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Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)

Document Description: Operational Amplifiers - 2 for Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) 2022 is part of Function Generator & 555 Timer for Analog Circuits preparation. The notes and questions for Operational Amplifiers - 2 have been prepared according to the Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) exam syllabus. Information about Operational Amplifiers - 2 covers topics like and Operational Amplifiers - 2 Example, for Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Operational Amplifiers - 2.

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Schmitt Trigger

The Schmitt trigger or Bistable multivibrator uses positive feedback with loop gain greater than unity to produce a bistable characteristics as shown below
Inverting Schmitt TriggerInverting Schmitt Trigger

Here,
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
Voltage Transfer Characteristics as input voltage increasesVoltage Transfer Characteristics as input voltage increases

Voltage Transfer Characteristics as input voltage decreasesVoltage Transfer Characteristics as input voltage decreases

Net Voltage Transfer Characteristics showing Hysteresis EffectNet Voltage Transfer Characteristics showing Hysteresis EffectHere,
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)

Precision Rectifier

Below figure shows a Precision rectifier and its input and output waveform.

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)

For positive value of Vi, diode will be ON. and for negative value of Vi, diode will be OFF as shown below.
Equivalent Circuit of Precision Rectifier for Positive value of ViEquivalent Circuit of Precision Rectifier for Positive value of Vi

Equivalent Circuit of Precision Rectifier foe Negative value of ViEquivalent Circuit of Precision Rectifier foe Negative value of Vi

From the above circuit, we observe that
For Vi > 0, diode will be OFF, so V0 = 0
For Vi < 0, diode will be ON, so V0 = Vi
Thus, we obtain the voltage transfer characteristics for the precision rectifier as shown below
Voltage Transfer Characteristics for Precision RectifierVoltage Transfer Characteristics for Precision Rectifier

Instrumentation Amplifier

It consists of two non-inverting amplifiers and one difference amplifier.

Instumentation AmplifierInstumentation Amplifier

The output voltages of the two non-inverting amplifiers are given by:
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)

Thus, we obtain the net output of the instrumentation amplifier as

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)

Astable Multivibrator

 Astable Multivibrator Astable Multivibrator

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)

WaveformWaveform

Here,
TC = charging time
Td = discharging time
V0 = Vfinal + [Vinitial – Vfinal]e–t/RC
Here,
Vinitial = βVsat
Vfinal = –Vsat
V0 = –βVsat
∴ –βVsat = –Vsat + [βVsat + Vsat]e–Td/RC
(1 – β) Vsat = (1 + β) Vsat .e–Td/RC
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
Frequency of square wave generator

Bistable Multivibrator

Bistable MultivibratorBistable Multivibrator

Here, a to b changes only after triggering and before triggering, it will be
constant = +Vsat  

Operational Amplifiers - 2 Notes | Study Analog Circuits - Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)

Monostable Multivibrator

 Monostable Multivibrator Monostable Multivibrator

WaveformWaveform

Time Period of Monostable Multivibrator:
TP = 0.693RC

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