Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev

Analog Circuits

Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) : Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev

The document Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) Course Analog Circuits.
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Schmitt Trigger

The Schmitt trigger or Bistable multivibrator uses positive feedback with loop gain greater than unity to produce a bistable characteristics as shown below
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRevInverting Schmitt Trigger

Here,
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRevVoltage Transfer Characteristics as input voltage increases

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRevVoltage Transfer Characteristics as input voltage decreases

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRevNet Voltage Transfer Characteristics showing Hysteresis EffectHere,
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev

Precision Rectifier

Below figure shows a Precision rectifier and its input and output waveform.

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev

For positive value of Vi, diode will be ON. and for negative value of Vi, diode will be OFF as shown below.
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRevEquivalent Circuit of Precision Rectifier for Positive value of Vi

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRevEquivalent Circuit of Precision Rectifier foe Negative value of Vi

From the above circuit, we observe that
For Vi > 0, diode will be OFF, so V0 = 0
For Vi < 0, diode will be ON, so V0 = Vi
Thus, we obtain the voltage transfer characteristics for the precision rectifier as shown below
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRevVoltage Transfer Characteristics for Precision Rectifier

Instrumentation Amplifier

It consists of two non-inverting amplifiers and one difference amplifier.

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRevInstumentation Amplifier

The output voltages of the two non-inverting amplifiers are given by:
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev

Thus, we obtain the net output of the instrumentation amplifier as

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev

Astable Multivibrator

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev Astable Multivibrator

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRevWaveform

Here,
TC = charging time
Td = discharging time
V0 = Vfinal + [Vinitial – Vfinal]e–t/RC
Here,
Vinitial = βVsat
Vfinal = –Vsat
V0 = –βVsat
∴ –βVsat = –Vsat + [βVsat + Vsat]e–Td/RC
(1 – β) Vsat = (1 + β) Vsat .e–Td/RC
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev
Frequency of square wave generator

Bistable Multivibrator

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRevBistable Multivibrator

Here, a to b changes only after triggering and before triggering, it will be
constant = +Vsat  

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev

Monostable Multivibrator

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRev Monostable Multivibrator

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | EduRevWaveform

Time Period of Monostable Multivibrator:
TP = 0.693RC


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