A participle is a word derived from a verb that can be used as an adjective or to form certain verb tenses.
Non Finite Verb का रूप जिसमे Verb एवं Adjective दोनों के गुण हो, अर्थात जो दोनों के रूप में प्रयुक्त हो, वह Participle कहलाता है. जब भी participle का का प्रयोग Verb के रूप में होता है, तो उसके साथ auxiliary verb भी मौजूद होता है.
दुसरें शब्दों में, Participle, क्रिया का वह रूप है जिसमें Verb के साथ Adjective के भी गुण निहित होते हैं. अर्थात, यह मूल रूप से एक Verb एवं Adjective का भूमिका भी निभाता है. इसीलिए, यह Verbal Adjective के नाम से प्रसिद्ध है.
1. Present Participles (वर्तमान प्रतिभागी): Present participles are formed by adding "-ing" to the base form of a verb in English. In Hindi, they are formed by adding the suffix "-ता," "-ती," or "-ते" to the root verb, depending on the gender and number.
2. Past Participles (भूतकालिक प्रतिभागी): Past participles are formed by adding "-ed" or "-en" to the base form of regular verbs in English, while irregular verbs have unique past participle forms. In Hindi, past participles are formed by adding the suffix "-ा," "-ी," or "-े" to the root verb, depending on the gender and number.
3. Perfect Participles: Perfect participles are formed by adding the auxiliary verb "हो" before the past participle in Hindi.
Exercise 1: Identify the type of participle in the following sentences.
Baked in the oven, the cookies smelled delicious.
Baked - Past participle
It describes the action that was completed before the current moment (cookies were baked).
The girl, frightened by the dog, ran away.
frightened - Past participle
It describes the girl's state caused by a past action (being frightened by the dog).
The broken window needs to be repaired.
broken - Past participle
It describes the window's state caused by a past action (window was broken).
The student, having studied all night, felt confident.
having studied - Present participle
It describes the action that was happening at the same time as another action (student studying all night).
The letter, written in haste, contained several errors.
written - Past participle
It describes the letter's state caused by a past action (letter was written).
Exercise 2: Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the participle (present or past) of the given verb.
The (paint) walls looked fresh and clean.
The painted walls looked fresh and clean.
The action of painting the walls is completed, so the past participle "painted" is needed.
(Grow) tired of the noise, she decided to move.
Grown tired of the noise, she decided to move.
The action of growing tired is completed before she decides to move, so the past participle "grown" is needed.
The (work) students were proud of their accomplishments.
The working students were proud of their accomplishments.
The action of working is happening at the same time as being proud, so the present participle "working" is needed.
The (fall) leaves covered the ground.
The fallen leaves covered the ground.
The action of falling is completed before the leaves cover the ground, so the past participle "fallen" is needed.
(Read) the book, she felt inspired.
Having read the book, she felt inspired.
The action of reading the book is completed before she feels inspired, so the present participle "having read" is needed.
Exercise 3: Rewrite the sentences by changing the position of the participle phrase.
The children, exhausted from the day, went straight to bed.
Exhausted from the day, the children went straight to bed.
The dog, wagging its tail, greeted its owner.
Wagging its tail, the dog greeted its owner.
The cake, covered in chocolate, looked delicious.
Covered in chocolate, the cake looked delicious.
The students, listening attentively, absorbed the information.
Listening attentively, the students absorbed the information.
The flowers, watered every day, bloomed beautifully.
Watered every day, the flowers bloomed beautifully.