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Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)

Document Description: Operational Amplifiers - 1 for Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) 2022 is part of Function Generator & 555 Timer for Analog Circuits preparation. The notes and questions for Operational Amplifiers - 1 have been prepared according to the Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) exam syllabus. Information about Operational Amplifiers - 1 covers topics like Introduction and Operational Amplifiers - 1 Example, for Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Operational Amplifiers - 1.

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Introduction
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Introduction

An operational amplifier (Op-Amp) is an integrated circuit that amplifies the difference between two input voltages and produces a single output. From signal point of view, the Op-Amp has two input terminals and one output terminal as shown in figure below.
Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)

Characteristics of Ideal Op-Amp

The ideal Op-Amp senses the difference between two input signals and amplifies this difference to produce an output signal. The output terminal voltage is the voltage at the output terminal measured with respect to ground.
The ideal Op Amp equivalent is shown in figure below:
Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)

Here,
AOL = open loop gain

  1. It has infinite input impedance and zero output impedance.
  2. The common mode gain is zero (or) equivalently, common mode rejection ratio is infinite.
  3. The open loop gain of ideal op-amp is infinite
  4. The ideal op-amp has infinite bandwidth and infinite slew-rate.
  5. We stated that if the open loop gain (AOL) is very high, then the two input V1 and V2 must be nearly equal. Since, if V2 is at ground potential, voltage V1 must also be approximately zero volts as shown below.
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)Voltage Controlled Voltage Source
    Voltage Controlled Voltage Source

Transfer Characteristics of Op Amp

Transfer characteristics equation of Op-Amp:
Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
Transfer characteristics of Op AmpTransfer characteristics of Op Amp

Feedback in Op Amp

  1. Negative Feedback:
    Non-Inverting Amplifier
    Non-Inverting Amplifier
    Here, Closed loop gain
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
    Conclusion: When the Op-Amp relates to negative feedback, the voltage gain will reduce.
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
  2. Positive Feedback:
    Positive Feedback Amplifier
    Positive Feedback Amplifier

Note: Multivibrator works in open or closed loop of positive feedback.

Virtual-Ground and Comparator

  • Virtual ground theory is applicable only in “Negative feedback”. It is not applicable in positive feedback and open loop.
  • Comparator theory is applicable for open loop and positive feedback.
    Table: Comparison between Negative feedback and Open-loop
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)

Slew-Rate

Slew rate is defined as the maximum rate at which amplifier output can change. It is expressed in Volts per microsecond (V/μs) i.e.
Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
Here, ∆V0 = Small change in output voltage in a small interval ∆t.
In terms of input voltage, slew rate can be expressed as:
Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
Here, ACL = closed loop gain,
∆Vi = Small change in input voltage in a small interval ∆t

Differential and Common Mode operation

  1. Differential Inputs
    When separate inputs are applied to the op-Amp, the resulting difference signal is the difference between the two inputs
    i.e.
    Vd = Vi1 – Vi2
    Here, Vi1, Vi2 = inputs to the op-Amp.
  2. Common Inputs
    If there is no difference between the input signals, a common signal element due to the two input signals can be defined as the average of the sum of the two signals.
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
    Here, Vi1, Vi2 are the inputs to the Op-Amp.
  3. Output-Voltage

    Since, any signal applied to an Op-Amp is generally have both in phase and out of phase components, the resulting output can be expressed as:
    V0 = AdVd + AcVc
    Here,
    Ad = differential voltage
    Vc = Common voltage
    Ad = Differential gain of the amplifier
    Ac = common mode gain of the amplifier

  4. Common Mode Rejection Ratio: (CMRR)
    CMRR is defined as the ratio of differential voltage gain to the common mode gain.
    i.e.   CMRR = Ad/Ac
    In decibels, we may express
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)

Applications of Operational amplifiers

  • Inverting Amplifier
  • Non-inverting Amplifier
  • Differentiator
  • Differential Amplifier
  • Voltage follower
  • Selective inversion circuit
  • Current-to-voltage converter
  • Active rectifier
  • Integrator
  • Comparator
  • Filters
  • Voltage comparator
  • Signal Amplifier
  1. Inverting-Amplifier
    The voltage gain for the inverting Amplifier is given by:
    Av = -Rf/R1
    Below figure shows the inverting amplifier.
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
  2. Non-Inverting Amplifier
    The voltage gain for the non-inverting amplifier is given by:
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
    Non-Inverting Amplifier

    Non-Inverting Amplifier

  3. Voltage Adder
    (i) Inverting Adder
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
    (ii) Non-Inverting Adder
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
  4. Voltage Subtractor Circuit
    A Voltage Subtractor circuit consist of an inverting amplifier and a summing amplifier. Output of the inverting amplifier is given by:
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)So, the output voltage of the summing amplifier is obtained as:
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
    Voltage Subtractor Circuit
    Voltage Subtractor Circuit
  5. Difference Amplifier
    Consider the difference amplifier shown below:
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)Applying Superposition, we consider only one input at a time as shown in below figures.When only V1 is present,
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)When only source V2 Is present, the output Is
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
    Now, on adding V01 and V02
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
    Then, the net output voltage = V0 = R2/R1 (V2 - V1)
  6. Differentiator Circuit
    Differentiator circuit
    Differentiator circuit
    Applying KCL at Inverting node, we have
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
    It exhibits a zero at origin, so the circuit acts as a differentiator (high pass filter) We can also use the input-output relationship in time domain as:
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
  7. Integrator Circuit
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)Applying KCL at inverting terminal, we have
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
    Since, the transfer function shows a pole at the origin, the circuit operates as an Integrator (low-pass filter)
    Input-output relation in time domain Is —
    Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
The document Operational Amplifiers - 1 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) is a part of the Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) Course Analog Circuits.
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