Organic Name Reaction MBBS Notes | EduRev

MBBS : Organic Name Reaction MBBS Notes | EduRev

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Grade 12   
 
Organic Chemistry – Specific Name Reactions 
 
Class XII 
Sandmeyer Reaction 
The Cl , Br and CN nucleophiles can easily be introduced in the benzene ring of benzene diazonium salt in the 
presence of Cu(I) ion. This reaction is called Sandmeyer reaction. 
 
  
 
Gatterman Reaction 
Chlorine or bromine can be introduced in the benzene ring by treating the benzene diazonium salt solution with 
corresponding halogen acid in the presence of copper powder. This is referred as Gatterman reaction. 
  
Note: The yield in Sandmeyer reaction is found to be better than Gattermann reaction. 
Balz-Schiemann Reaction 
When arenediazonium chloride is treated with fluoroboric acid, arene diazonium fluoroborate is precipitated 
which on heating decomposes to yield aryl fluoride. 
  
 
Finkelstein Reaction 
Alkyl iodides are often prepared by the reaction of alkyl chlorides/ bromides with NaI in dry acetone. This 
reaction is known as Finkelstein reaction. 
  
Note: This reaction in forward direction can be favoured by precipitating NaX formed in dry acetone (according 
to Le Chatelier’s principle). 
 
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Grade 12   
 
Organic Chemistry – Specific Name Reactions 
 
Class XII 
Sandmeyer Reaction 
The Cl , Br and CN nucleophiles can easily be introduced in the benzene ring of benzene diazonium salt in the 
presence of Cu(I) ion. This reaction is called Sandmeyer reaction. 
 
  
 
Gatterman Reaction 
Chlorine or bromine can be introduced in the benzene ring by treating the benzene diazonium salt solution with 
corresponding halogen acid in the presence of copper powder. This is referred as Gatterman reaction. 
  
Note: The yield in Sandmeyer reaction is found to be better than Gattermann reaction. 
Balz-Schiemann Reaction 
When arenediazonium chloride is treated with fluoroboric acid, arene diazonium fluoroborate is precipitated 
which on heating decomposes to yield aryl fluoride. 
  
 
Finkelstein Reaction 
Alkyl iodides are often prepared by the reaction of alkyl chlorides/ bromides with NaI in dry acetone. This 
reaction is known as Finkelstein reaction. 
  
Note: This reaction in forward direction can be favoured by precipitating NaX formed in dry acetone (according 
to Le Chatelier’s principle). 
 
Grade 12   
Swarts Reaction 
Heating an alkyl chloride/bromide in the presence of a metallic fluoride such as AgF, Hg
2
F
2
, CoF
2 
or SbF
3
 gives 
alkyl fluorides. The reaction is termed as Swarts reaction. 
  
Note: Finkelstein Reaction and Swarts Reaction are known as halogen exchange reaction. 
Wurtz Reaction  
Alkyl halides react with sodium in dry ether to give hydrocarbons containing double the number of carbon atoms 
present in the halide. This reaction is known as Wurtz reaction. 
  
 
 
 
Wurtz-Fittig Reaction 
A mixture of an alkyl halide and aryl halide gives an alkylarene when treated with sodium in dry ether and is 
called Wurtz-Fittig reaction. 
 
 
Fittig Reaction 
Aryl halides also give analogous compounds when treated with sodium in dry ether, in which two aryl groups are 
joined together. It is called Fittig reaction. 
 
 
Friedel-Crafts alkylation Reaction 
When benzene is treated with an alkyl halide in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride, alkylbenene is 
formed. 
 
 
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Grade 12   
 
Organic Chemistry – Specific Name Reactions 
 
Class XII 
Sandmeyer Reaction 
The Cl , Br and CN nucleophiles can easily be introduced in the benzene ring of benzene diazonium salt in the 
presence of Cu(I) ion. This reaction is called Sandmeyer reaction. 
 
  
 
Gatterman Reaction 
Chlorine or bromine can be introduced in the benzene ring by treating the benzene diazonium salt solution with 
corresponding halogen acid in the presence of copper powder. This is referred as Gatterman reaction. 
  
Note: The yield in Sandmeyer reaction is found to be better than Gattermann reaction. 
Balz-Schiemann Reaction 
When arenediazonium chloride is treated with fluoroboric acid, arene diazonium fluoroborate is precipitated 
which on heating decomposes to yield aryl fluoride. 
  
 
Finkelstein Reaction 
Alkyl iodides are often prepared by the reaction of alkyl chlorides/ bromides with NaI in dry acetone. This 
reaction is known as Finkelstein reaction. 
  
Note: This reaction in forward direction can be favoured by precipitating NaX formed in dry acetone (according 
to Le Chatelier’s principle). 
 
Grade 12   
Swarts Reaction 
Heating an alkyl chloride/bromide in the presence of a metallic fluoride such as AgF, Hg
2
F
2
, CoF
2 
or SbF
3
 gives 
alkyl fluorides. The reaction is termed as Swarts reaction. 
  
Note: Finkelstein Reaction and Swarts Reaction are known as halogen exchange reaction. 
Wurtz Reaction  
Alkyl halides react with sodium in dry ether to give hydrocarbons containing double the number of carbon atoms 
present in the halide. This reaction is known as Wurtz reaction. 
  
 
 
 
Wurtz-Fittig Reaction 
A mixture of an alkyl halide and aryl halide gives an alkylarene when treated with sodium in dry ether and is 
called Wurtz-Fittig reaction. 
 
 
Fittig Reaction 
Aryl halides also give analogous compounds when treated with sodium in dry ether, in which two aryl groups are 
joined together. It is called Fittig reaction. 
 
 
Friedel-Crafts alkylation Reaction 
When benzene is treated with an alkyl halide in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride, alkylbenene is 
formed. 
 
 
Grade 12   
 
 
 
Note: Aromatic carboxylic acids do not undergo Friedel-Crafts reaction because the carboxyl group is 
deactivating and the catalyst aluminium chloride (Lewis acid) gets bonded to the carboxyl group. 
 
 
 
Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction  
The reaction of benzene with an acyl halide or acid anhydride in the presence of Lewis acids (AlCl
3
) yields acyl 
benzene. 
 
 
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RE MOVE D (O N LY FOR CO PYRIGHT ISS UES) .
Grade 12   
 
Organic Chemistry – Specific Name Reactions 
 
Class XII 
Sandmeyer Reaction 
The Cl , Br and CN nucleophiles can easily be introduced in the benzene ring of benzene diazonium salt in the 
presence of Cu(I) ion. This reaction is called Sandmeyer reaction. 
 
  
 
Gatterman Reaction 
Chlorine or bromine can be introduced in the benzene ring by treating the benzene diazonium salt solution with 
corresponding halogen acid in the presence of copper powder. This is referred as Gatterman reaction. 
  
Note: The yield in Sandmeyer reaction is found to be better than Gattermann reaction. 
Balz-Schiemann Reaction 
When arenediazonium chloride is treated with fluoroboric acid, arene diazonium fluoroborate is precipitated 
which on heating decomposes to yield aryl fluoride. 
  
 
Finkelstein Reaction 
Alkyl iodides are often prepared by the reaction of alkyl chlorides/ bromides with NaI in dry acetone. This 
reaction is known as Finkelstein reaction. 
  
Note: This reaction in forward direction can be favoured by precipitating NaX formed in dry acetone (according 
to Le Chatelier’s principle). 
 
Grade 12   
Swarts Reaction 
Heating an alkyl chloride/bromide in the presence of a metallic fluoride such as AgF, Hg
2
F
2
, CoF
2 
or SbF
3
 gives 
alkyl fluorides. The reaction is termed as Swarts reaction. 
  
Note: Finkelstein Reaction and Swarts Reaction are known as halogen exchange reaction. 
Wurtz Reaction  
Alkyl halides react with sodium in dry ether to give hydrocarbons containing double the number of carbon atoms 
present in the halide. This reaction is known as Wurtz reaction. 
  
 
 
 
Wurtz-Fittig Reaction 
A mixture of an alkyl halide and aryl halide gives an alkylarene when treated with sodium in dry ether and is 
called Wurtz-Fittig reaction. 
 
 
Fittig Reaction 
Aryl halides also give analogous compounds when treated with sodium in dry ether, in which two aryl groups are 
joined together. It is called Fittig reaction. 
 
 
Friedel-Crafts alkylation Reaction 
When benzene is treated with an alkyl halide in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride, alkylbenene is 
formed. 
 
 
Grade 12   
 
 
 
Note: Aromatic carboxylic acids do not undergo Friedel-Crafts reaction because the carboxyl group is 
deactivating and the catalyst aluminium chloride (Lewis acid) gets bonded to the carboxyl group. 
 
 
 
Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction  
The reaction of benzene with an acyl halide or acid anhydride in the presence of Lewis acids (AlCl
3
) yields acyl 
benzene. 
 
 
Grade 12   
 
 
 
 
Reimer-Tiemann Reaction 
On treating phenol with chloroform in the presence of sodium hydroxide, a –CHO group is introduced at ortho 
position of benzene ring resulting salicylaldehyde. This reaction is known as Reimer - Tiemann reaction. 
 
 
 
Kolbe’s Reaction 
Phenol with sodium hydroxide gives sodium phenoxide ion which with carbon dioxide in acidic medium results 
hydroxybenzoic acid (salicylic acid). This is known as Kolbe’s reaction. 
 
 
 
 
Rosenmund Reduction 
Acyl chloride (acid chloride) is hydrogenated over catalyst, palladium on barium sulphate. This reaction is called 
Rosenmund reduction. 
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