Page 1 Module 5 : MODERN PHYSICS Lecture 24 : PHOTONS Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Radiation itself is quantized and consists of a collection of particles called photons. The phenomenon of photoelectric effect and its characteristics. How classical wave theory of radiation fails in explaining photoelectric effect. Einstein's theory of photoelectric effect. PHOTONS Planck's explanation of black body radiation was revolutionary as it suggested that atoms could exchange energy only in multiples of quantum of energy. Five years later, in 1905, Einstein put forward a theory of photoelectric effect which suggested that the quantum of energy was not a property associated with the radiation emitted by atoms but is a property of radiation itself. Radiation, according to Einstein's theory consists of discrete bundles of energy, called photons. Thus, electromagnetic energy is seen as a collection of photons. A photon is characterized by an energy , related to the frequency by the relationship Further, each photon carries a momentum given by In Einstein's special theory of relativity, the energy of a particle of rest mass and momentum is given by which implies that photons have zero rest mass. Exercise 1 Calculate the wavelength of a 2eV photon. ( J.) (Ans. 620 nm) Example-6 Earth receives 1.4 kW of energy from the sun. If it is assumed that the sunlight consists of monochromatic radiation of wavelength 600 nm, how many photons arrive at the earth every second ? Solution If nm, the corresponding frequency is Hz. Thus the number of photons per second is Page 2 Module 5 : MODERN PHYSICS Lecture 24 : PHOTONS Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Radiation itself is quantized and consists of a collection of particles called photons. The phenomenon of photoelectric effect and its characteristics. How classical wave theory of radiation fails in explaining photoelectric effect. Einstein's theory of photoelectric effect. PHOTONS Planck's explanation of black body radiation was revolutionary as it suggested that atoms could exchange energy only in multiples of quantum of energy. Five years later, in 1905, Einstein put forward a theory of photoelectric effect which suggested that the quantum of energy was not a property associated with the radiation emitted by atoms but is a property of radiation itself. Radiation, according to Einstein's theory consists of discrete bundles of energy, called photons. Thus, electromagnetic energy is seen as a collection of photons. A photon is characterized by an energy , related to the frequency by the relationship Further, each photon carries a momentum given by In Einstein's special theory of relativity, the energy of a particle of rest mass and momentum is given by which implies that photons have zero rest mass. Exercise 1 Calculate the wavelength of a 2eV photon. ( J.) (Ans. 620 nm) Example-6 Earth receives 1.4 kW of energy from the sun. If it is assumed that the sunlight consists of monochromatic radiation of wavelength 600 nm, how many photons arrive at the earth every second ? Solution If nm, the corresponding frequency is Hz. Thus the number of photons per second is Example-7 Assuming the formula for black body radiation to the valid for the universe, calculate the number density of photons in the universe due to cosmic microwave background. Solution Taking the expression for energy density in the interval and the number density of photons with energy in this frequency interval is obtained by dividing the above expression by . The total number density of photons is obtained by integrating the above expression over all frequencies Substitute , The integral has to be done numerically, say by using Simpson's rule. The value of the integral is 2.4, which gives the number density of photons of the cosmic radiation to be per m . Exercise 2 Assuming the sun to be a black body, calculate the number of photons emitted by the sun every second. (Ans. ) Photoelectric Effect When light falls on certain metals, electrons are ejected from the surface of the metal. In the arrangement shown in the figure, the wire marked anode is held at positive potential with respect to the curved plate marked cathode When light of certain minimum frequency falls on the cathode, electrons are emitted in all directions. These electrons are called photoelectrons . Some of these electrons reach the anode wire which provides a path to the electrons to give rise to a mesurable photo-current . By making the anode more positive with respect to the cathode, more electrons are attracted towards the anode and the photo-current increases. When the anode potential is such that all the emitted electrons reach the anode, any further increase in the anode voltage does not increase current any further. Page 3 Module 5 : MODERN PHYSICS Lecture 24 : PHOTONS Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Radiation itself is quantized and consists of a collection of particles called photons. The phenomenon of photoelectric effect and its characteristics. How classical wave theory of radiation fails in explaining photoelectric effect. Einstein's theory of photoelectric effect. PHOTONS Planck's explanation of black body radiation was revolutionary as it suggested that atoms could exchange energy only in multiples of quantum of energy. Five years later, in 1905, Einstein put forward a theory of photoelectric effect which suggested that the quantum of energy was not a property associated with the radiation emitted by atoms but is a property of radiation itself. Radiation, according to Einstein's theory consists of discrete bundles of energy, called photons. Thus, electromagnetic energy is seen as a collection of photons. A photon is characterized by an energy , related to the frequency by the relationship Further, each photon carries a momentum given by In Einstein's special theory of relativity, the energy of a particle of rest mass and momentum is given by which implies that photons have zero rest mass. Exercise 1 Calculate the wavelength of a 2eV photon. ( J.) (Ans. 620 nm) Example-6 Earth receives 1.4 kW of energy from the sun. If it is assumed that the sunlight consists of monochromatic radiation of wavelength 600 nm, how many photons arrive at the earth every second ? Solution If nm, the corresponding frequency is Hz. Thus the number of photons per second is Example-7 Assuming the formula for black body radiation to the valid for the universe, calculate the number density of photons in the universe due to cosmic microwave background. Solution Taking the expression for energy density in the interval and the number density of photons with energy in this frequency interval is obtained by dividing the above expression by . The total number density of photons is obtained by integrating the above expression over all frequencies Substitute , The integral has to be done numerically, say by using Simpson's rule. The value of the integral is 2.4, which gives the number density of photons of the cosmic radiation to be per m . Exercise 2 Assuming the sun to be a black body, calculate the number of photons emitted by the sun every second. (Ans. ) Photoelectric Effect When light falls on certain metals, electrons are ejected from the surface of the metal. In the arrangement shown in the figure, the wire marked anode is held at positive potential with respect to the curved plate marked cathode When light of certain minimum frequency falls on the cathode, electrons are emitted in all directions. These electrons are called photoelectrons . Some of these electrons reach the anode wire which provides a path to the electrons to give rise to a mesurable photo-current . By making the anode more positive with respect to the cathode, more electrons are attracted towards the anode and the photo-current increases. When the anode potential is such that all the emitted electrons reach the anode, any further increase in the anode voltage does not increase current any further. See the animation If the voltage is reversed making the anode negative with respect to the cathode, the electrons get decelerated and only the more energetic of the electrons can reach the anode. If the reverse voltage is such that even the electrons which are ejected with the maximum kinetic energy cannot overcome the potential, the photo-current becomes zero. The reverse voltage which is just enough to stop the most energetic photoelectrons is called the stopping potential. If is the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons, the stopping potential is defined by The photoelectric effect exhibits the following features : Page 4 Module 5 : MODERN PHYSICS Lecture 24 : PHOTONS Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Radiation itself is quantized and consists of a collection of particles called photons. The phenomenon of photoelectric effect and its characteristics. How classical wave theory of radiation fails in explaining photoelectric effect. Einstein's theory of photoelectric effect. PHOTONS Planck's explanation of black body radiation was revolutionary as it suggested that atoms could exchange energy only in multiples of quantum of energy. Five years later, in 1905, Einstein put forward a theory of photoelectric effect which suggested that the quantum of energy was not a property associated with the radiation emitted by atoms but is a property of radiation itself. Radiation, according to Einstein's theory consists of discrete bundles of energy, called photons. Thus, electromagnetic energy is seen as a collection of photons. A photon is characterized by an energy , related to the frequency by the relationship Further, each photon carries a momentum given by In Einstein's special theory of relativity, the energy of a particle of rest mass and momentum is given by which implies that photons have zero rest mass. Exercise 1 Calculate the wavelength of a 2eV photon. ( J.) (Ans. 620 nm) Example-6 Earth receives 1.4 kW of energy from the sun. If it is assumed that the sunlight consists of monochromatic radiation of wavelength 600 nm, how many photons arrive at the earth every second ? Solution If nm, the corresponding frequency is Hz. Thus the number of photons per second is Example-7 Assuming the formula for black body radiation to the valid for the universe, calculate the number density of photons in the universe due to cosmic microwave background. Solution Taking the expression for energy density in the interval and the number density of photons with energy in this frequency interval is obtained by dividing the above expression by . The total number density of photons is obtained by integrating the above expression over all frequencies Substitute , The integral has to be done numerically, say by using Simpson's rule. The value of the integral is 2.4, which gives the number density of photons of the cosmic radiation to be per m . Exercise 2 Assuming the sun to be a black body, calculate the number of photons emitted by the sun every second. (Ans. ) Photoelectric Effect When light falls on certain metals, electrons are ejected from the surface of the metal. In the arrangement shown in the figure, the wire marked anode is held at positive potential with respect to the curved plate marked cathode When light of certain minimum frequency falls on the cathode, electrons are emitted in all directions. These electrons are called photoelectrons . Some of these electrons reach the anode wire which provides a path to the electrons to give rise to a mesurable photo-current . By making the anode more positive with respect to the cathode, more electrons are attracted towards the anode and the photo-current increases. When the anode potential is such that all the emitted electrons reach the anode, any further increase in the anode voltage does not increase current any further. See the animation If the voltage is reversed making the anode negative with respect to the cathode, the electrons get decelerated and only the more energetic of the electrons can reach the anode. If the reverse voltage is such that even the electrons which are ejected with the maximum kinetic energy cannot overcome the potential, the photo-current becomes zero. The reverse voltage which is just enough to stop the most energetic photoelectrons is called the stopping potential. If is the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons, the stopping potential is defined by The photoelectric effect exhibits the following features : Photoelectrons are not ejected unless the frequency of incident light is above a certain threshold value . The value of depends on the material of the cathode. If the frequency of incident radiation is greater than , even a light of very weak intensity will cause photoelectrons to be emitted. If , even the most intense light will not cause photoelectrons to be emitted. For , the photo-current increases linearly with the intensity of light. The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons depend on the frequency of incident radiation and not on its intensity. The emission of photoelectrons is almost instantaneous. i.e. there is no time lag between the emission of electrons and switching on of the light source. Failure of Classical Wave Theory According to the classical wave theory, when electromagnetic wave falls on the surface of a metal, an atom on the surface will absorb energy from the electric field of the wave. The rate at which the energy is absorbed depends on the surface area of the atom. An electron can be dislodged from an atom once it absorbes sufficient amount of energy. By increasing the intensity of light (irrespective of its frequency) more energy can be transferred to the atom causing electrons to be ejected. What is observed is that unless photoelectrons are not emitted, no matter how intense the radiation is. Further, according to wave theory, the kinetic energy of emitted electrons would increase with the intensity of light as it would impart more energy to an electron. However, the kinetic energy of photoelectrons is found to depend only on the frequency of radiation and not on the intensity. Page 5 Module 5 : MODERN PHYSICS Lecture 24 : PHOTONS Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Radiation itself is quantized and consists of a collection of particles called photons. The phenomenon of photoelectric effect and its characteristics. How classical wave theory of radiation fails in explaining photoelectric effect. Einstein's theory of photoelectric effect. PHOTONS Planck's explanation of black body radiation was revolutionary as it suggested that atoms could exchange energy only in multiples of quantum of energy. Five years later, in 1905, Einstein put forward a theory of photoelectric effect which suggested that the quantum of energy was not a property associated with the radiation emitted by atoms but is a property of radiation itself. Radiation, according to Einstein's theory consists of discrete bundles of energy, called photons. Thus, electromagnetic energy is seen as a collection of photons. A photon is characterized by an energy , related to the frequency by the relationship Further, each photon carries a momentum given by In Einstein's special theory of relativity, the energy of a particle of rest mass and momentum is given by which implies that photons have zero rest mass. Exercise 1 Calculate the wavelength of a 2eV photon. ( J.) (Ans. 620 nm) Example-6 Earth receives 1.4 kW of energy from the sun. If it is assumed that the sunlight consists of monochromatic radiation of wavelength 600 nm, how many photons arrive at the earth every second ? Solution If nm, the corresponding frequency is Hz. Thus the number of photons per second is Example-7 Assuming the formula for black body radiation to the valid for the universe, calculate the number density of photons in the universe due to cosmic microwave background. Solution Taking the expression for energy density in the interval and the number density of photons with energy in this frequency interval is obtained by dividing the above expression by . The total number density of photons is obtained by integrating the above expression over all frequencies Substitute , The integral has to be done numerically, say by using Simpson's rule. The value of the integral is 2.4, which gives the number density of photons of the cosmic radiation to be per m . Exercise 2 Assuming the sun to be a black body, calculate the number of photons emitted by the sun every second. (Ans. ) Photoelectric Effect When light falls on certain metals, electrons are ejected from the surface of the metal. In the arrangement shown in the figure, the wire marked anode is held at positive potential with respect to the curved plate marked cathode When light of certain minimum frequency falls on the cathode, electrons are emitted in all directions. These electrons are called photoelectrons . Some of these electrons reach the anode wire which provides a path to the electrons to give rise to a mesurable photo-current . By making the anode more positive with respect to the cathode, more electrons are attracted towards the anode and the photo-current increases. When the anode potential is such that all the emitted electrons reach the anode, any further increase in the anode voltage does not increase current any further. See the animation If the voltage is reversed making the anode negative with respect to the cathode, the electrons get decelerated and only the more energetic of the electrons can reach the anode. If the reverse voltage is such that even the electrons which are ejected with the maximum kinetic energy cannot overcome the potential, the photo-current becomes zero. The reverse voltage which is just enough to stop the most energetic photoelectrons is called the stopping potential. If is the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons, the stopping potential is defined by The photoelectric effect exhibits the following features : Photoelectrons are not ejected unless the frequency of incident light is above a certain threshold value . The value of depends on the material of the cathode. If the frequency of incident radiation is greater than , even a light of very weak intensity will cause photoelectrons to be emitted. If , even the most intense light will not cause photoelectrons to be emitted. For , the photo-current increases linearly with the intensity of light. The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons depend on the frequency of incident radiation and not on its intensity. The emission of photoelectrons is almost instantaneous. i.e. there is no time lag between the emission of electrons and switching on of the light source. Failure of Classical Wave Theory According to the classical wave theory, when electromagnetic wave falls on the surface of a metal, an atom on the surface will absorb energy from the electric field of the wave. The rate at which the energy is absorbed depends on the surface area of the atom. An electron can be dislodged from an atom once it absorbes sufficient amount of energy. By increasing the intensity of light (irrespective of its frequency) more energy can be transferred to the atom causing electrons to be ejected. What is observed is that unless photoelectrons are not emitted, no matter how intense the radiation is. Further, according to wave theory, the kinetic energy of emitted electrons would increase with the intensity of light as it would impart more energy to an electron. However, the kinetic energy of photoelectrons is found to depend only on the frequency of radiation and not on the intensity. Another problem with the classical theory is that it would predict a time lag between the time light falls on a surface and the instant photoelectrons are emitted. The reason why one would expect such a time lag is that the surface are of an atom is very small, as a result of which an atom can only absorb a small fraction of energy that falls on the surface. The following example gives a rough estimate of the expected time lag. However, it is observed that the emission of electrons is practically instantaneous, with time lag, if any, being less than seconds. Example-8 Consider a light source such as a laser with a power output of 1mW spread over a narrow beam of cross section 0.1 cm falling on a surface of a metal. Estimate the time lag of photoelectron emission as per wave theory. Solution Taking atomic diameter to be of the order of cm, the area exposed to the beam is cm . The fraction of light energy absorbed is . Thus the energy absorbed from the beam every second is J, which is approximately 6 eV (1 eV = J). The amount of energy required to ionize an atom by dislodging an electron is typically 10 eV. Thus it takes about 1.6 seconds to absorb the required energy which is rough estimate of the time lag. Einstein's Photoelectric Equation : According to Einstein's explanation, photoelectric effect occurs due to absorption of a single photon by an electron in the atom. When radiation falls on a metal surface, an electron may absorb one quantum of energy and increase its energy by . Some of the absorbed energy, W, will be used to separate the electron from the metal surface. The surplus energy appears as the kinetic energy of the emitted electron The electrons which are more tightly bound to the metal (e.g. electrons which lie two or three atomic layers below the surface) require more energy to be removed. We define Work Function of a metal as the minimu energy that must be supplied to an electron at the metal surface to dislodge it from the metal. Such electrons are emitted with maximum possible kinetic energy. Thus Einstein's equation becomes Since kinetic energy cannot be negative, the above equation implies the existence of a minimum frequency for photoemission to take place Using this, we can reqrite rewrite Einstein's equation asRead More

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