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Overview: Eukaryotic Cells Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET

Document Description: Overview: Eukaryotic Cells for NEET 2022 is part of Biology Class 11 preparation. The notes and questions for Overview: Eukaryotic Cells have been prepared according to the NEET exam syllabus. Information about Overview: Eukaryotic Cells covers topics like Eukaryotic CellsThe eukaryotes include all the protists, plants, animals and fungi. , An Overview of Eucaryotic Cell and Overview: Eukaryotic Cells Example, for NEET 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Overview: Eukaryotic Cells.

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Eukaryotic CellsThe eukaryotes include all the protists, plants, animals and fungi. 
An Overview of Eucaryotic Cell
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Eukaryotic Cells
The eukaryotes include all the protists, plants, animals and fungi. 

  • In eukaryotic cells, there is extensive compartmentalization of cytoplasm through the presence of membrane-bound organelles. 
  • Eukaryotic cells possess an organized nucleus with a nuclear envelope. 
  • In addition, eukaryotic cells have a variety of complex locomotory and cytoskeletal structures. 

Overview: Eukaryotic Cells Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEETPlant cell

  • Their genetic material is organized into chromosomes. 
  • All eukaryotic cells are not identical. 
  • Plant and animal cells are different as the former possess cell walls, plastids and a large central vacuole which are absent in animal cells. 
  • On the other hand, animal cells have centrioles which are absent in almost all plant cells.

Overview: Eukaryotic Cells Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEETAnimal cell

Differences between Plant Cell and Animal Cell

Overview: Eukaryotic Cells Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET

An Overview of Eucaryotic Cell

  • A plant cell consists of a cell wall and protoplast. 
  • The cell wall is absent in animal cells. 
  • Protoplast denotes the whole protoplasm present in a cell. 
  • It is differentiated into plasma membrane (= plasmalemma or cell membrane), cytoplasm, nucleus and vacuoles. 
  • The cytoplasm is distinguishable into cytoplasmic matrix and organelles. 
  • Cytoplasmic matrix is also called hyaloplasm. 
  • It is a polyphasic colloidal system that exists in two states, sol and gel. 
  • The gel form usually occurs near the plasma membrane. 
  • This region is sometimes called ectoplast in contrast to the sol region known as endoplast. 
  • Ectoplast is firmer. 
  • It is quite conspicuous on the free sides of the cells. 
  • In protozoans, ectoplast is prominent on all sides. 
  • Cytoplasmic matrix is generally in perpetual motion. 
  • The phenomenon is called cyclosis, cytoplasmic or protoplasmic streaming.
  • Cytoplasmic matrix occupies the volume of the cells. 
  • It is the major arena of cellular activities that keep a cell in its living state.
  • In the cytoplasmic matrix are embedded a large number of cell organelles or organized protoplasmic subunits having specific functions. 
  • They are endoplasmic reticulum, plastids, mitochondria, ribosomes, Golgi bodies, centrioles (central apparatus, centrosome), lysosomes, sphaerosomes, peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, vacuoles, microtubules, microfilaments, etc. 
  • Some of them have membrane covering while others are without the same. 
  • Doubling membrane covering occurs around plastids and mitochondria. 
  • The single membrane covering is found over the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, sphaerosomes, peroxisomes, glyoxysomes and vacuole.
  • Organelles without a membrane covering are ribosomes, microtubules, microfilaments and centrosomes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. 
  • In centrioles (in animal cells), Ribosomes are found over mitochondria.
  • Cell inclusions include starch, glycogen granules, fat droplets, aleurone grains, excretory or secretory products and crystals. 
  • The nucleus is also embedded in the cytoplasmic matrix. 
  • It is surrounded by a double membrane envelope and contains nucleoplasm, one or more nucleoli and chromatin having DNA. 
  • DNA is the genetic material.

Functions of Cell Parts

1. Cell Wall - Shape, rigidity and protection to the cell.

2. Plasma membrane - Regulation of substances leaving or entering a cell.

3. Cytoplasm - 
(a) Endoplasmic Reticulum Cytoskeleton, channelization, synthesis of fats, steroids, proteins, formation of vacuoles and vesicles.
(b) Ribosomes- Protein synthesis.
(c) Mitochondria Krebs cycle, amino acid synthesis, fatty ac synthesis.
(d) Chloroplasts- Photosynthesis.
(e) Amyloplasts- Storage of starch.
(f) Golgi Apparatus- Storage, secretion, excretion, wall synthesis, some chemical transformations, membrane transformation, lysosome formation.
(g) Centrioles- Formation of astral poles, flagella.
(h) Lysosomes- Separation and storage of hydrolytic (digestive) enzymes, digestion, autophagy.
(i) Sphaerosomes- Metabolism, storage and synthesis of fats.
(j) Glyoxysomes- Glyoxylate cycle, conversion of fat to carbohydrates.
(k) Peroxisomes- Photorespiration, peroxide metabolism.
(l) Microtubules- Cytoskeleton, formation of spindle and flagella.
(m) Microfilaments-Holding of membrane proteins, controlling cleavage and cyclosis.
(n) Vacuole- Osmotic pressure, storage.

4. Nucleus - Carrier of hereditary information, control of cell metabolism, synthesis of DNA and RNA, formation of ribosomes, control of reproduction.

Overview: Eukaryotic Cells Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET

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