Old NCERT Summary (RS Sharma): Central Asian Contacts & their Results Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

UPSC: Old NCERT Summary (RS Sharma): Central Asian Contacts & their Results Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

The document Old NCERT Summary (RS Sharma): Central Asian Contacts & their Results Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC CSE.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC

Background

In North-western India, Mauryans were replaced by number dynasties by Central Asian rulers. The period began around 200 BC.

The rule of Indo-Greeks

  • They (Bactrian) were the first to invade.
  • Reached till Ayodhya.
  • But could not establish united rule.
  • Two greek dynasties ruled in NW at the same time
  • Famous ruler was Menander (Milinda). Capital at Sakala (Sialkot, Punjab).
  • He was Converted to Buddhism by Nagsen (Nagarjun). Miliind’s questions and Nagsen’s answers on Buddhism recorded in Milind Panho. Good source of cultural life of the time.
  • They issued large number of coins attributed to kings, in contrast to earlier punch-marked coins which could not be attributed to any specific dynasty.
  • Indo-Greeks were the first ones to issue gold coins in India. The coins increased under Kushans.
  • The rule also led to introduction of Hellenistic features in Indian art, giving rise to Gandhara school (in NW frontier).

The Shakas

  • Reached further inside the subcontinent than Bactrians.
  • Five distinct branches: Afghanistan, Punjab (capital at Taxila), Mathura, Western India (ruled till 4th century AD) and upper Deccan.
  • King of Ujjain defeated Shakas in ~58 BC. Called himself Vikramaditya and hence Vikram Samvat came into existence.
  • Most popular Shaka ruler was Rudradaman I (130-150 AD). Sindh, Kutch, Gujarat, Malwa, Narmada Valley.
  • Popular because he got Sudarshan Lake in Kathiawar repaired.
  • Was a great lover of Sanskrit. Issued first-ever long inscription in Sanskrit. All previous ones were in Prakrit.

The Parthians

  • Ruled over a shorter period of time, sometimes parallel to Shakas.
  • Famous king is Gondophernes. St. Thomas came to India to spread Christianity during his reign.

The Kushans

  • One of the five clans of Yuechi tribe.
  • Nomadic tribes of central Asia.
  • Set up authority over Indus basin and gangetic basin.
  • Central asia + part of Afg + pak + part of Iran +whole North India united under Kushan rule.
  • Unique opportunity for intermingling of peoples and cultures.

➢ Two successive dynasties:
(i) Kadphises Kadphises I, who issued copper coins south of Hindukush and Kadphises II. who issued large no of gold coins and spread kingdom to east of Indus.
(ii) Kanishka. Extended power over most of north India. Issued gold    coins with gold content higher than Guptas. Two capitals: Mathura and    Peshawar, where a monastery and a huge stupa was erected.

  • Kanishk started Saka Era in 78 AD.
  • Extended patronage to Buddhism.
  • Convened Buddhist council at Kashmir where contours of Mahayan Buddhism were finalized.
  • Great patron of Art and Sanskrit literature.
  • His successors ruled till 230 AD but were replaced by Sassanians of Iran.
  • Isolated pockets of rule existed till 4th century.
  • Toprak-Kala in Khorezm contains a huge Kushan    palace    which has administrative archives containing documents in Aramaic script and Khorezmian language.

Impacts of Central Asian Contacts

  • Burnt bricks for flooring and tiles for flooring and roofing. Construction of brick wells.
  • Red ware, plain and polished with medium to fine fabric. Similar to red pottery found around the same time in central asia.
  • Got assimilated into Indian culture entirely. Introduced better cavalry and horse-riding, reins and saddles. Numerous equestrian terracotta figurines excavated from Begram, Afg.
  • Introduced turbans, tunics, trousers and heavy long coats. Also cap, helmet, boots worn by warriors.
  • Enriched contacts with central asia. Was a major source of gold mined
    from Atlas mountains. Gold also recovered due to trade with Rome. Plus, due to tolls levied by Kushans on the traders of Silk Route, which passed through their kingdom.
  • Led to development of feudatory organization. Divided kingdom into satrapies, each under a satrap. Also introduced military governorship (Greeks called their governors “strategos”). Called themselves “King of Kings”. Strengthened the idea of divine origin of kingship.
    Since they came as conquerors, they were assimilated into Brahmanical system as Kshatriyas. Manu termed them second class kshatriyas. In no other time were foreigners assimilated into Indian society on such a large scale as in post-Maurya times.
  • Some converted to Vaishnavism, some to Buddhism. Greek ambassador Heliodorus set up a pillar in honour of Vishnu near Vidisha (MP). Some Kushans worshipped Shiva and Buddha and images of both appear on Kushan coins.
  • Led to creation of Mahayana and Hinayana. Led to development of Gandhara School of Art in which images of Buddha were made in Greco- Roman style. The influence also spread to Mathura, which was predominantly an indigenous school. Mathura school produced beautiful images of Buddha, headless statue of Kaniskha and stone images of Mahavira. Products made of red sandstone.
  • Buddhist caves carved out of rocks in Maharashtra. Nagarjunkonda and Amravati became centres of Buddhist art and stories of Buddha were portrayed in numerous panels, earliest being Gaya, Sanchi and Bharhut.
  • Literature. Patronized Sanskrit. Ashvaghosh wrote Buddhacharita (Buddha’s biography) and Saundarananda (Sanskrit poem). Numerous avadanas due to Mahayana Buddhism. Most texts in Buddhist-hybrid Sanskrit. Mahavastu and Divyavadana.
  • Theatre. Introduced curtain. Called Yavanika. Later, all foreigners came to be called Yavanas.
  • Indian astrology was influenced by Greek ideas but not medicine, botany and chemistry.
    Charaksamhita = Numerous plants herbs from which drugs are to be prepared. Processes laid down for mixing of plants. Plants = oshadhi and medicine derived from them = aushadhi.
  • Technology improved due to Roman contacts. Leather shoes, minted coins etc. Received a boost. Glass-making advanced more in this    period than in any other period.
  • Kanishk sent envoys to preach Buddhism in China and central asia. From China, Buddhism spread to Japan and Korea. Monks like Fa Hsien and Hiuen Tsang came to India to learn more about Buddhism. Indians learnt art of growing silk from Chinese and they learnt the art of painting Buddha from Indians.
The document Old NCERT Summary (RS Sharma): Central Asian Contacts & their Results Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC CSE.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC
155 videos|432 docs|303 tests

How to Prepare for UPSC

Read our guide to prepare for UPSC which is created by Toppers & the best Teachers

Download free EduRev App

Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!

Related Searches

Extra Questions

,

Objective type Questions

,

Important questions

,

Exam

,

past year papers

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Free

,

ppt

,

Semester Notes

,

Old NCERT Summary (RS Sharma): Central Asian Contacts & their Results Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

,

pdf

,

video lectures

,

Viva Questions

,

study material

,

MCQs

,

Old NCERT Summary (RS Sharma): Central Asian Contacts & their Results Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

practice quizzes

,

Old NCERT Summary (RS Sharma): Central Asian Contacts & their Results Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

,

mock tests for examination

,

Summary

,

Sample Paper

;