PPT: Structure of Clay Minerals Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev

Soil Mechanics

Civil Engineering (CE) : PPT: Structure of Clay Minerals Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev

 Page 2


CONTENTS
• INTRODUCTION
• BASIC STRUCTURAL UNITS OF CLAY MINERAL
• TYPES OF PREV ALENT BONDING
• CLAY MINERAL CLASSIFICATION
• CONCLUSION
• REFERENCES
Page 3


CONTENTS
• INTRODUCTION
• BASIC STRUCTURAL UNITS OF CLAY MINERAL
• TYPES OF PREV ALENT BONDING
• CLAY MINERAL CLASSIFICATION
• CONCLUSION
• REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
? Clay minerals are layer silicates that are formed usually as
products of chemical weathering of other silicate minerals at
the earth's surface. They are found most often in shales, the
most common type of sedimentary rock.
? Chemical weathering results in the formation of groups of
crystalline particles of colloidal size(<.002mm) is known as
clay mineral.
? Soil structure means the geometrical arrangement of particle
in a soil mass, relative to each other and the forces acting
between them to hold them together in their positions.
Page 4


CONTENTS
• INTRODUCTION
• BASIC STRUCTURAL UNITS OF CLAY MINERAL
• TYPES OF PREV ALENT BONDING
• CLAY MINERAL CLASSIFICATION
• CONCLUSION
• REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
? Clay minerals are layer silicates that are formed usually as
products of chemical weathering of other silicate minerals at
the earth's surface. They are found most often in shales, the
most common type of sedimentary rock.
? Chemical weathering results in the formation of groups of
crystalline particles of colloidal size(<.002mm) is known as
clay mineral.
? Soil structure means the geometrical arrangement of particle
in a soil mass, relative to each other and the forces acting
between them to hold them together in their positions.
BASIC STRUCTURAL UNITS OF 
CLAY MINERAL
Tetrahedron or Silica unit:
? It is formed by connecting the centers of the four
oxygen anions surrounding a central cation.
? In the clay minerals the predominant central cation of
the tetrahedron is silicon.
? The isolated tetrahedron has a net negative charge of -4
(Si with 4+ charges and four O with 2- charges).
Page 5


CONTENTS
• INTRODUCTION
• BASIC STRUCTURAL UNITS OF CLAY MINERAL
• TYPES OF PREV ALENT BONDING
• CLAY MINERAL CLASSIFICATION
• CONCLUSION
• REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
? Clay minerals are layer silicates that are formed usually as
products of chemical weathering of other silicate minerals at
the earth's surface. They are found most often in shales, the
most common type of sedimentary rock.
? Chemical weathering results in the formation of groups of
crystalline particles of colloidal size(<.002mm) is known as
clay mineral.
? Soil structure means the geometrical arrangement of particle
in a soil mass, relative to each other and the forces acting
between them to hold them together in their positions.
BASIC STRUCTURAL UNITS OF 
CLAY MINERAL
Tetrahedron or Silica unit:
? It is formed by connecting the centers of the four
oxygen anions surrounding a central cation.
? In the clay minerals the predominant central cation of
the tetrahedron is silicon.
? The isolated tetrahedron has a net negative charge of -4
(Si with 4+ charges and four O with 2- charges).
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