PPT - Petroleum Refinery Basics Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Chemical Technology

Chemical Engineering : PPT - Petroleum Refinery Basics Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Petroleum Refinery 
Basics 
• Crude Oil components 
• Refinery Flowchart 
• Other refinery units 
• Unit Opns & Unit Proces in refining 
• Physical and process Hazards 
 
 
 
Page 2


Petroleum Refinery 
Basics 
• Crude Oil components 
• Refinery Flowchart 
• Other refinery units 
• Unit Opns & Unit Proces in refining 
• Physical and process Hazards 
 
 
 
Petroleum is extracted from underground reserves; 
then it is cracked or “refined” into end products for 
various uses. The petroleum industry thus has two 
parts: an oil exploration and production industry 
upstream and a refinery industry downstream. 
Most oil producers also own refineries. But the 
reverse is not true; a high proportion of oil is sold 
to refinery companies that do not produce crude 
oil. 
Page 3


Petroleum Refinery 
Basics 
• Crude Oil components 
• Refinery Flowchart 
• Other refinery units 
• Unit Opns & Unit Proces in refining 
• Physical and process Hazards 
 
 
 
Petroleum is extracted from underground reserves; 
then it is cracked or “refined” into end products for 
various uses. The petroleum industry thus has two 
parts: an oil exploration and production industry 
upstream and a refinery industry downstream. 
Most oil producers also own refineries. But the 
reverse is not true; a high proportion of oil is sold 
to refinery companies that do not produce crude 
oil. 
Refining Means. . . 
1. To reduce to a pure state, to remove 
impurities 
 
2. To improve or perfect 
 
   Salable products are made from crude. 
Page 4


Petroleum Refinery 
Basics 
• Crude Oil components 
• Refinery Flowchart 
• Other refinery units 
• Unit Opns & Unit Proces in refining 
• Physical and process Hazards 
 
 
 
Petroleum is extracted from underground reserves; 
then it is cracked or “refined” into end products for 
various uses. The petroleum industry thus has two 
parts: an oil exploration and production industry 
upstream and a refinery industry downstream. 
Most oil producers also own refineries. But the 
reverse is not true; a high proportion of oil is sold 
to refinery companies that do not produce crude 
oil. 
Refining Means. . . 
1. To reduce to a pure state, to remove 
impurities 
 
2. To improve or perfect 
 
   Salable products are made from crude. 
What is Crude Oil? 
• Mixture of organic 
carbon chain 
molecules 
• Impurities include 
sulfur and nitrogen 
compounds 
• Some metals and 
salts too 
 
 
 
Page 5


Petroleum Refinery 
Basics 
• Crude Oil components 
• Refinery Flowchart 
• Other refinery units 
• Unit Opns & Unit Proces in refining 
• Physical and process Hazards 
 
 
 
Petroleum is extracted from underground reserves; 
then it is cracked or “refined” into end products for 
various uses. The petroleum industry thus has two 
parts: an oil exploration and production industry 
upstream and a refinery industry downstream. 
Most oil producers also own refineries. But the 
reverse is not true; a high proportion of oil is sold 
to refinery companies that do not produce crude 
oil. 
Refining Means. . . 
1. To reduce to a pure state, to remove 
impurities 
 
2. To improve or perfect 
 
   Salable products are made from crude. 
What is Crude Oil? 
• Mixture of organic 
carbon chain 
molecules 
• Impurities include 
sulfur and nitrogen 
compounds 
• Some metals and 
salts too 
 
 
 
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