were also able to identify cattle used for dairy products through a process called stable isotope analysis.
- At an older age, most of the cattle and water buffalo died, indicating that they could have been raised for milk, while most goat/sheep died when they were young, suggesting that they could have been used for meat.
Indus Valley Civilization
- India's history begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as the Civilization of Harappan.
Indus Valley Civilization
- It flourished around 2,500 BC, in contemporary Pakistan and Western India, in the western part of South Asia.
- The Indus Valley was the home of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China, the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations.
- The Archaeological Department of India conducted excavations in the Indus valley in the 1920s, where the ruins of the two old towns, viz. Mohenjodaro and Harappa have been uncovered.
- In 1924, ASI Director-General John Marshall announced to the world the discovery of a new civilization in the Indus Valley.
In Hyderabad, artists are using traditional Warli Art (Maharashtra) form to beautify Hyderabad and create awareness on important issues.
- Warli is Maharashtra's traditional form of art.
- As early as the 10th century A.D., its origins can be traced to.
- These paintings, with their vivid expressions of contrast, are distinctive.
- The basic geometric shapes such as circles, triangles and squares mainly dominate these paintings.
- These geometric shapes in our environment stand as a symbol of natural elements.
- For instance, the sun and moon are represented by circles, the mountains are represented by triangles, and the squares are considered the central motifs of the painting.
- Two inverted triangles represent people and animals joined together, where the upper triangle is the torso, and the lower triangle is the pelvis.
- The paintings' central theme is scenes portraying hunting, fishing, farming, festival and dances, trees, and animals to surround the central theme.
- Many artists use the art form of Warli to beautify towns and spread awareness through wall paintings.
- It is also used to embellish bags, bedsheets, and many other products.
- Warli is the vivid expression of the Warli tribe of Maharashtra's daily and social events, used by them to embellish the walls of village houses.
- They are an indigenous tribe or Adivasis, living on the Maharashtra-Gujarat border and surrounding areas in the mountainous as well as coastal areas.
Warli Tribal Dance
- They speak an unwritten Varli language belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages of the southern zone.
Birth Anniversary of Birsa Munda
The Prime Minister paid tributes to the tribal leader Birsa Munda on his birth anniversary, which is celebrated every year on 15th November. Jharkhand was carved out of Bihar and officially came into being on 15th November 2000.
- He was born on 15th November 1875.
He belonged to the Munda tribe in the Chotanagpur Plateau area.
Also known as Dharti Aaba (Father of Earth), Birsa Munda has mobilised the tribal community against the British and forced the colonial officials to introduce laws protecting the land rights of the tribals.
- Having gained awareness of the British colonial ruler and the missionaries' efforts to convert tribals to Christianity, he started the faith of 'Birsait'.
- Members of the Munda and Oraon community joined the Birsait sect and posed a serious challenge to the British conversion activities.
- He also urged the Mundas to give up drinking liquor, clean their village, and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery.
- He died on 9th June 1900.
- It is one of the most important tribal movements.
- Birsa Munda led it in the south of Ranchi in 1899-1900.
- The movement identified the following forces as the cause of the misery the Mundas were suffering from: British land policies have destroyed their traditional land system.
- Hindu landlords and moneylenders took over their country.
- Missionaries were criticising their traditional culture.
- The 'Ulgulan' or the 'Great Tumult' as the movement came to be called to establish Munda Raj by driving out the British.
- Munda used traditional symbols and language to rouse people, urging them to destroy "Ravana" (diku or outsiders and the Europeans) and establish a kingdom under his leadership.
- His followers started targeting diku symbols and European power. They assaulted churches and police stations and raided moneylenders and zamindars on their property. As a symbol of the Birsa Raj, they raised the white flag.
- On 3rd March 1900, Munda was arrested by the British police while he was sleeping with his tribal guerilla army at Jamkopai forest in Chakradharpur (Jharkhand).
- He died of cholera in the jail, and the movement faded out.
- It forced the colonial government to enact legislation like the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act 1908 so that the tribals' land could not be easily taken over by dikus.
- It led to a realisation among the tribal people that they could protest against injustice and express their anger against colonial rule.
All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC)
The All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) recently turned 100.
- In 1920, AITUC was formed by leaders such as Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Narayan Malhar Joshi, Joseph Baptista, Diwan Chaman Lall, etc. to provide the International Labor Organization with labour representation for India (ILO).
- Lala Lajpat Rai was elected as the first president of AITUC and Dewan Chaman Lal as the first general secretary.
- C.R. Das, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose also served as AITUC presidents.
- The Congress' Gaya Session (1922) welcomed the formation of the AITUC and a committee was set up to assist it.
- AITUC was subsequently divided in 1929 to form the National Trade Union Federation (NTUF) and in 1931 to form the Red Trade Union Congress (RTUC).
- AITUC played an important role in founding the World Federation of Trade Unions in the aftermath of World War II (international federation of trade unions).