Our Environment Notes | EduRev

Science for Class 10 - Short Notes

Class 10 : Our Environment Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Our Environment
Environment & Ecosystem
? Things around us are known as Environment.
? It consists of a living component also known as the abiotic component and a
non-living component also known as Abiotic Component.
? The interaction between abiotic and biotic components is defined as an
ecosystem.
? It is a self-sustaining and functional unit of the biosphere.
? The term ecosystem was coined by Sir Arthur Tansley
Types of Ecosystem
? There are two types of the ecosystem- natural ecosystem and artificial
ecosystem. The ecosystem present naturally is known as Natural Ecosystem.
? Examples of Natural ecosystems are forests, grasslands, deserts, ponds, lakes,
rivers, estuaries, sea.
? The ecosystem which is man-made is known as an Artificial Ecosystem.
? For Example Gardens, Aquariums, and Agroecosystem which is the largest
manmade ecosystem.
? Components of Ecosystem-
? Abiotic Components Include
Climatic factors such as rain, temperature, wind, etc. Another abiotic factor is
edaphic factors such as soil, pH, minerals, etc.
Page 2


Our Environment
Environment & Ecosystem
? Things around us are known as Environment.
? It consists of a living component also known as the abiotic component and a
non-living component also known as Abiotic Component.
? The interaction between abiotic and biotic components is defined as an
ecosystem.
? It is a self-sustaining and functional unit of the biosphere.
? The term ecosystem was coined by Sir Arthur Tansley
Types of Ecosystem
? There are two types of the ecosystem- natural ecosystem and artificial
ecosystem. The ecosystem present naturally is known as Natural Ecosystem.
? Examples of Natural ecosystems are forests, grasslands, deserts, ponds, lakes,
rivers, estuaries, sea.
? The ecosystem which is man-made is known as an Artificial Ecosystem.
? For Example Gardens, Aquariums, and Agroecosystem which is the largest
manmade ecosystem.
? Components of Ecosystem-
? Abiotic Components Include
Climatic factors such as rain, temperature, wind, etc. Another abiotic factor is
edaphic factors such as soil, pH, minerals, etc.
? Biotic Components Include
Producers can make their own food, such as plants, blue-green algae, etc.
Consumers feed on producers. Such as herbivores. In consumers, there are-
primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, etc.
Carnivores are flesh-eating animals.
Omnivores consume both plants and animals.
Parasites live inside and depend upon living host.
Saprophytes feed on the dead remains of plants and animals.
Food Chain and its significance
? The sequence of living organisms in a community in which one organism
consumes another organism to transfer food energy is called a food chain.
? Examples of Food Chains: Simple food chain operating in grassland or forest-
? Grass(Producer) ? Deer(Herbivore) ? Lion(Carnivore)
? In the above food chain, grass represents the producers (first trophic level).
? Grass synthesizes their own food by the process of photosynthesis.
? The grass is eaten up by deer, which represents the herbivores or the primary
consumers. Deer in turn is consumed by lions, carnivores, or secondary
consumers.
? A food chain in grassland which has four steps is:
? Grass(Producers) ? Insect(Herbivores) ? Frog(Carnivores) ? Eagle(Secondary
Carnivore)
? The study of food chains helps in understanding food relationships and
interactions among the various organisms in an ecosystem.
? The food chains, transfer energy and materials between various living
components of an ecosystem.
? The food chains transfer energy and materials between various living
components in an ecosystem or biosphere.
? The food chains give dynamicity to an ecosystem or biosphere.
? The movement of toxic substances like pesticides, weedicides, etc., through food
chains, can prove very harmful.
Page 3


Our Environment
Environment & Ecosystem
? Things around us are known as Environment.
? It consists of a living component also known as the abiotic component and a
non-living component also known as Abiotic Component.
? The interaction between abiotic and biotic components is defined as an
ecosystem.
? It is a self-sustaining and functional unit of the biosphere.
? The term ecosystem was coined by Sir Arthur Tansley
Types of Ecosystem
? There are two types of the ecosystem- natural ecosystem and artificial
ecosystem. The ecosystem present naturally is known as Natural Ecosystem.
? Examples of Natural ecosystems are forests, grasslands, deserts, ponds, lakes,
rivers, estuaries, sea.
? The ecosystem which is man-made is known as an Artificial Ecosystem.
? For Example Gardens, Aquariums, and Agroecosystem which is the largest
manmade ecosystem.
? Components of Ecosystem-
? Abiotic Components Include
Climatic factors such as rain, temperature, wind, etc. Another abiotic factor is
edaphic factors such as soil, pH, minerals, etc.
? Biotic Components Include
Producers can make their own food, such as plants, blue-green algae, etc.
Consumers feed on producers. Such as herbivores. In consumers, there are-
primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, etc.
Carnivores are flesh-eating animals.
Omnivores consume both plants and animals.
Parasites live inside and depend upon living host.
Saprophytes feed on the dead remains of plants and animals.
Food Chain and its significance
? The sequence of living organisms in a community in which one organism
consumes another organism to transfer food energy is called a food chain.
? Examples of Food Chains: Simple food chain operating in grassland or forest-
? Grass(Producer) ? Deer(Herbivore) ? Lion(Carnivore)
? In the above food chain, grass represents the producers (first trophic level).
? Grass synthesizes their own food by the process of photosynthesis.
? The grass is eaten up by deer, which represents the herbivores or the primary
consumers. Deer in turn is consumed by lions, carnivores, or secondary
consumers.
? A food chain in grassland which has four steps is:
? Grass(Producers) ? Insect(Herbivores) ? Frog(Carnivores) ? Eagle(Secondary
Carnivore)
? The study of food chains helps in understanding food relationships and
interactions among the various organisms in an ecosystem.
? The food chains, transfer energy and materials between various living
components of an ecosystem.
? The food chains transfer energy and materials between various living
components in an ecosystem or biosphere.
? The food chains give dynamicity to an ecosystem or biosphere.
? The movement of toxic substances like pesticides, weedicides, etc., through food
chains, can prove very harmful.
Food web
? Interconnection of the food chain is known as Food Web. It shows how the food
chain is interdependent.
? Food webs are never straight as they are formed by the interlinking of food
chains.
? The Food web provides alternative pathways of food availability. If a particular
species is destroyed, the predator can feed on an alternative species.
? Food webs increase ecosystem stability.
Page 4


Our Environment
Environment & Ecosystem
? Things around us are known as Environment.
? It consists of a living component also known as the abiotic component and a
non-living component also known as Abiotic Component.
? The interaction between abiotic and biotic components is defined as an
ecosystem.
? It is a self-sustaining and functional unit of the biosphere.
? The term ecosystem was coined by Sir Arthur Tansley
Types of Ecosystem
? There are two types of the ecosystem- natural ecosystem and artificial
ecosystem. The ecosystem present naturally is known as Natural Ecosystem.
? Examples of Natural ecosystems are forests, grasslands, deserts, ponds, lakes,
rivers, estuaries, sea.
? The ecosystem which is man-made is known as an Artificial Ecosystem.
? For Example Gardens, Aquariums, and Agroecosystem which is the largest
manmade ecosystem.
? Components of Ecosystem-
? Abiotic Components Include
Climatic factors such as rain, temperature, wind, etc. Another abiotic factor is
edaphic factors such as soil, pH, minerals, etc.
? Biotic Components Include
Producers can make their own food, such as plants, blue-green algae, etc.
Consumers feed on producers. Such as herbivores. In consumers, there are-
primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, etc.
Carnivores are flesh-eating animals.
Omnivores consume both plants and animals.
Parasites live inside and depend upon living host.
Saprophytes feed on the dead remains of plants and animals.
Food Chain and its significance
? The sequence of living organisms in a community in which one organism
consumes another organism to transfer food energy is called a food chain.
? Examples of Food Chains: Simple food chain operating in grassland or forest-
? Grass(Producer) ? Deer(Herbivore) ? Lion(Carnivore)
? In the above food chain, grass represents the producers (first trophic level).
? Grass synthesizes their own food by the process of photosynthesis.
? The grass is eaten up by deer, which represents the herbivores or the primary
consumers. Deer in turn is consumed by lions, carnivores, or secondary
consumers.
? A food chain in grassland which has four steps is:
? Grass(Producers) ? Insect(Herbivores) ? Frog(Carnivores) ? Eagle(Secondary
Carnivore)
? The study of food chains helps in understanding food relationships and
interactions among the various organisms in an ecosystem.
? The food chains, transfer energy and materials between various living
components of an ecosystem.
? The food chains transfer energy and materials between various living
components in an ecosystem or biosphere.
? The food chains give dynamicity to an ecosystem or biosphere.
? The movement of toxic substances like pesticides, weedicides, etc., through food
chains, can prove very harmful.
Food web
? Interconnection of the food chain is known as Food Web. It shows how the food
chain is interdependent.
? Food webs are never straight as they are formed by the interlinking of food
chains.
? The Food web provides alternative pathways of food availability. If a particular
species is destroyed, the predator can feed on an alternative species.
? Food webs increase ecosystem stability.
Trophic Levels
? The various steps in the food chain at which the transfer of food (or energy) takes
place is called trophic levels.
? There is a gradual decrease in the amount of energy transfer from one trophic
level to the next trophic level in a food chain.
? The plant or the producers constitute the first trophic level.
? The herbivores or primary consumers form the second trophic level.
? Carnivores or secondary consumers make up the third trophic level.
? Large carnivores or the tertiary consumers which feed upon the small carnivores
constitute the fourth trophic level.
? A 10 percent law is followed in energy transfer which was given by Raymond
Lindeman.
? This law states that “only 10 percent of energy is transferred from one trophic
level to another trophic level”.
? The remaining 90 percent will be used by the present trophic level in different
processes. Therefore there are usually 3-4 trophic levels in a food chain.
Energy Transfer in Trophic Level
Impact of Human Activities
Biological Magnification
? The concentration of harmful substances increases with every trophic level.
Page 5


Our Environment
Environment & Ecosystem
? Things around us are known as Environment.
? It consists of a living component also known as the abiotic component and a
non-living component also known as Abiotic Component.
? The interaction between abiotic and biotic components is defined as an
ecosystem.
? It is a self-sustaining and functional unit of the biosphere.
? The term ecosystem was coined by Sir Arthur Tansley
Types of Ecosystem
? There are two types of the ecosystem- natural ecosystem and artificial
ecosystem. The ecosystem present naturally is known as Natural Ecosystem.
? Examples of Natural ecosystems are forests, grasslands, deserts, ponds, lakes,
rivers, estuaries, sea.
? The ecosystem which is man-made is known as an Artificial Ecosystem.
? For Example Gardens, Aquariums, and Agroecosystem which is the largest
manmade ecosystem.
? Components of Ecosystem-
? Abiotic Components Include
Climatic factors such as rain, temperature, wind, etc. Another abiotic factor is
edaphic factors such as soil, pH, minerals, etc.
? Biotic Components Include
Producers can make their own food, such as plants, blue-green algae, etc.
Consumers feed on producers. Such as herbivores. In consumers, there are-
primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, etc.
Carnivores are flesh-eating animals.
Omnivores consume both plants and animals.
Parasites live inside and depend upon living host.
Saprophytes feed on the dead remains of plants and animals.
Food Chain and its significance
? The sequence of living organisms in a community in which one organism
consumes another organism to transfer food energy is called a food chain.
? Examples of Food Chains: Simple food chain operating in grassland or forest-
? Grass(Producer) ? Deer(Herbivore) ? Lion(Carnivore)
? In the above food chain, grass represents the producers (first trophic level).
? Grass synthesizes their own food by the process of photosynthesis.
? The grass is eaten up by deer, which represents the herbivores or the primary
consumers. Deer in turn is consumed by lions, carnivores, or secondary
consumers.
? A food chain in grassland which has four steps is:
? Grass(Producers) ? Insect(Herbivores) ? Frog(Carnivores) ? Eagle(Secondary
Carnivore)
? The study of food chains helps in understanding food relationships and
interactions among the various organisms in an ecosystem.
? The food chains, transfer energy and materials between various living
components of an ecosystem.
? The food chains transfer energy and materials between various living
components in an ecosystem or biosphere.
? The food chains give dynamicity to an ecosystem or biosphere.
? The movement of toxic substances like pesticides, weedicides, etc., through food
chains, can prove very harmful.
Food web
? Interconnection of the food chain is known as Food Web. It shows how the food
chain is interdependent.
? Food webs are never straight as they are formed by the interlinking of food
chains.
? The Food web provides alternative pathways of food availability. If a particular
species is destroyed, the predator can feed on an alternative species.
? Food webs increase ecosystem stability.
Trophic Levels
? The various steps in the food chain at which the transfer of food (or energy) takes
place is called trophic levels.
? There is a gradual decrease in the amount of energy transfer from one trophic
level to the next trophic level in a food chain.
? The plant or the producers constitute the first trophic level.
? The herbivores or primary consumers form the second trophic level.
? Carnivores or secondary consumers make up the third trophic level.
? Large carnivores or the tertiary consumers which feed upon the small carnivores
constitute the fourth trophic level.
? A 10 percent law is followed in energy transfer which was given by Raymond
Lindeman.
? This law states that “only 10 percent of energy is transferred from one trophic
level to another trophic level”.
? The remaining 90 percent will be used by the present trophic level in different
processes. Therefore there are usually 3-4 trophic levels in a food chain.
Energy Transfer in Trophic Level
Impact of Human Activities
Biological Magnification
? The concentration of harmful substances increases with every trophic level.
? This is known as Biomagnification.
? The addition of pesticides in one trophic level increases the concentration of
pesticides in another trophic level.
Ozone Layer and its Depletion
? High UV radiation breaks down oxygen into oxygen atoms.
? These oxygen atoms when combining with oxygen, form ozone.
? The thickness of the ozone layer over Antarctica was found to be decreased in
the year 1985. This is defined as ozone depletion.
? This is due to the excessive use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigerators, ACs,
aerosols, etc.
? Thinning of ozone would allow penetration of Ultraviolet rays into the earth’s
atmosphere causing blindness, skin cancers, and mutations.
? In 1987 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) signed an agreement
to limit the usage of CFCs. This is known as Montreal Protocol.
? The consequences of depletion of the Ozone Layer are many.
? Exposure to UV rays causes skin cancer.
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

Objective type Questions

,

Free

,

pdf

,

past year papers

,

Semester Notes

,

Extra Questions

,

Summary

,

Viva Questions

,

Our Environment Notes | EduRev

,

video lectures

,

study material

,

Our Environment Notes | EduRev

,

Sample Paper

,

Important questions

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

mock tests for examination

,

ppt

,

practice quizzes

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Our Environment Notes | EduRev

,

MCQs

,

Exam

;