Overview or Features of 8086
This is a single microprocessor configuration.
This is a multi micro processors configuration.
Register Organization of 8086 General
The 8086 microprocessor has a total of fourteen registers that are accessible to the programmer. It is divided into four groups. They are:
General purpose registers:
Accumulator register consists of two 8-bit registers AL and AH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register AX. AL in this case contains the low order byte of the word, and AH contains the high-order byte. Accumulator can be used for I/O operations and string manipulation.
Base register consists of two 8-bit registers BL and BH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register BX. BL in this case contains the low-order byte of the word, and BH contains the high-order byte. BX register usually contains a data pointer used for based, based indexed or register indirect addressing.
Count register consists of two 8-bit registers CL and CH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register CX. When combined, CL register contains the low order byte of the word, and CH contains the high-order byte. Count register can be used in Loop, shift/rotate instructions and as a counter in string manipulation
Data register consists of two 8-bit registers DL and DH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register DX. When combined, DL register contains the low order byte of the word, and DH contains the high-order byte. Data register can be used as a port number in I/O operations. In integer 32-bit multiply and divide instruction the DX register contains high-order word of the initial or resulting number.
Index or Pointer Registers
These registers can also be called as Special Purpose registers.
Stack Pointer (SP) is a 16-bit register pointing to program stack, i.e. it is used to hold the address of the top of stack. The stack is maintained as a LIFO with its bottom at the start of the stack segment (specified by the SS segment register).Unlike the SP register, the BP can be used to specify the offset of other program segments.
Base Pointer (BP) is a 16-bit register pointing to data in stack segment. It is usually used by subroutines to locate variables that were passed on the stack by a calling program. BP register is usually used for based, based indexed or register indirect addressing.
Source Index (SI) is a 16-bit register. SI is used for indexed, based indexed and register indirect addressing, as well as a source data address in string manipulation instructions. Used in conjunction with the DS register to point to data locations in the data segment.
Destination Index (DI) is a 16-bit register. Used in conjunction with the ES register in string operations. DI is used for indexed, based indexed and register indirect addressing, as well as a destination data address in string manipulation instructions. In short, Destination Index and SI Source Index registers are used to hold address.
Most of the registers contain data/instruction offsets within 64 KB memory segment.
There are four different 64 KB segments for instructions, stack, data and extra data. To specify where in 1 MB of processor memory these 4 segments are located the processor uses four segment registers.
Code segment (CS) is a 16-bit register containing address of 64 KB segment with processor instructions. The processor uses CS segment for all accesses to instructions referenced by instruction pointer (IP) register. CS register cannot be changed directly. The CS register is automatically updated during far jump, far call and far return instructions.
Stack segment (SS) is a 16-bit register containing address of 64KB segment with program stack. By default, the processor assumes that all data referenced by the stack pointer (SP) and base pointer (BP) registers is located in the stack segment. SS register can be changed directly using POP instruction.
Data segment (DS) is a 16-bit register containing address of 64KB segment with program data. By default, the processor assumes that all data referenced by general registers (AX, BX, CX, DX) and index register (SI, DI) is located in the data segment. DS register can be changed directly using POP and LDS instructions.
Extra segment (ES) used to hold the starting address of Extra segment. Extra segment is provided for programs that need to access a second data segment. Segment registers cannot be used in arithmetic operations.
Other registers of 8086
Instruction Pointer (IP) is a 16-bit register. This is a crucially important register which is used to control which instruction the CPU executes. The IP, or program counter, is used to store the memory location of the next instruction to be executed. The CPU checks the program counter to ascertain which instruction to carry out next. It then updates the program counter to point to the next instruction. Thus the program counter will always point to the next instruction to be executed.
Flag Register contains a group of status bits called flags that indicate the status of the CPU or the result of arithmetic operations. There are two types of flags:
1. The status flags which reflect the result of executing an instruction. The programmer cannot set/reset these flags directly.
2. The control flags enable or disable certain CPU operations. The programmer can set/reset these bits to control the CPU's operation.
Nine individual bits of the status register are used as control flags (3 of them) and status flags (6 of them).The remaining 7 are not used.
A flag can only take on the values 0 and 1. We say a flag is set if it has the value 1.The status flags are used to record specific characteristics of arithmetic and of logical instructions.
Control Flags: There are three control flags
1. The Direction Flag (D): Affects the direction of moving data blocks by such instructions as MOVS, CMPS and SCAS. The flag values are 0 = up and 1 = down and can be set/reset by the STD (set D) and CLD (clear D) instructions.
2. The Interrupt Flag (I): Dictates whether or not system interrupts can occur.
Interrupts are actions initiated by hardware block such as input devices that will interrupt the normal execution of programs. The flag values are 0 = disable interrupts or 1 = enable interrupts and can be manipulated by the CLI (clear I) and STI (set I) instructions.
3. The Trap Flag (T): Determines whether or not the CPU is halted after the execution of each instruction. When this flag is set (i.e. = 1), the programmer can single step through his program to debug any errors. When this flag = 0 this feature is off. This flag can be set by the INT 3 instruction.
Status Flags: There are six status flags
1. The Carry Flag (C): This flag is set when the result of an unsigned arithmetic operation is too large to fit in the destination register. This happens when there is an end carry in an addition operation or there an end borrows in a subtraction operation. A value of 1 = carry and 0 = no carry.
2. The Overflow Flag (O): This flag is set when the result of a signed arithmetic operation is too large to fit in the destination register (i.e. when an overflow occurs). Overflow can occur when adding two numbers with the same sign (i.e. both positive or both negative). A value of 1 = overflow and 0 = no overflow.
3. The Sign Flag (S): This flag is set when the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is negative. This flag is a copy of the MSB of the result (i.e. the sign bit). A value of 1 means negative and 0 = positive.
4. The Zero Flag (Z): This flag is set when the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is equal to zero. A value of 1 means the result is zero and a value of 0 means the result is not zero.
5. The Auxiliary Carry Flag (A): This flag is set when an operation causes a carry from bit 3 to bit 4 (or a borrow from bit 4 to bit 3) of an operand. A value of 1 = carry and 0 = no carry.
6. The Parity Flag (P): This flags reflects the number of 1s in the result of an operation. If the number of 1s is even its value = 1 and if the number of 1s is odd then its value = 0.
Architecture of 8086 or Functional Block diagram of 8086