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The Schmitt trigger or Bistable multivibrator uses positive feedback with loop gain greater than unity to produce a bistable characteristics as shown below
Inverting Schmitt Trigger
Here,
Voltage Transfer Characteristics as input voltage increases
Voltage Transfer Characteristics as input voltage decreases
Net Voltage Transfer Characteristics showing Hysteresis EffectHere,
Below figure shows a Precision rectifier and its input and output waveform.
For positive value of V_{i}, diode will be ON. and for negative value of V_{i}, diode will be OFF as shown below.
Equivalent Circuit of Precision Rectifier for Positive value of V_{i}
Equivalent Circuit of Precision Rectifier foe Negative value of V_{i}
From the above circuit, we observe that
For V_{i} > 0, diode will be OFF, so V_{0} = 0
For V_{i} < 0, diode will be ON, so V_{0} = V_{i}
Thus, we obtain the voltage transfer characteristics for the precision rectifier as shown below
Voltage Transfer Characteristics for Precision Rectifier
It consists of two noninverting amplifiers and one difference amplifier.
Instumentation Amplifier
The output voltages of the two noninverting amplifiers are given by:
Thus, we obtain the net output of the instrumentation amplifier as
Astable Multivibrator
Waveform
Here,
T_{C} = charging time
T_{d} = discharging time
V_{0} = V_{final} + [V_{initial} – V_{final}]e^{–t/RC}
Here,
V_{initial} = βV_{sat}
V_{final} = –V_{sat}
V_{0} = –βV_{sat}
∴ –βV_{sat} = –V_{sat} + [βV_{sat} + V_{sat}]e^{–Td/RC}
(1 – β) V_{sat} = (1 + β) V_{sat} .e^{–Td/RC}
Frequency of square wave generator
Bistable Multivibrator
Here, a to b changes only after triggering and before triggering, it will be
constant = +V_{sat}
Monostable Multivibrator
Waveform
Time Period of Monostable Multivibrator:
T_{P} = 0.693RC
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