PPT - Use of Statistical Tools Commerce Notes | EduRev

Economics Class 11

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Commerce : PPT - Use of Statistical Tools Commerce Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Statistical Tools used in Research
Central University of Himachal Pradesh
Page 2


Statistical Tools used in Research
Central University of Himachal Pradesh
Statistics Defined Correlation Hypothesis
• Hypothesis : 
Alpha
• Hypothesis : 
Beta
Chi-Square Test of 
Independence
Regression 
analysis
Factor Analysis
References 
Page 3


Statistical Tools used in Research
Central University of Himachal Pradesh
Statistics Defined Correlation Hypothesis
• Hypothesis : 
Alpha
• Hypothesis : 
Beta
Chi-Square Test of 
Independence
Regression 
analysis
Factor Analysis
References 
Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of
empirical data expressed in quantitative form. It is based on statistical theory which is a branch
of applied mathematics. Within statistical theory, randomness and uncertainty are modelled by
probability theory. (Wikipedia Encyclopaedia)
Whatisstatistics?
? The collecting, summarizing, and analysing of data.
? The term also refers to raw numbers, or “stats”, and to the summarization of data.
Example: Frequencies
Page 4


Statistical Tools used in Research
Central University of Himachal Pradesh
Statistics Defined Correlation Hypothesis
• Hypothesis : 
Alpha
• Hypothesis : 
Beta
Chi-Square Test of 
Independence
Regression 
analysis
Factor Analysis
References 
Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of
empirical data expressed in quantitative form. It is based on statistical theory which is a branch
of applied mathematics. Within statistical theory, randomness and uncertainty are modelled by
probability theory. (Wikipedia Encyclopaedia)
Whatisstatistics?
? The collecting, summarizing, and analysing of data.
? The term also refers to raw numbers, or “stats”, and to the summarization of data.
Example: Frequencies
Allows an examination of the relationship between variables; is there a relationship between 
these variables? Are they positively or negatively related? 
A correlation coefficient of 0 means that there is no relationship between the variables, -1 
negative relationship, 1 positive relationship.
Important: Correlation is not causation.
•"Correlation Is Not Causation" ... which says that a correlation does not mean that one thing causes the other (there 
could be other reasons the data has a good correlation).
Ex. What is the relationship between exercise and depression? 
•Does depression increase when exercise increases? 
•Does depression decrease when exercise increases? 
•Is there no significant correlation between exercise and depression? 
Page 5


Statistical Tools used in Research
Central University of Himachal Pradesh
Statistics Defined Correlation Hypothesis
• Hypothesis : 
Alpha
• Hypothesis : 
Beta
Chi-Square Test of 
Independence
Regression 
analysis
Factor Analysis
References 
Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of
empirical data expressed in quantitative form. It is based on statistical theory which is a branch
of applied mathematics. Within statistical theory, randomness and uncertainty are modelled by
probability theory. (Wikipedia Encyclopaedia)
Whatisstatistics?
? The collecting, summarizing, and analysing of data.
? The term also refers to raw numbers, or “stats”, and to the summarization of data.
Example: Frequencies
Allows an examination of the relationship between variables; is there a relationship between 
these variables? Are they positively or negatively related? 
A correlation coefficient of 0 means that there is no relationship between the variables, -1 
negative relationship, 1 positive relationship.
Important: Correlation is not causation.
•"Correlation Is Not Causation" ... which says that a correlation does not mean that one thing causes the other (there 
could be other reasons the data has a good correlation).
Ex. What is the relationship between exercise and depression? 
•Does depression increase when exercise increases? 
•Does depression decrease when exercise increases? 
•Is there no significant correlation between exercise and depression? 
? Correlation is Positive when the values increase together, and
? Correlation is Negative when one value decreases as the other increases
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