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Digital Logic Families
1
Page 2


Digital Logic Families
1
Overview
 Integration, Moore’s law
 Early families (DL, RTL)
 TTL
 Evolution of TTL family
 ECL
 CMOS family and its evolution
 Overview
2
Page 3


Digital Logic Families
1
Overview
 Integration, Moore’s law
 Early families (DL, RTL)
 TTL
 Evolution of TTL family
 ECL
 CMOS family and its evolution
 Overview
2
Integration Levels
 Gate/transistor ratio is roughly 1/10
– SSI < 12 gates/chip
– MSI < 100 gates/chip
– LSI …1K gates/chip
– VLSI …10K gates/chip
– ULSI …100K gates/chip
– GSI …1Meg gates/chip
3
Page 4


Digital Logic Families
1
Overview
 Integration, Moore’s law
 Early families (DL, RTL)
 TTL
 Evolution of TTL family
 ECL
 CMOS family and its evolution
 Overview
2
Integration Levels
 Gate/transistor ratio is roughly 1/10
– SSI < 12 gates/chip
– MSI < 100 gates/chip
– LSI …1K gates/chip
– VLSI …10K gates/chip
– ULSI …100K gates/chip
– GSI …1Meg gates/chip
3
Moore’s law
 A prediction made by Moore (a co-founder of Intel) in
1965: “… a number of transistors to double every 2
years.”
4
Page 5


Digital Logic Families
1
Overview
 Integration, Moore’s law
 Early families (DL, RTL)
 TTL
 Evolution of TTL family
 ECL
 CMOS family and its evolution
 Overview
2
Integration Levels
 Gate/transistor ratio is roughly 1/10
– SSI < 12 gates/chip
– MSI < 100 gates/chip
– LSI …1K gates/chip
– VLSI …10K gates/chip
– ULSI …100K gates/chip
– GSI …1Meg gates/chip
3
Moore’s law
 A prediction made by Moore (a co-founder of Intel) in
1965: “… a number of transistors to double every 2
years.”
4
In the beginning…
Diode Logic (DL)
 simplest; does not scale
 NOT not possible (need
an active element)
=
=
Resistor-Transistor
Logic (RTL)
 replace diode switch
with a transistor switch
 can be cascaded
 large power draw
5
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FAQs on PPT: Digital Logic Families - Digital Electronics - Electrical Engineering (EE)

1. What are digital logic families?
Ans. Digital logic families are groups of electronic logic circuits that use similar principles for their operation. They are used to design and implement digital systems, such as computers and other electronic devices. Each family is characterized by its specific voltage levels, power consumption, speed, and compatibility with other logic families.
2. How do different digital logic families differ from each other?
Ans. Different digital logic families differ from each other based on their voltage levels, power consumption, speed, and compatibility. For example, TTL (Transistor-Transistor Logic) family uses a 5V power supply and has relatively higher power consumption compared to CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) family, which operates at a lower voltage level and consumes less power. Each family has its advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of logic family depends on the specific requirements of the digital system.
3. What are the advantages of using CMOS logic family?
Ans. CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) logic family offers several advantages. It operates at a lower voltage level, resulting in reduced power consumption and heat dissipation. CMOS circuits also have higher noise immunity and can tolerate a wider range of input voltages. Additionally, CMOS technology allows for higher integration density, enabling the design of complex digital systems with a smaller physical footprint.
4. Can different digital logic families be interfaced with each other?
Ans. Yes, different digital logic families can be interfaced with each other using level-shifting techniques. Since each logic family operates at different voltage levels, voltage level converters or level shifters can be used to translate signals between them. This allows for the integration of different logic families in a single digital system, taking advantage of the strengths of each family.
5. What are the considerations in selecting a digital logic family for a specific application?
Ans. When selecting a digital logic family for a specific application, several factors need to be considered. These include the required speed of operation, power consumption limitations, voltage levels of the system, noise immunity requirements, and compatibility with other system components. The design engineer needs to evaluate these factors and choose a logic family that best meets the requirements of the application in terms of performance, power efficiency, and compatibility.
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