|Table of contents|
|Introduction of Proposition|
|Types of Prepositions|
|Rules Related to Prepositions|
|Functions of Prepositions with examples|
|Spotting Errors (Prepositions)|
A preposition is a word or group of words used before a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to show direction, time, place, location, spatial relationships, or to introduce an object. Some examples of prepositions are words like "in," "at," "on," "of," and "to." Prepositions in English are highly idiomatic. Although there are some rules for usage, much preposition usage is dictated by fixed expressions. In these cases, it is best to memorize the phrase instead of the individual preposition.
1. Single Prepositions: Prepositions which contain only one word are known as Single Prepositions. For eg- on, at, in, to for, of, from, up, etc.
2. Double Prepositions: When there is more than one word of prepositions present, it is known as Double preposition. For eg- Upto, within, etc.
Compound Preposition: Compound prepositions consist of two or more words.
1. A preposition cannot be followed by a verb. Verb placed immediately after preposition must be in gerund form.
2. When ‘object’ of the preposition is an Interrogative Pronoun What, Who, Whom, Which, Where etc., the preposition usually takes end or front position.
3. When ‘object’ of the preposition is a relative Pronoun ‘that’, the preposition takes end position.
4. When the ‘object’ of the preposition is infinitive (to + verb), preposition is placed after infinitive.
5. In some sentences, preposition is attached with the verb.
6. In interrogative sentences preposition comes in the beginning.
1. Indicating location or position: Prepositions can be used to show the location or position of a noun or pronoun in a sentence.
2. Indicating direction or movement: Prepositions can be used to show the direction or movement of an action.
3. Indicating time: Prepositions can be used to show the time at which something happened or will happen.
4. Indicating possession or ownership: Prepositions can be used to show that something belongs to someone or is owned by someone.
5. Indicating purpose or reason: Prepositions can be used to show the purpose or reason for something.
6. Indicating accompaniment: Prepositions can be used to show that someone is accompanied by someone or something.
7. Indicating manner or method: Prepositions can be used to show how something is done or the manner in which it is done.
8. Indicating comparison: Prepositions can be used to show comparisons between two or more things.
Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions.
1. Sarah is going to the beach ___ the weekend.
Sarah is going to the beach _on_ the weekend. (We use "on" for days and dates.)
2. The book is ___ the table.
The book is _on_ the table. ("On" is used for surfaces.)
3. I will meet you ___ 3 p.m.
I will meet you _at_ 3 p.m. ("At" is used for specific times.)
4. My birthday is ___ October.
My birthday is _in_ October. ("In" is used for months and years.)
5. We have been friends ___ childhood.
We have been friends _since_ childhood. ("Since" is used to indicate a starting point in time.)
6. The cat jumped ___ the fence.
The cat jumped _over_ the fence. ("Over" is used to indicate movement above something.)
Exercise 2: Choose the correct preposition in the given sentences.
1. He is interested (in/on) learning new languages.
He is interested (in) learning new languages. (We use "in" after "interested" to indicate the subject of interest.)
2. She is afraid (of/from) spiders.
She is afraid (of) spiders. ("Of" is used after "afraid" to indicate the object of fear.)
3. They are going to the concert (in/at) the evening.
They are going to the concert (in) the evening. ("In" is used for parts of the day, such as morning, afternoon, and evening.)
4. The children are playing (in/at) the park.
The children are playing (in) the park. ("In" is used for enclosed spaces or areas.)
5. She is good (at/on) singing.
She is good (at) singing. ("At" is used after "good" to indicate the activity someone is good at.)
Exercise 3: Identify the prepositions in the following sentences and explain their usage.
1. The meeting will take place in the conference room.
_In_ the conference room. ("In" is used for enclosed spaces or areas.)
2. I found my keys under the couch.
_Under_ the couch. ("Under" is used to indicate something below another object.)
3. They walked across the bridge.
_Across_ the bridge. ("Across" is used to indicate movement from one side to another.)
4. She lives near the school.
_Near_ the school. ("Near" is used to indicate proximity or closeness.)
5. He left the keys inside the car.
_Inside_ the car. ("Inside" is used to indicate something within another object or space.)
1. The board is comprised of five members, each of whom brings a unique perspective to the table.
Error: comprised of, to
Correct: composed of, at
The correct preposition to use with "composed" is "of," and the correct preposition to use with "brings" is "at." Therefore, the sentence should read: "The board is composed of five members, each of whom brings a unique perspective to the table."
2. I'm looking forward to meeting with the new CEO next week.
Error: forward to
Correct: forward to meeting
The phrase "looking forward to" must be followed by a gerund (-ing form of the verb). Therefore, the correct sentence is "I'm looking forward to meeting the new CEO next week."
3. He's been accused for embezzling funds from the company.
Error: accused for
Correct: accused of
The correct preposition to use with "accused" is "of." Therefore, the sentence should read: "He's been accused of embezzling funds from the company."
4. The new software has been customized according with the needs of the client.
Error: according with
Correct: according to
The correct preposition to use with "according" is "to." Therefore, the sentence should read: "The new software has been customized according to the needs of the client."
5. The conference is scheduled at the hotel on September 15th.
Error: scheduled at
Correct: scheduled to take place at
The sentence should read: "The conference is scheduled to take place at the hotel on September 15th."