(i) The break up old the Bahamani kingdom gave rise to 3 powerful kingdoms: Ahmednagar, Bijapur and Golconda.
(ii) They combined to crush the Vijayanagara Empire at the battle of bannihatti neartallikota,
(iii) But soon they clashed with each other.
(iv) The conquest of Gujarat by Akbar was prelude to the Mughal conquest of the Deccan.
(v) The growing importance of Marathas employed as loose auxiliaries (bargis) in the bahamani kingdom.
MUGHAL ADVANCE TO DECCAN
Reasons for Mughal advance:
(i) It was logical for Mughals to advance towards Deccan after consolidation of the empire in the north India.
(ii) The conquest of the Deccan by the tughlaqs had improved cultural and commercia communications.
(iii) After the decline of the three Delhi Sultanate, many saints and artisans migrated to the court of the Bahmani rulers.
(vi) War between the various Deccani states were frequent occurrence.
(v) Growing Shiism, Mahdawi ideas clashed with the orthodox elements
(vi) Akbar was also apprehensive about the Portuguese growing power.
CONQUEST OF BERAR, AHMEDNAGAR AND KHANDESH
(i) Akbar claimed suzerainty over the entire country. Rajputs accepted and the deccani rulers was also follow the same
(ii) Diplomatic offensive was started by Akbar with limited success.
(iii) Factional fighting broke out providing opportunity to Akbar to enter the scene of Bijapur.
(iv) Berar was ceded to the Mughals for their help.
(v) Berar would provide Mughals a foothold to expand further in thee Deccan. Therefore, Bijapur, Golconda and Amnednagar combined their forces and invaded Berar. They were defeated
(vi) Consequently, Balaghat,Ahmedanagar, Khandesh were captured. But the Mughals were yet to consolidate their position in the Deccan.
RISE OF MALIK AMBER AND MUGHALS
(i) After the fall of Ahmednagar and capture of its ruler it would have been disintegrated il Malik Ambar would not have been there.
(ii) Malik Ambar:
(i) An Abyssian sold at slave market by his parents.
(ii) Purchased by a merchant who brought him to the Deccan.
(iii) He rose in the service of a noble at the court of Nizam Shahi.
(iv) After the fall of Ahmednagar, he found a Nizam Shahi prince and with tacit support of the ruler of Bijapur set him up as Nizam with himself as his Peshwa. He hatherec Maratha bargis around him who waged guerilla warfare frustating the Mughals to consolidate in the Deccan.
(i) The Mughal army under Abdur rahim khan -i-khanan defeated Ambar. But they decidec for friendship for stability (Abdur Rahim) and controlling internal rebels (Ambar).
(ii) After the death of Akbar, the position of the Mughals became weak.
(iii) Jahangir waged war with Malik Ambar but was defeated.
(iv) Ambar continued to prosper and the Mughals were unable to re assert themselves. This made Ambar arrogant and alienate most of his allies.
(v) Khan-i-khanan= Mughal viceroy of the Deccan took advantage & won over Maratha anc other nobles and inflicted crushing defeat on combined forces of Deccani states.
(vi) Despite reverses, Ambar continued the resistance.
(vii) Shah Jahan as prince Khurram led Mughal army to rout Ambar and shatter the United front of the Deccani states.
(viii) Ambar's achievements were short lived:
(a) Unwillingness to come to terms with the Mughals
(b) Clear recognition of importance of the Marathas in Deccan
(c) Improved administration of Nizm Shahi State by introducing Todar Mai's lands revenue system.
(d) Abolished Ijara system and adopted Zabti system.
EXTINCTION OF AHMEDNAGAR AND ACCEPTANCE OF MUGHAL SUZERAINTY
(i) Shah Jahan having the experience of Deccan affairs as prince Khurram knew the importance of Deccan.
(ii) Malik Ambar died in 1626 but his policy of refusing Mughal position in Berarstill continued.
(iii) Shahjahan diplomatically isolated Ahmednagar by bringing Bijapur and Maratha sardars on his side.
(iv) Ahmadnagar was extinguished as an independent state and the Mughals built garrison town at daulatabad.
(v) Marathas under Shahji defected and Bijapur also posed problems for the Mughals now.
(vi) An agreement was reaches upon between Bijapur and Mughals to reduce shahji's growing power and send him down south in return a part of territory of Ahmednagar was ceded tc Bijapur.
(vii) Treaties with Bijapur and Golconda enabled peace and extended suzerainty of the Mughal Emperor was now extended over lenght and breadth of the country.
(viii) The deccan states were given full freedom to extend south wards
CULTURAL CONTRIBUTION OF DECCAN STATES
(i) ALI ADIL SHAH ruler of Bijapur
(a) He used to hold discussions with hindu and Muslim saints and was called a Sufi.
(b) He has an excellent library to which he appointed Waman Pandit.
(c) Patronage of Sanskrit and Marathi continued by his successors.
(ii) HIS SUCCESSOR IBRAHIM ADIL SHAH II:
(a) Title of abla baba = friend of the poor.
(b) Deeply interested in music and write ab book kitab-i-nauras.
(c) New capital built=Nauraspur to settle large number of musicians
(d) Broad approach therefore called Jagat Guru.
(iii) QUTB SHAHI IBRAHIM QUTB SHAH recruited many hindus and Marathas into the court.
(iv) QUU QUTB SHAH
(a) Made Golconda intellectual resort of literary men.
(b) Growth of Dakhani Urdu.
(c) He himself wrote in Dakhani urdu, persian and telugu.
(d) Built Char minar with 4 arches which are 4 storeyed facing 4 directions.
(a) Urdu was patronised. Court poet Nusrati was famous
(b) Most famous Architecture Ibrahim Rauza=mausoleum for Ibrahim Adil shah
(c) Gol Gumbaz= largest single dome ever constructed.