Operational Amplifiers - 2

# Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)

## Document Description: Operational Amplifiers - 2 for Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) 2022 is part of Function Generator & 555 Timer for Analog Circuits preparation. The notes and questions for Operational Amplifiers - 2 have been prepared according to the Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) exam syllabus. Information about Operational Amplifiers - 2 covers topics like and Operational Amplifiers - 2 Example, for Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Operational Amplifiers - 2.

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Schmitt Trigger

The Schmitt trigger or Bistable multivibrator uses positive feedback with loop gain greater than unity to produce a bistable characteristics as shown below
Inverting Schmitt Trigger

Here,

Voltage Transfer Characteristics as input voltage increases

Voltage Transfer Characteristics as input voltage decreases

Net Voltage Transfer Characteristics showing Hysteresis EffectHere,

Precision Rectifier

Below figure shows a Precision rectifier and its input and output waveform.

For positive value of Vi, diode will be ON. and for negative value of Vi, diode will be OFF as shown below.
Equivalent Circuit of Precision Rectifier for Positive value of Vi

Equivalent Circuit of Precision Rectifier foe Negative value of Vi

From the above circuit, we observe that
For Vi > 0, diode will be OFF, so V0 = 0
For Vi < 0, diode will be ON, so V0 = Vi
Thus, we obtain the voltage transfer characteristics for the precision rectifier as shown below
Voltage Transfer Characteristics for Precision Rectifier

Instrumentation Amplifier

It consists of two non-inverting amplifiers and one difference amplifier.

Instumentation Amplifier

The output voltages of the two non-inverting amplifiers are given by:

Thus, we obtain the net output of the instrumentation amplifier as

Astable Multivibrator

Astable Multivibrator

Waveform

Here,
TC = charging time
Td = discharging time
V0 = Vfinal + [Vinitial – Vfinal]e–t/RC
Here,
Vinitial = βVsat
Vfinal = –Vsat
V0 = –βVsat
∴ –βVsat = –Vsat + [βVsat + Vsat]e–Td/RC
(1 – β) Vsat = (1 + β) Vsat .e–Td/RC

Frequency of square wave generator

Bistable Multivibrator

Bistable Multivibrator

Here, a to b changes only after triggering and before triggering, it will be
constant = +Vsat

Monostable Multivibrator

Monostable Multivibrator

Waveform

Time Period of Monostable Multivibrator:
TP = 0.693RC

The document Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) is a part of the Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) Course Analog Circuits.
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