Page 1 Module 6 Power system stability 6.1 Introduction In general terms, power system stability refers to that property of the power system which enables the system to maintain an equilibrium operating point under normal conditions and to attain a state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. As primarily synchronous generators are used for generating power in grid, power system stability is generally implied by the ability of the synchronous generators to remain in ’synchronism’ or ’in step’. On the other hand, if the synchronous generators loose synchronism after a disturbance, then the system is called unstable. The basic concept of ’synchronism’ can be explained as follows. In the normal equilibrium condition, all the synchronous generators run at a constant speed and the di?erence between the rotor angles of any two generators is constant. Under any disturbance, the speed of the machines will deviate from the steady state values due to mismatch between mechanical and electrical powers (torque) and therefore, the di?erence of the rotor angles would also change. If these rotor angle di?erences (between any pair of generators) attain steady state values (not necessarily the same as in the pre-disturbance condition) after some ?nite time, then the synchronous generators are said to be in ’synchronism’. On the other hand, if the rotor angle di?erences keep on increasing inde?nitely, then the machines are considered to have lost ’synchronism’. Under this ’out of step’ condition, the output power, voltage etc. of the generator continuously drift away from the corresponding pre-disturbance values until the protection system trips the machine. The above phenomenon of instability is essentially related with the instability of the rotor angles and hence, this form of instability is termed as ’rotor angle instability’. Now, as discussed above, this instability is triggered by the occurrence of a disturbance. Depending on the severity of the disturbance, the rotor angle instability can be classi?ed into two categories: • Small signal instability: In this case, the disturbance occurring in the system is small. Such kindofsmalldisturbancesalwaystakeplaceinthesystemduetorandomvariationsoftheloads and the generation. It will be shown later in this chapter that under small perturbation (or disturbance), thechangeintheelectricaltorqueofasynchronousgeneratorcanberesolvedinto two components, namely, a) synchronizing torque (T s ) - which is proportional to the change in the rotor angle and b) damping torque (T d ), which is proportional to the change in the speed 250 Page 2 Module 6 Power system stability 6.1 Introduction In general terms, power system stability refers to that property of the power system which enables the system to maintain an equilibrium operating point under normal conditions and to attain a state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. As primarily synchronous generators are used for generating power in grid, power system stability is generally implied by the ability of the synchronous generators to remain in ’synchronism’ or ’in step’. On the other hand, if the synchronous generators loose synchronism after a disturbance, then the system is called unstable. The basic concept of ’synchronism’ can be explained as follows. In the normal equilibrium condition, all the synchronous generators run at a constant speed and the di?erence between the rotor angles of any two generators is constant. Under any disturbance, the speed of the machines will deviate from the steady state values due to mismatch between mechanical and electrical powers (torque) and therefore, the di?erence of the rotor angles would also change. If these rotor angle di?erences (between any pair of generators) attain steady state values (not necessarily the same as in the pre-disturbance condition) after some ?nite time, then the synchronous generators are said to be in ’synchronism’. On the other hand, if the rotor angle di?erences keep on increasing inde?nitely, then the machines are considered to have lost ’synchronism’. Under this ’out of step’ condition, the output power, voltage etc. of the generator continuously drift away from the corresponding pre-disturbance values until the protection system trips the machine. The above phenomenon of instability is essentially related with the instability of the rotor angles and hence, this form of instability is termed as ’rotor angle instability’. Now, as discussed above, this instability is triggered by the occurrence of a disturbance. Depending on the severity of the disturbance, the rotor angle instability can be classi?ed into two categories: • Small signal instability: In this case, the disturbance occurring in the system is small. Such kindofsmalldisturbancesalwaystakeplaceinthesystemduetorandomvariationsoftheloads and the generation. It will be shown later in this chapter that under small perturbation (or disturbance), thechangeintheelectricaltorqueofasynchronousgeneratorcanberesolvedinto two components, namely, a) synchronizing torque (T s ) - which is proportional to the change in the rotor angle and b) damping torque (T d ), which is proportional to the change in the speed 250 of the machine. As a result, depending on the amounts of synchronizing and damping torques, small signal instability can manifest itself in two forms. When there is insu?cient amount of synchronizing torque, the rotor angle increases steadily. On the other hand, for inadequate amount of damping torque, the rotor angle undergoes oscillations with increasing amplitude. These two phenomena are illustrated in Fig. 6.1. In Fig. 6.1(a), both the synchronizing and damping torques are positive and su?cient and hence, the rotor angle comes back to a steady state value after undergoing oscillations with decreasing magnitude. In Fig. 6.1(b), the synchronizing torque is negative while the damping toque is positive and thus, the rotor angle envelope is increasing monotonically. Fig. 6.1(c) depicts the classic oscillatory instability in which Ts is positive while Td is negative. Figure 6.1: In?uence of synchronous and damping torque In an integrated power system, there can be di?erent types of manifestation of the small signal instability. These are: 251 Page 3 Module 6 Power system stability 6.1 Introduction In general terms, power system stability refers to that property of the power system which enables the system to maintain an equilibrium operating point under normal conditions and to attain a state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. As primarily synchronous generators are used for generating power in grid, power system stability is generally implied by the ability of the synchronous generators to remain in ’synchronism’ or ’in step’. On the other hand, if the synchronous generators loose synchronism after a disturbance, then the system is called unstable. The basic concept of ’synchronism’ can be explained as follows. In the normal equilibrium condition, all the synchronous generators run at a constant speed and the di?erence between the rotor angles of any two generators is constant. Under any disturbance, the speed of the machines will deviate from the steady state values due to mismatch between mechanical and electrical powers (torque) and therefore, the di?erence of the rotor angles would also change. If these rotor angle di?erences (between any pair of generators) attain steady state values (not necessarily the same as in the pre-disturbance condition) after some ?nite time, then the synchronous generators are said to be in ’synchronism’. On the other hand, if the rotor angle di?erences keep on increasing inde?nitely, then the machines are considered to have lost ’synchronism’. Under this ’out of step’ condition, the output power, voltage etc. of the generator continuously drift away from the corresponding pre-disturbance values until the protection system trips the machine. The above phenomenon of instability is essentially related with the instability of the rotor angles and hence, this form of instability is termed as ’rotor angle instability’. Now, as discussed above, this instability is triggered by the occurrence of a disturbance. Depending on the severity of the disturbance, the rotor angle instability can be classi?ed into two categories: • Small signal instability: In this case, the disturbance occurring in the system is small. Such kindofsmalldisturbancesalwaystakeplaceinthesystemduetorandomvariationsoftheloads and the generation. It will be shown later in this chapter that under small perturbation (or disturbance), thechangeintheelectricaltorqueofasynchronousgeneratorcanberesolvedinto two components, namely, a) synchronizing torque (T s ) - which is proportional to the change in the rotor angle and b) damping torque (T d ), which is proportional to the change in the speed 250 of the machine. As a result, depending on the amounts of synchronizing and damping torques, small signal instability can manifest itself in two forms. When there is insu?cient amount of synchronizing torque, the rotor angle increases steadily. On the other hand, for inadequate amount of damping torque, the rotor angle undergoes oscillations with increasing amplitude. These two phenomena are illustrated in Fig. 6.1. In Fig. 6.1(a), both the synchronizing and damping torques are positive and su?cient and hence, the rotor angle comes back to a steady state value after undergoing oscillations with decreasing magnitude. In Fig. 6.1(b), the synchronizing torque is negative while the damping toque is positive and thus, the rotor angle envelope is increasing monotonically. Fig. 6.1(c) depicts the classic oscillatory instability in which Ts is positive while Td is negative. Figure 6.1: In?uence of synchronous and damping torque In an integrated power system, there can be di?erent types of manifestation of the small signal instability. These are: 251 a. Local mode: In this type, the units within a generating station oscillate with respect to the rest of the system. The term ’local’ is used because the oscillations are localized in a particular generating station. b. Inter-area mode: In this case, the generators in one part of the system oscillate with respect to the machines in another part of the system. c. Control mode: This type of instability is excited due to poorly damped control systems such as exciter, speed governor, static var compensators, HVDC converters etc. d. Torsional mode: This type is associated with the rotating turbine-governor shaft. This type is more prominent in a series compensated transmission system in which the me- chanical system resonates with the electrical system. • Transient instability: In this case, the disturbance on the system is quite severe and sudden and the machine is unable to maintain synchronism under the impact of this disturbance. In thiscase, thereisalargeexcursionoftherotorangle(evenifthegeneratoristransientlystable). Fig. 6.2 shows various cases of stable and unstable behavior of the generator. In case 1, under the in?uence of the fault, the generator rotor angle increases to a maximum, subsequently decreases and settles to a steady state value following oscillations with decreasing magnitude. In case 2, the rotor angle decreases after attaining a maximum value. However, subsequently, it undergoes oscillations with increasing amplitude. This type of instability is not caused by the lack of synchronizing torque; rather it occurs due to lack of su?cient damping torque in the post fault system condition. In case 3, the rotor angle monotonically keeps on increasing due to insu?cient synchronizing torque till the protective relay trips it. This type of instability, in which the rotor angle never decreases, is termed as ’?rst swing instability’. Figure 6.2: Illustration of various stability phenomenon Apartfromrotorangleinstability,instabilitycanalsooccurevenwhenthesynchronousgenerators are maintaining synchronism. For example, when a synchronous generator is supplying power to an induction motor load over a transmission line, the voltage at the load terminal can progressively 252 Page 4 Module 6 Power system stability 6.1 Introduction In general terms, power system stability refers to that property of the power system which enables the system to maintain an equilibrium operating point under normal conditions and to attain a state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. As primarily synchronous generators are used for generating power in grid, power system stability is generally implied by the ability of the synchronous generators to remain in ’synchronism’ or ’in step’. On the other hand, if the synchronous generators loose synchronism after a disturbance, then the system is called unstable. The basic concept of ’synchronism’ can be explained as follows. In the normal equilibrium condition, all the synchronous generators run at a constant speed and the di?erence between the rotor angles of any two generators is constant. Under any disturbance, the speed of the machines will deviate from the steady state values due to mismatch between mechanical and electrical powers (torque) and therefore, the di?erence of the rotor angles would also change. If these rotor angle di?erences (between any pair of generators) attain steady state values (not necessarily the same as in the pre-disturbance condition) after some ?nite time, then the synchronous generators are said to be in ’synchronism’. On the other hand, if the rotor angle di?erences keep on increasing inde?nitely, then the machines are considered to have lost ’synchronism’. Under this ’out of step’ condition, the output power, voltage etc. of the generator continuously drift away from the corresponding pre-disturbance values until the protection system trips the machine. The above phenomenon of instability is essentially related with the instability of the rotor angles and hence, this form of instability is termed as ’rotor angle instability’. Now, as discussed above, this instability is triggered by the occurrence of a disturbance. Depending on the severity of the disturbance, the rotor angle instability can be classi?ed into two categories: • Small signal instability: In this case, the disturbance occurring in the system is small. Such kindofsmalldisturbancesalwaystakeplaceinthesystemduetorandomvariationsoftheloads and the generation. It will be shown later in this chapter that under small perturbation (or disturbance), thechangeintheelectricaltorqueofasynchronousgeneratorcanberesolvedinto two components, namely, a) synchronizing torque (T s ) - which is proportional to the change in the rotor angle and b) damping torque (T d ), which is proportional to the change in the speed 250 of the machine. As a result, depending on the amounts of synchronizing and damping torques, small signal instability can manifest itself in two forms. When there is insu?cient amount of synchronizing torque, the rotor angle increases steadily. On the other hand, for inadequate amount of damping torque, the rotor angle undergoes oscillations with increasing amplitude. These two phenomena are illustrated in Fig. 6.1. In Fig. 6.1(a), both the synchronizing and damping torques are positive and su?cient and hence, the rotor angle comes back to a steady state value after undergoing oscillations with decreasing magnitude. In Fig. 6.1(b), the synchronizing torque is negative while the damping toque is positive and thus, the rotor angle envelope is increasing monotonically. Fig. 6.1(c) depicts the classic oscillatory instability in which Ts is positive while Td is negative. Figure 6.1: In?uence of synchronous and damping torque In an integrated power system, there can be di?erent types of manifestation of the small signal instability. These are: 251 a. Local mode: In this type, the units within a generating station oscillate with respect to the rest of the system. The term ’local’ is used because the oscillations are localized in a particular generating station. b. Inter-area mode: In this case, the generators in one part of the system oscillate with respect to the machines in another part of the system. c. Control mode: This type of instability is excited due to poorly damped control systems such as exciter, speed governor, static var compensators, HVDC converters etc. d. Torsional mode: This type is associated with the rotating turbine-governor shaft. This type is more prominent in a series compensated transmission system in which the me- chanical system resonates with the electrical system. • Transient instability: In this case, the disturbance on the system is quite severe and sudden and the machine is unable to maintain synchronism under the impact of this disturbance. In thiscase, thereisalargeexcursionoftherotorangle(evenifthegeneratoristransientlystable). Fig. 6.2 shows various cases of stable and unstable behavior of the generator. In case 1, under the in?uence of the fault, the generator rotor angle increases to a maximum, subsequently decreases and settles to a steady state value following oscillations with decreasing magnitude. In case 2, the rotor angle decreases after attaining a maximum value. However, subsequently, it undergoes oscillations with increasing amplitude. This type of instability is not caused by the lack of synchronizing torque; rather it occurs due to lack of su?cient damping torque in the post fault system condition. In case 3, the rotor angle monotonically keeps on increasing due to insu?cient synchronizing torque till the protective relay trips it. This type of instability, in which the rotor angle never decreases, is termed as ’?rst swing instability’. Figure 6.2: Illustration of various stability phenomenon Apartfromrotorangleinstability,instabilitycanalsooccurevenwhenthesynchronousgenerators are maintaining synchronism. For example, when a synchronous generator is supplying power to an induction motor load over a transmission line, the voltage at the load terminal can progressively 252 reduce under some conditions of real and reactive power drawn by the load. In this case, loss of synchronism is not an issue but the challenge is to maintain a stable voltage. This type of instability is termed as voltage instability or voltage collapse. We will discuss about the voltage instability issue later in this course. Now, for analysing rotor angle stability, we have to ?rst understand the basic equation of motion of a synchronous machine, which is our next topic. 6.2 Equation of motion of a synchronous machine The equation of motion of a synchronous generator is based on the fact that the accelerating torque is the product of inertia and its angular acceleration. In the MKS system, this equation can be written as, J d 2 ? m dt 2 =T a =T m -T e (6.1) In equation (6.1), J? The total moment of inertia of the rotor masses inKg-m 2 ? m ? The angular displacement of the rotor with respect to a stationary axis, in mechanical radians t? Time in seconds T a ? The net accelerating torque, in N-m T m ? The mechanical or shaft torque supplied by the prime mover less retarding torque due to rotational losses, in N-m T e ? The net electrical or electromagnetic torque in N-m Under steady state operation of the generator, T m and T e are equal and therefore, T a is zero. In this case, there is no acceleration or deceleration of the rotor masses and the generator runs at constant synchronous speed. The electrical torque T e corresponds to the air gap power of the generator and is equal to the output power plus the real power loss of the armature winding. Now, the angle ? m is measured with respect to a stationary reference axis on the stator and hence, it is an absolute measure of the rotor angle. Thus, it continuously increases with time even with constant synchronous speed. However, in stability studies, the rotor speed relative to the synchronous speed is of interest and hence, it is more convenient to measure the rotor angular position with respect to a reference axis which also rotates at synchronous speed. Hence, let us de?ne, ? m =? sm t+d m (6.2) In equation (6.2), ? sm is the synchronous speed of the machine in mechanical radian/sec. and d m (in mechanical radian) is the angular displacement of the rotor from the synchronously rotating reference axis. From equation (6.2), d? m dt =? sm + dd m dt or, dd m dt = d? m dt -? sm (6.3) 253 Page 5 Module 6 Power system stability 6.1 Introduction In general terms, power system stability refers to that property of the power system which enables the system to maintain an equilibrium operating point under normal conditions and to attain a state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. As primarily synchronous generators are used for generating power in grid, power system stability is generally implied by the ability of the synchronous generators to remain in ’synchronism’ or ’in step’. On the other hand, if the synchronous generators loose synchronism after a disturbance, then the system is called unstable. The basic concept of ’synchronism’ can be explained as follows. In the normal equilibrium condition, all the synchronous generators run at a constant speed and the di?erence between the rotor angles of any two generators is constant. Under any disturbance, the speed of the machines will deviate from the steady state values due to mismatch between mechanical and electrical powers (torque) and therefore, the di?erence of the rotor angles would also change. If these rotor angle di?erences (between any pair of generators) attain steady state values (not necessarily the same as in the pre-disturbance condition) after some ?nite time, then the synchronous generators are said to be in ’synchronism’. On the other hand, if the rotor angle di?erences keep on increasing inde?nitely, then the machines are considered to have lost ’synchronism’. Under this ’out of step’ condition, the output power, voltage etc. of the generator continuously drift away from the corresponding pre-disturbance values until the protection system trips the machine. The above phenomenon of instability is essentially related with the instability of the rotor angles and hence, this form of instability is termed as ’rotor angle instability’. Now, as discussed above, this instability is triggered by the occurrence of a disturbance. Depending on the severity of the disturbance, the rotor angle instability can be classi?ed into two categories: • Small signal instability: In this case, the disturbance occurring in the system is small. Such kindofsmalldisturbancesalwaystakeplaceinthesystemduetorandomvariationsoftheloads and the generation. It will be shown later in this chapter that under small perturbation (or disturbance), thechangeintheelectricaltorqueofasynchronousgeneratorcanberesolvedinto two components, namely, a) synchronizing torque (T s ) - which is proportional to the change in the rotor angle and b) damping torque (T d ), which is proportional to the change in the speed 250 of the machine. As a result, depending on the amounts of synchronizing and damping torques, small signal instability can manifest itself in two forms. When there is insu?cient amount of synchronizing torque, the rotor angle increases steadily. On the other hand, for inadequate amount of damping torque, the rotor angle undergoes oscillations with increasing amplitude. These two phenomena are illustrated in Fig. 6.1. In Fig. 6.1(a), both the synchronizing and damping torques are positive and su?cient and hence, the rotor angle comes back to a steady state value after undergoing oscillations with decreasing magnitude. In Fig. 6.1(b), the synchronizing torque is negative while the damping toque is positive and thus, the rotor angle envelope is increasing monotonically. Fig. 6.1(c) depicts the classic oscillatory instability in which Ts is positive while Td is negative. Figure 6.1: In?uence of synchronous and damping torque In an integrated power system, there can be di?erent types of manifestation of the small signal instability. These are: 251 a. Local mode: In this type, the units within a generating station oscillate with respect to the rest of the system. The term ’local’ is used because the oscillations are localized in a particular generating station. b. Inter-area mode: In this case, the generators in one part of the system oscillate with respect to the machines in another part of the system. c. Control mode: This type of instability is excited due to poorly damped control systems such as exciter, speed governor, static var compensators, HVDC converters etc. d. Torsional mode: This type is associated with the rotating turbine-governor shaft. This type is more prominent in a series compensated transmission system in which the me- chanical system resonates with the electrical system. • Transient instability: In this case, the disturbance on the system is quite severe and sudden and the machine is unable to maintain synchronism under the impact of this disturbance. In thiscase, thereisalargeexcursionoftherotorangle(evenifthegeneratoristransientlystable). Fig. 6.2 shows various cases of stable and unstable behavior of the generator. In case 1, under the in?uence of the fault, the generator rotor angle increases to a maximum, subsequently decreases and settles to a steady state value following oscillations with decreasing magnitude. In case 2, the rotor angle decreases after attaining a maximum value. However, subsequently, it undergoes oscillations with increasing amplitude. This type of instability is not caused by the lack of synchronizing torque; rather it occurs due to lack of su?cient damping torque in the post fault system condition. In case 3, the rotor angle monotonically keeps on increasing due to insu?cient synchronizing torque till the protective relay trips it. This type of instability, in which the rotor angle never decreases, is termed as ’?rst swing instability’. Figure 6.2: Illustration of various stability phenomenon Apartfromrotorangleinstability,instabilitycanalsooccurevenwhenthesynchronousgenerators are maintaining synchronism. For example, when a synchronous generator is supplying power to an induction motor load over a transmission line, the voltage at the load terminal can progressively 252 reduce under some conditions of real and reactive power drawn by the load. In this case, loss of synchronism is not an issue but the challenge is to maintain a stable voltage. This type of instability is termed as voltage instability or voltage collapse. We will discuss about the voltage instability issue later in this course. Now, for analysing rotor angle stability, we have to ?rst understand the basic equation of motion of a synchronous machine, which is our next topic. 6.2 Equation of motion of a synchronous machine The equation of motion of a synchronous generator is based on the fact that the accelerating torque is the product of inertia and its angular acceleration. In the MKS system, this equation can be written as, J d 2 ? m dt 2 =T a =T m -T e (6.1) In equation (6.1), J? The total moment of inertia of the rotor masses inKg-m 2 ? m ? The angular displacement of the rotor with respect to a stationary axis, in mechanical radians t? Time in seconds T a ? The net accelerating torque, in N-m T m ? The mechanical or shaft torque supplied by the prime mover less retarding torque due to rotational losses, in N-m T e ? The net electrical or electromagnetic torque in N-m Under steady state operation of the generator, T m and T e are equal and therefore, T a is zero. In this case, there is no acceleration or deceleration of the rotor masses and the generator runs at constant synchronous speed. The electrical torque T e corresponds to the air gap power of the generator and is equal to the output power plus the real power loss of the armature winding. Now, the angle ? m is measured with respect to a stationary reference axis on the stator and hence, it is an absolute measure of the rotor angle. Thus, it continuously increases with time even with constant synchronous speed. However, in stability studies, the rotor speed relative to the synchronous speed is of interest and hence, it is more convenient to measure the rotor angular position with respect to a reference axis which also rotates at synchronous speed. Hence, let us de?ne, ? m =? sm t+d m (6.2) In equation (6.2), ? sm is the synchronous speed of the machine in mechanical radian/sec. and d m (in mechanical radian) is the angular displacement of the rotor from the synchronously rotating reference axis. From equation (6.2), d? m dt =? sm + dd m dt or, dd m dt = d? m dt -? sm (6.3) 253 d 2 ? m dt 2 = d 2 d m dt 2 (6.4) Equation (6.3) shows that the quantity dd m dt represents the deviation of the actual rotor speed from the synchronous speed in mechanical radian per second. Substituting equation (6.4) into equation (6.1) one gets, J d 2 d m dt 2 =T a =T m -T e (6.5) Now. let us de?ne the angular velocity of the rotor to be? m = d? m dt . From equation (6.5) we get, J? m d 2 d m dt 2 =? m T a =? m T m -? m T e Or, J? m d 2 d m dt 2 =P a =P m -P e (6.6) In equation (6.6),P a ,P e andP m denote the accelerating power, electrical output power and the input mechanical power (less than the rotational power loss) respectively. The quantityJ? m is the angular momentum of the rotor and at synchronous speed, it is known as the inertia constant and is denoted by M. Strictly, the quantity J? m is not constant at all operating conditions since? m keeps on varying. However, when the machine is stable,? m does not di?er signi?cantly from? sm and hence,J? m can be taken approximately equal toM. Hence, from equation (6.6) we obtain, M d 2 d m dt 2 =P a =P m -P e (6.7) Now, in machine data, another constant related to inertia, namely H-constant is often encoun- tered. This is de?ned as; H = stored kinetic energy in megajoules at synchronous speed machine rating in MVA Or, H = 1 2 J? sm 2 S mc = 1 2 M? sm S mc MJ/MVA= 1 2 M? sm S mc sec. (6.8) In equation (6.8), the quantity S mc is the three phase MVA rating of the synchronous machine. Now, from equation (6.8), M = 2HS mc ? sm MJ/mech. rad (6.9) Substituting forM in equation (6.7), we get, 2H ? sm d 2 d m dt 2 = P a S mc = P m -P e S mc (6.10) In equation (6.10), bothd m and? sm are in mechanical units. Now, the corresponding quantities 254Read More

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