Old NCERT Gist (Satish Chandra): Summary of Struggle For Empire in North India (1400-1525) Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

UPSC: Old NCERT Gist (Satish Chandra): Summary of Struggle For Empire in North India (1400-1525) Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

The document Old NCERT Gist (Satish Chandra): Summary of Struggle For Empire in North India (1400-1525) Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC CSE.
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(i) Timur's invasion in 1398 led to disintegration of Sultanate. Gujarat, Malwa, Jaunpur, Deccan states, Bengal, Sindh and Multan became independent, as did the states of Rajputana.
(ii) Balance of power emerged.
(iii) Gujarat and Malwa checked each other in the west, Bengal was checked by Orissa (Gajapati rulers) and Jaunpur (East UP).
(iv) Lodis in Delhi warred with Jaunpur for custody of Ganga-Jamuna valley. They ultimately succeeded. Expanded towards Rajasthan and Malwa.
(v) Struggle for mastery over Malwa was the cockpit for struggle over North India. Rana Sanga invited Babur to war with Lodis, thinking that this would make Mewar the strongest power in the field.

1.EASTERN INDIA
Bengal:
(i) It had been more or less independent of Delhi because of its distance, climate and access via waterways.
(ii) After Shamsuddin Ilyas Khan, a noble of MBT ascended the throne and expanded his empire till Assam and Banaras, Firuz Tughlaq had to battle him. A treaty of friendship was concluded. Firuz again attacked after death of Ilyas but failed.
(iii) Then Bengal was left alone for 200 years till 1538, when Mughals established their power and Sher Shah overran Bengal.
(iv) Azam Shah, famous Bengali ruler, had relations with Persian poet Hafiz of Shiraz, as well as friendly relations with the Chinese. Buddhism had not completely died out in Bengal till then. Chittagong port became a flourishing port for trade with China.
(v) There was a brief spell of Hindu rule under Raja Ganesh. His sons preferred to rule as muslims. These sultans patronized great men and Bengali language. Also showed respect to Vaishnavite saint Chaitanya. Maladhar Basu = composer of Sri-Krishna-Vijaya.

Assam:
(i) Two kingdoms in Assam: Kamata (Kamrup) in west and Ahom in the east.
(ii) Latter were a mongoloid tribe from northern Burma and had established a powerful kingdom in 13th century, becoming Hinduized with time.
(iii) They warred with each other and occasionally listed the help of Bengali muslim rulers to further their objectives.

Suhungmung = greatest Ahom ruler who adopted the name of Svarga Natayana. Vaishnavite reformer Shankaradev spread Vaishnavism in the area during this time.

Orissa:
(i) It had been plundered time and again by Tughlaqs and Ilyas Khan (Bengal).
(ii) Gajapati dynasty was established and marks a brilliant phase in Orissa history.
(iii) Extended rule towards Karnataka and conflicted with Reddis, Vijayanagar and Bahmanids.
Could not hold on for a long time. Had not engaged Bengal rulers because of the latter's strength, but conflicts arose from time to time.

2.WESTERN INDIA:
Gujarat:
(i) Gujarat was one of the richest provinces of the sultanate due to Handicrafts, Seaporrts, Richness of the soil.

(ii) After Timur's invasion of Delhi, both the Gujarat and Malwa became independent in everything but the name.

Zafar Khan- Governor of Gujarat

(i) In 1407 formally proclaimed himself the ruler with the title Muzaffar Shah.

(ii) He had defeated Hushang Shah of Malwa but later released him as he was unable to govern Malwa. From here starts the rivalry between Gujarat and Malwa.

The real founder however was his grandson- Ahmed Shah 1(1411-43).

(i) He controlled the nobility, expanded and consolidated the Empire.

(ii) He shifted the capital from Patan to Ahmedabad. He was a Great builderand beautified the town with Palaces, madarasas, and mosques. Rich architectural traditition developed from borrowing syles from jains of Gujarat which was different from Delhi. Eg. Jama Masjid in Ahmedabad and the tin darwaza.

(iii) Conquests:

(iv) Saurashtra: captured strong fort of girnar but restored it in lieu of tribute to be given the Raja.

(v) Several forts of Idar and Rajput states of Jhalawar,Bundi, Dungarpur etc were captured.

Mahmud begarha:
(i) the most famous Sultan of Gujarat was Mahmud Begarha who ruled Gujarat for 50 years.
(ii) He was called Begarha because he captured two forts: of Girnar and Champaner.
(iii) He used fort of girnar as a base for operations against the Sindh. And fort of Champaner was starategic for operations in khandesh and Malwa.
(iv) He built new towns around the forts. Mustafabad at Girnar and Muhammadabad at Champaner
(v) He sacked Dwarka which harboured pirates who preyed on the pilgrims of Mecca.
(vi) He also dealt with the Porteguese with alliance of ruler of Egypt but failed.
(vii) His court poet was Udayraja who composed in Sanskrit.
(viii) Under him Gujarat gained it maximum limit and was most powerful state to pose a serious challenge to the Mughal ruler, Humayan.

Malwa
(i) Situated on the High plateau between the rivers Narmada and Tapti. Whoever controlled Malwa would make a bid to dominate whole of north india.
(ii) During 15th century it remained at the heights of its Glory.
(iii) The capital was shifted from Dhar to Mandu which was highly defensable and naturally beautiful.
(iv) The Mandu architecture was Massive unlike that of Gujarat and it contained lofty plinths and large-scale use of colored and glazed tiles. E.g. Jama Masjid, the Hindola Mahal and Jahaz Mahal
(v) Mired in internal rifts. One of the earliest able Rulers was Hushang shah. He was tolerant but not many of the rulers of Malwa were.
(vi) Mahmud khilji who was considered the most powerful of the rulers of Malwa destroyed many temples and always waged wars with almost all the neighbour states -Gujarat, Gondwanas, Orissa, bahmani Empire and Delhi Sultanate.

Mewar
(i) With the conquest of Ranthambor by Alaudin khilji, the power of the Chauhans in the Rajputana had come to an end.
(ii) The state of Marwar emerged from its ruins. It was under mewar occupation but later on became independent under Rao jodha.
(iii) The early history of the mewar is obsure dating back to 8th century.The most famous of the ruler is Rana Kumbha(1433-68). He had conflicts with the neighbouring Nagaur under Khan and Gujarat and also Rathors of Marwar.
(iv) Rana Kumbha's achievement is no small in facing 2 most powerful states against all odds.
(v) He was patron of learned men.
(vi) He was an enthusiastic builder. Several lakes and reservoirs for irrigation and temples were built. E.g. Vijay Stambha
(vii) Rana Sangha next notable ruler after Rana Kumbha
(a) During his time there was rapid internal disintegration within.
(b) Imbrahim Lodiinvaded Mewar which was reversed by him at Khatoli.
(c) Babur was knocking at the gates of India during this time.

3. NORTH-WEST AND NORTH INDIA- After the Timurid invasion, the Sultan Mahmud Tughlaq fled Delhi which dented the prestige of the throne of Delhi. During his shelter in Gujarat and Malwa various nobles and zamindars asserted their independence.

SHARQIS
(i) First to assert independence from Ganga valley was Malik Sarwar an erstwhile Wazir under the delhi sultanate.
(ii) He adopted the title of Malik-us-sharq (Lord of the east) and thus, his followers were called sharqis.
(iii) Great builder created their own style of architecture different from that of Delhi.
(iv) Jaunpur was fixed as Capital city and was centre of learning. In course of time came to known as 'Shiraz of the East'. Malik Muhammad Jaisi author of Padmavat lived at Jaunpur.
(v) They had ambitions to capture Delhi but never succeeded.
(vi) The Empire was brought to an end by Bahlul Lodi-the ruler of Delhi.

LODIS

(i) Bahlul Lodi was an Afghan Sardar who has been granted the iqta of Sirhind. He soon dominated the entire Punjab.
(ii) A new dynasty emerged in Delhi called the Saiyyid which called the Afghans under Bahlul Lodi for help against the attacks of Malwa. But his men in turn took control of Delhi and he crowned himself as ruler of delhi in 1451 ending the Saiyyid dynasty.
(iii) Rise of Bahlul Lodi led to rising importance of Afghan in northern india. In south they held important positions in the Bahamani kingdom.
(iv) Sikandar lodi = Most important ruler.
(a) Contemporary of Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat and Rana Sangha of Mewar.
(b) He systemised the Afghan sardar's sense of tribal independence
(c) Made efforts to control the Nobles with limited success
(d) The tradition of dividing the empire among the sons of the ruler persisted amongst the afghans which was controlled by Sikandar
(e) Laid great emphasis on justice, made highways safe from bandits,abolished ocroi duty on grains, established a new system of measurement= gazz-i-sikandari.
(f) Regarded as Orthodox and bigot as he re imposed jizyah, executed brahmanas, demolished temples
(g) But gave magnificient grants to the scholars, philosophers and interested in music.
(v) Agra emerged as strategic town which was developed to become the command areas for operations to eastern Rajasthan and Gujarat and Malwa. Also became the 2nd capital of the Lodis.
(vi) Power struggle between the Lodis and Mewar was stopped by the Babur

KASHMIR
(i) The beautiful valley was for long forbidden land for outsiders.
(ii) Earlier Kashmir was known as the centre of Shaivism. But with attacks of Mongol leader-Dalucha in 1320 plundering Kashmir ended the Hindu Rule.
(iii) Changed Society:
(a) Rise of Sufis called rishis who combined the teachings of Islam and Shaivism.
(b) Partly by their preaching and partly by force population of Kashmir converted to islam.
(c) A vehement persecution of Brahamanas and learned hindus were forced to convert or leave valley by Delhi sultan.
(iv) Zainul Abidin:
(a) 100 years after mongol invasion came Zainul Abidin= considered the greatest ol the Muslim monarchs of Kashmir. The situation changed with the accession of Zainul Abidin(1420-70)
(b) He is still called Bud Shah (the Great Sultan) by the Kashmiris
(c) He cancelled all the repressive orders.
(d) He abolished jizyah
(e) Restored temples
(f) Hindus occupied high posts in his courts
(g) His 2 wives were Hindus.
(h) He gave patronage to Sanskrit and Persian scholars
(i) Great builer. E.g. built Zaina lanka= artificial island in the Wular Lake on which he built his palace and a mosque.
(j) He was in touch with the leading leaders in other parts of India and Asia.

EVALUATION:
(i) During the 15th century, the Regional balance of power do not guarantee either peace or stability.
(ii) The regional Kingdoms had many cultural contributions to their credits
(iii) Local styles of architecture were developed
(iv) Local Languages was patronized
(v) Overall, in these Kingdoms the forces of Liberalism and cultural integration remained active.

The document Old NCERT Gist (Satish Chandra): Summary of Struggle For Empire in North India (1400-1525) Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC CSE.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC
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