PRINCIPLES OF HYDROPOWER ENGINEERING - Module 5 HYDROPOWER ENGINEERING Lesson 1 Mechanical Engineering Notes | EduRev

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Mechanical Engineering : PRINCIPLES OF HYDROPOWER ENGINEERING - Module 5 HYDROPOWER ENGINEERING Lesson 1 Mechanical Engineering Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Module 
5 
  
HYDROPOWER 
ENGINEERING 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
Page 2


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Module 
5 
  
HYDROPOWER 
ENGINEERING 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LESSON  
1 
 
PRINCIPLES OF 
HYDROPOWER 
ENGINEERING  
 
 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
Page 3


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Module 
5 
  
HYDROPOWER 
ENGINEERING 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LESSON  
1 
 
PRINCIPLES OF 
HYDROPOWER 
ENGINEERING  
 
 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
Instructional objectives 
 
On completion of this lesson, the student shall learn about: 
 
1. Potential of hydropower that may be generated from a stream 
2. Hydropower potential in India and the world 
3. Types of hydropower generation plants 
4. layouts of hydropower plants 
 
5.1.0 Introduction 
 
The water of the oceans and water bodies on land are evaporated by the energy of the 
sun’s heat and gets transported as clouds to different parts of the earth. The clouds 
travelling over land and falling as rain on earth produces flows in the rivers which 
returns back to the sea. The water of rivers and streams, while flowing down from 
places of higher elevations to those with lower elevations, loose their potential energy 
and gain kinetic energy. The energy is quite high in many rivers which have caused 
them to etch their own path on the earth’s surface through millions of years of 
continuous erosion. In almost every river, the energy still continues to deepen the 
channels and migrate by cutting the banks, though the extent of morphological changes 
vary from river to river. Much of the energy of a river’s flowing water gets dissipated due 
to friction encountered with its banks or through loss of energy through internal 
turbulence. Nevertheless, the energy of water always gets replenished by the solar 
energy which is responsible for the eternal circulation of the Hydrologic Cycle.  
Hydropower engineering tries to tap this vast amount of energy available in the flowing 
water on the earth’s surface and convert that to electricity. There is another form of 
water energy that is used for hydropower development: the variation of the ocean water 
with time due to the moon’s pull, which is termed as the tide. Hence, hydropower 
engineering deals with mostly two forms of energy and suggest methods for converting 
the energy of water into electric energy. In nature, a flowing stream of water dissipates 
throughout the length of the watercourse and is of little use for power generation. To 
make the flowing water do work usefully for some purpose like power generation (it has 
been used to drive water wheels to grind grains at many hilly regions for years), it is 
necessary to create a head at a point of the stream and to convey the water through the 
head to the turbines which will transform the energy of the water into mechanical energy 
to be further converted to electrical energy by generators. The necessary head can be 
created in different ways of which two have been practically accepted.  
These are: 
 
1. Building a dam across a stream to hold back water and release it through a channel, 
conduit or a tunnel (Figure 1) 
 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
Page 4


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Module 
5 
  
HYDROPOWER 
ENGINEERING 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LESSON  
1 
 
PRINCIPLES OF 
HYDROPOWER 
ENGINEERING  
 
 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
Instructional objectives 
 
On completion of this lesson, the student shall learn about: 
 
1. Potential of hydropower that may be generated from a stream 
2. Hydropower potential in India and the world 
3. Types of hydropower generation plants 
4. layouts of hydropower plants 
 
5.1.0 Introduction 
 
The water of the oceans and water bodies on land are evaporated by the energy of the 
sun’s heat and gets transported as clouds to different parts of the earth. The clouds 
travelling over land and falling as rain on earth produces flows in the rivers which 
returns back to the sea. The water of rivers and streams, while flowing down from 
places of higher elevations to those with lower elevations, loose their potential energy 
and gain kinetic energy. The energy is quite high in many rivers which have caused 
them to etch their own path on the earth’s surface through millions of years of 
continuous erosion. In almost every river, the energy still continues to deepen the 
channels and migrate by cutting the banks, though the extent of morphological changes 
vary from river to river. Much of the energy of a river’s flowing water gets dissipated due 
to friction encountered with its banks or through loss of energy through internal 
turbulence. Nevertheless, the energy of water always gets replenished by the solar 
energy which is responsible for the eternal circulation of the Hydrologic Cycle.  
Hydropower engineering tries to tap this vast amount of energy available in the flowing 
water on the earth’s surface and convert that to electricity. There is another form of 
water energy that is used for hydropower development: the variation of the ocean water 
with time due to the moon’s pull, which is termed as the tide. Hence, hydropower 
engineering deals with mostly two forms of energy and suggest methods for converting 
the energy of water into electric energy. In nature, a flowing stream of water dissipates 
throughout the length of the watercourse and is of little use for power generation. To 
make the flowing water do work usefully for some purpose like power generation (it has 
been used to drive water wheels to grind grains at many hilly regions for years), it is 
necessary to create a head at a point of the stream and to convey the water through the 
head to the turbines which will transform the energy of the water into mechanical energy 
to be further converted to electrical energy by generators. The necessary head can be 
created in different ways of which two have been practically accepted.  
These are: 
 
1. Building a dam across a stream to hold back water and release it through a channel, 
conduit or a tunnel (Figure 1) 
 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
 
2. Divert a part of the stream by creating a low-head diversion structure like barrage. 
(Figure 2) 
 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
Page 5


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Module 
5 
  
HYDROPOWER 
ENGINEERING 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LESSON  
1 
 
PRINCIPLES OF 
HYDROPOWER 
ENGINEERING  
 
 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
Instructional objectives 
 
On completion of this lesson, the student shall learn about: 
 
1. Potential of hydropower that may be generated from a stream 
2. Hydropower potential in India and the world 
3. Types of hydropower generation plants 
4. layouts of hydropower plants 
 
5.1.0 Introduction 
 
The water of the oceans and water bodies on land are evaporated by the energy of the 
sun’s heat and gets transported as clouds to different parts of the earth. The clouds 
travelling over land and falling as rain on earth produces flows in the rivers which 
returns back to the sea. The water of rivers and streams, while flowing down from 
places of higher elevations to those with lower elevations, loose their potential energy 
and gain kinetic energy. The energy is quite high in many rivers which have caused 
them to etch their own path on the earth’s surface through millions of years of 
continuous erosion. In almost every river, the energy still continues to deepen the 
channels and migrate by cutting the banks, though the extent of morphological changes 
vary from river to river. Much of the energy of a river’s flowing water gets dissipated due 
to friction encountered with its banks or through loss of energy through internal 
turbulence. Nevertheless, the energy of water always gets replenished by the solar 
energy which is responsible for the eternal circulation of the Hydrologic Cycle.  
Hydropower engineering tries to tap this vast amount of energy available in the flowing 
water on the earth’s surface and convert that to electricity. There is another form of 
water energy that is used for hydropower development: the variation of the ocean water 
with time due to the moon’s pull, which is termed as the tide. Hence, hydropower 
engineering deals with mostly two forms of energy and suggest methods for converting 
the energy of water into electric energy. In nature, a flowing stream of water dissipates 
throughout the length of the watercourse and is of little use for power generation. To 
make the flowing water do work usefully for some purpose like power generation (it has 
been used to drive water wheels to grind grains at many hilly regions for years), it is 
necessary to create a head at a point of the stream and to convey the water through the 
head to the turbines which will transform the energy of the water into mechanical energy 
to be further converted to electrical energy by generators. The necessary head can be 
created in different ways of which two have been practically accepted.  
These are: 
 
1. Building a dam across a stream to hold back water and release it through a channel, 
conduit or a tunnel (Figure 1) 
 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
 
2. Divert a part of the stream by creating a low-head diversion structure like barrage. 
(Figure 2) 
 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
 
A series of integrated power developments along the same watercourse form what may 
be called a multistage hydroelectric system in which each portion of the river with a 
power plant of its own is referred to as a stage (Figure 3). The head created by a dam 
put across a lowland river usually ranges from 30 to 40m. In mountainous terrain, it may 
run over 200m.  
 
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur 
 
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