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Nucleic Acids: Structure & Bonding - Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET

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NUCLEIC ACIDS :

Nucleic Acids: Structure & Bonding - Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION :

 Meischer discovered nucleic acids in nucleus of pus cell and called it ''nuclein''. The name nucleic acid proposed by ''Altaman''.

 Nucleic acids are polymer of nucleotides.  = Nitrogen base + pentose + phosphate 

On the basis of structure, nitrogen bases are broadly of two types :

1.   Pyrimidines – Consist of one pyrimidine ring. Skeleton of ring composed of two nitrogen and four Carbon atoms e.g. Cytosine, Thymine and Uracil.

Nucleic Acids: Structure & Bonding - Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET    Nucleic Acids: Structure & Bonding - Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET    Nucleic Acids: Structure & Bonding - Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET              

2.   Purines – Consist of two rings i.e. one pyrimidine ring (2N + 4C) and one imidazole ring (2N + 3C) e.g. Adenine and Guanine.

Nucleic Acids: Structure & Bonding - Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET    Nucleic Acids: Structure & Bonding - Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET                                            

Pentose Sugar :-

Nucleic Acids: Structure & Bonding - Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET    Nucleic Acids: Structure & Bonding - Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET    Nucleic Acids: Structure & Bonding - Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET

Nitrogen base forms bond with first carbon of pentose sugar to form a nucleoside. Nitrogen of first place (N1)  forms bond with sugar in case of  Pyrimidines while in purines nitrogen of ninth place (N9) forms bond with sugar.

Phosphate forms ester bond (covalent bond) with fifth carbon of sugar to form a complete nucleotide.

Nucleic Acids: Structure & Bonding - Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET

 

Types of Nucleosides and Nucleotides:

1.   Adenine + Ribose = Adenosine

      Adenosine + Phosphate = Adenylic acid

2.   Adenine + Deoxyribose = Deoxy adenosine

      Deoxy adenosine + P = Deoxy adenylic acid  

3.   Guanine + Ribose = Guanosine

      Guanosine + P =  Guanylic acid

4.   Guanine + Deoxyribose = Deoxy guanosine

      Deoxy  guanosine + P = Deoxy guanylic acid 

5.   Cytosine + Ribose  = Cytidine

      Cytidine + P = Cytidylic acid 

6.   Cytosine + Deoxyribose = Deoxycytidine

      Deoxycytidine  + P = Deoxycytidylic acid 

7.   Uracil + Ribose = Uridine

      Uridine + P = Uridylic acid    

8.   Thymine + Deoxyribose = Deoxy thymidine

      Deoxythymidine  + P = Deoxythymidylic acid

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