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# Periodic Table JEE Notes | EduRev

## JEE : Periodic Table JEE Notes | EduRev

``` Page 1

INTRODUCTION : Periodic table helps us to undergo a systematic study of the various elements found in
nature, Without which it would have been impossible for us to study all the elements. By classifying the elements
into various groups and periods a comparative study of the elements and their compounds can be done. It also
help us to analyze the periodic trend in various properties such as ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity etc.
DEVELOPMENT OF PERIODIC TABLE
1 . PROUT'S HYPOTHESIS
He simply assumed that all the elements are made up of hydrogen, so we can say that
Atomic weight of element = n ×  (Atomic weight of one hydrogen atom)
Atomic weight of H = 1 where n = number of hydrogen atom = 1, 2, 3,....
Drawback or Limitation :
(a) Every element can not be formed by Hydrogen.
(b) The atomic weights of all elements were not found as whole numbers.
Ex. Chlorine (atomic weight 35.5) and Strontium (atomic weight 87.5)
J.W. Dorbereiner pointed out that within a group of three elements having similar chemical and physical properties,
the atomic weight of the middle element is the mean of the other two. Some examples of such triads are given
below. He also pointed out the triad - iron, cobalt and nickel in which the atomic weights of the elements are
almost the same.
Triad Li N a K Ca Sr B a S S e Te Cl  Br I
Elements
Atomic weight 7 2 3 3 9 4 0 8 8 137 3 2 8 0 128 35.5  80 127
Mean value          23 88.5 8 0 81.25
Other example. (K, Rb, Cs), (P, As, Sb) (H, F, Cl) (Sc, Y, La).
Though it was the first successful attempt to rationalise the problem, it could not be generalised or extended.
Drawback or Limitation :  All the known elements could not be arranged as triads.
3 . NEWLAND'S OCTET LAW
John Alexander Reina newland in England made the first attempt to correlate the chamical properties of the
elements with their atomic weight. According to him -
(a) If the elements are arranged in order to their increasing atomic weights, every eighth element had similar
properties to first one like the first and eighth  note in music. For example
Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa
Li Be B C N O F Na
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl K
PERIODIC TABLE
JEEMAIN.GURU
Page 2

INTRODUCTION : Periodic table helps us to undergo a systematic study of the various elements found in
nature, Without which it would have been impossible for us to study all the elements. By classifying the elements
into various groups and periods a comparative study of the elements and their compounds can be done. It also
help us to analyze the periodic trend in various properties such as ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity etc.
DEVELOPMENT OF PERIODIC TABLE
1 . PROUT'S HYPOTHESIS
He simply assumed that all the elements are made up of hydrogen, so we can say that
Atomic weight of element = n ×  (Atomic weight of one hydrogen atom)
Atomic weight of H = 1 where n = number of hydrogen atom = 1, 2, 3,....
Drawback or Limitation :
(a) Every element can not be formed by Hydrogen.
(b) The atomic weights of all elements were not found as whole numbers.
Ex. Chlorine (atomic weight 35.5) and Strontium (atomic weight 87.5)
J.W. Dorbereiner pointed out that within a group of three elements having similar chemical and physical properties,
the atomic weight of the middle element is the mean of the other two. Some examples of such triads are given
below. He also pointed out the triad - iron, cobalt and nickel in which the atomic weights of the elements are
almost the same.
Triad Li N a K Ca Sr B a S S e Te Cl  Br I
Elements
Atomic weight 7 2 3 3 9 4 0 8 8 137 3 2 8 0 128 35.5  80 127
Mean value          23 88.5 8 0 81.25
Other example. (K, Rb, Cs), (P, As, Sb) (H, F, Cl) (Sc, Y, La).
Though it was the first successful attempt to rationalise the problem, it could not be generalised or extended.
Drawback or Limitation :  All the known elements could not be arranged as triads.
3 . NEWLAND'S OCTET LAW
John Alexander Reina newland in England made the first attempt to correlate the chamical properties of the
elements with their atomic weight. According to him -
(a) If the elements are arranged in order to their increasing atomic weights, every eighth element had similar
properties to first one like the first and eighth  note in music. For example
Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa
Li Be B C N O F Na
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl K
PERIODIC TABLE
JEEMAIN.GURU
(b) Inert gases were not discovered till then.
(c) All the elements could not be classified on this basis.
4 . LOTHER MEYER'S CURVE:
(a) He plotted a curve between atomic weight and atomic volume of different elements.
(b) The following observation can be made from the curve –
(i) Most electropositive elements i.e. alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs etc.) occupy the peak positions on
the curve.
(ii) Less electropositive i.e. alkali earth metal (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) occupy the descending position on the
curve.
(iii) Metalloids (B, Si, As, Te, At etc.) and transition metals occupy bottom part of the curve.
(iv) Most electronegative i.e. halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) occupy the ascending position on the curve.
Note : Elements having similar properties occupy similar position on the curve.
Conclusion : On the basis of this curve Lother Meyer proposed that the physical properties of the elements are
periodic function of their atomic wt. and this become the base of Mendeleef's periodic table.
5 . TELLURIC HELIX : A three dimensional periodic table given by De-chan-chortois.
6 . MENDELEEF'S PERIODIC TABLE:
(a) Mendeleef's periodic law : The physical and chemical properties of elements are the periodic function
of their atomic weight
(b) Characteristic of Mendeleef's periodic table :
(i) It is based on atomic weight
(ii) 63 elements were known, noble gases were not discovered.
(iii) He was the first scientist to classify the elements in a systamatic manner i.e. in horizontal rows and in
vertical columns.
(iv) Horizontal rows are called periods and there were 7 periods in Mendeleev's Periodic table.
JEEMAIN.GURU
Page 3

INTRODUCTION : Periodic table helps us to undergo a systematic study of the various elements found in
nature, Without which it would have been impossible for us to study all the elements. By classifying the elements
into various groups and periods a comparative study of the elements and their compounds can be done. It also
help us to analyze the periodic trend in various properties such as ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity etc.
DEVELOPMENT OF PERIODIC TABLE
1 . PROUT'S HYPOTHESIS
He simply assumed that all the elements are made up of hydrogen, so we can say that
Atomic weight of element = n ×  (Atomic weight of one hydrogen atom)
Atomic weight of H = 1 where n = number of hydrogen atom = 1, 2, 3,....
Drawback or Limitation :
(a) Every element can not be formed by Hydrogen.
(b) The atomic weights of all elements were not found as whole numbers.
Ex. Chlorine (atomic weight 35.5) and Strontium (atomic weight 87.5)
J.W. Dorbereiner pointed out that within a group of three elements having similar chemical and physical properties,
the atomic weight of the middle element is the mean of the other two. Some examples of such triads are given
below. He also pointed out the triad - iron, cobalt and nickel in which the atomic weights of the elements are
almost the same.
Triad Li N a K Ca Sr B a S S e Te Cl  Br I
Elements
Atomic weight 7 2 3 3 9 4 0 8 8 137 3 2 8 0 128 35.5  80 127
Mean value          23 88.5 8 0 81.25
Other example. (K, Rb, Cs), (P, As, Sb) (H, F, Cl) (Sc, Y, La).
Though it was the first successful attempt to rationalise the problem, it could not be generalised or extended.
Drawback or Limitation :  All the known elements could not be arranged as triads.
3 . NEWLAND'S OCTET LAW
John Alexander Reina newland in England made the first attempt to correlate the chamical properties of the
elements with their atomic weight. According to him -
(a) If the elements are arranged in order to their increasing atomic weights, every eighth element had similar
properties to first one like the first and eighth  note in music. For example
Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa
Li Be B C N O F Na
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl K
PERIODIC TABLE
JEEMAIN.GURU
(b) Inert gases were not discovered till then.
(c) All the elements could not be classified on this basis.
4 . LOTHER MEYER'S CURVE:
(a) He plotted a curve between atomic weight and atomic volume of different elements.
(b) The following observation can be made from the curve –
(i) Most electropositive elements i.e. alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs etc.) occupy the peak positions on
the curve.
(ii) Less electropositive i.e. alkali earth metal (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) occupy the descending position on the
curve.
(iii) Metalloids (B, Si, As, Te, At etc.) and transition metals occupy bottom part of the curve.
(iv) Most electronegative i.e. halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) occupy the ascending position on the curve.
Note : Elements having similar properties occupy similar position on the curve.
Conclusion : On the basis of this curve Lother Meyer proposed that the physical properties of the elements are
periodic function of their atomic wt. and this become the base of Mendeleef's periodic table.
5 . TELLURIC HELIX : A three dimensional periodic table given by De-chan-chortois.
6 . MENDELEEF'S PERIODIC TABLE:
(a) Mendeleef's periodic law : The physical and chemical properties of elements are the periodic function
of their atomic weight
(b) Characteristic of Mendeleef's periodic table :
(i) It is based on atomic weight
(ii) 63 elements were known, noble gases were not discovered.
(iii) He was the first scientist to classify the elements in a systamatic manner i.e. in horizontal rows and in
vertical columns.
(iv) Horizontal rows are called periods and there were 7 periods in Mendeleev's Periodic table.
JEEMAIN.GURU
(v) Vertical columns are called groups and there were 8 groups in Mendeleev's Periodic table.
(vi) Each group upto VII
th
is divided into A & B subgroups.'A' sub groups element are called normal elements
and 'B' sub groups elements are called transition elements.
(vii) The VIII
th
group was consists of 9 elements in three rows (Transitional metals group).
(viii) The elements belonging to same group exhibit similar properties.
(c) Merits or advantages of Mendeleef's periodic table :
(i) Study of elements :  First time all known elements were classified in groups according to their similar
properties. So study of the properties of elements become easier .
(ii) Prediction of new elements : It gave encouragement to the discovery of new elements as some gaps
were left in it.
Sc (Scandium) Ga (Gallium) Ge (Germanium) Tc (Technetium)
These were the elements for whom position and properties were well defined by Mendeleev even before
their discoveries and he left the blank spaces for them in his table.
Ex. Blank space at atomic weight 72 in silicon group was called Eka silicon (means properties like
silicon) and element discovered later was named Germanium .
Similarly other elements discovered after mendeleef periodic tabel were.
Eka aluminium  – Galium(Ga) Eka  Boron  – Scandium (Sc)
Eka Silicon  – Germanium (Ge) Eka Mangense  – Technetium (Tc)
(iii) Correction of doubtful atomic weights : Correction were done in atomic weight of some elements.
Atomic weight = Valency × Equivalent weight.
Initially, it was found that equivalent weight of Be is 4.5 and it is trivalent (V = 3), so the weight of Be was
13.5 and there is no space in Mendeleev's table for this element. So, after correction, it was found that
Be is actually divalent (V = 2). So, the weight of Be became 2 × 4.5 = 9 and there was a space between
Li and B for this element in Mendeleev's table.
– Corrections were done in atomic weight of elements are – U, Be, In, Au, Pt.
(d) Defects of Mendeleef's Periodic Table:
(i) Position of hydrogen is uncertain. It has been placed in lA and VII A groups because of its resemblance
with both the groups.
(ii) No separate positions were given to isotopes.
(iii) It is not clear whether the lanthanides and actinides are related to IIA or IIB group.
(iv) Although there is no resemblance except valency of subgroups A and B, they have been put in the same
group.
(v) Order of increasing atomic weights is not strictly followed in the arrangement of elements in the periodic
table. For e.g. – Co (At. wt. 58.9) is placed before I (127) and Ar (39.9) before K (39).
JEEMAIN.GURU
Page 4

INTRODUCTION : Periodic table helps us to undergo a systematic study of the various elements found in
nature, Without which it would have been impossible for us to study all the elements. By classifying the elements
into various groups and periods a comparative study of the elements and their compounds can be done. It also
help us to analyze the periodic trend in various properties such as ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity etc.
DEVELOPMENT OF PERIODIC TABLE
1 . PROUT'S HYPOTHESIS
He simply assumed that all the elements are made up of hydrogen, so we can say that
Atomic weight of element = n ×  (Atomic weight of one hydrogen atom)
Atomic weight of H = 1 where n = number of hydrogen atom = 1, 2, 3,....
Drawback or Limitation :
(a) Every element can not be formed by Hydrogen.
(b) The atomic weights of all elements were not found as whole numbers.
Ex. Chlorine (atomic weight 35.5) and Strontium (atomic weight 87.5)
J.W. Dorbereiner pointed out that within a group of three elements having similar chemical and physical properties,
the atomic weight of the middle element is the mean of the other two. Some examples of such triads are given
below. He also pointed out the triad - iron, cobalt and nickel in which the atomic weights of the elements are
almost the same.
Triad Li N a K Ca Sr B a S S e Te Cl  Br I
Elements
Atomic weight 7 2 3 3 9 4 0 8 8 137 3 2 8 0 128 35.5  80 127
Mean value          23 88.5 8 0 81.25
Other example. (K, Rb, Cs), (P, As, Sb) (H, F, Cl) (Sc, Y, La).
Though it was the first successful attempt to rationalise the problem, it could not be generalised or extended.
Drawback or Limitation :  All the known elements could not be arranged as triads.
3 . NEWLAND'S OCTET LAW
John Alexander Reina newland in England made the first attempt to correlate the chamical properties of the
elements with their atomic weight. According to him -
(a) If the elements are arranged in order to their increasing atomic weights, every eighth element had similar
properties to first one like the first and eighth  note in music. For example
Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa
Li Be B C N O F Na
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl K
PERIODIC TABLE
JEEMAIN.GURU
(b) Inert gases were not discovered till then.
(c) All the elements could not be classified on this basis.
4 . LOTHER MEYER'S CURVE:
(a) He plotted a curve between atomic weight and atomic volume of different elements.
(b) The following observation can be made from the curve –
(i) Most electropositive elements i.e. alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs etc.) occupy the peak positions on
the curve.
(ii) Less electropositive i.e. alkali earth metal (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) occupy the descending position on the
curve.
(iii) Metalloids (B, Si, As, Te, At etc.) and transition metals occupy bottom part of the curve.
(iv) Most electronegative i.e. halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) occupy the ascending position on the curve.
Note : Elements having similar properties occupy similar position on the curve.
Conclusion : On the basis of this curve Lother Meyer proposed that the physical properties of the elements are
periodic function of their atomic wt. and this become the base of Mendeleef's periodic table.
5 . TELLURIC HELIX : A three dimensional periodic table given by De-chan-chortois.
6 . MENDELEEF'S PERIODIC TABLE:
(a) Mendeleef's periodic law : The physical and chemical properties of elements are the periodic function
of their atomic weight
(b) Characteristic of Mendeleef's periodic table :
(i) It is based on atomic weight
(ii) 63 elements were known, noble gases were not discovered.
(iii) He was the first scientist to classify the elements in a systamatic manner i.e. in horizontal rows and in
vertical columns.
(iv) Horizontal rows are called periods and there were 7 periods in Mendeleev's Periodic table.
JEEMAIN.GURU
(v) Vertical columns are called groups and there were 8 groups in Mendeleev's Periodic table.
(vi) Each group upto VII
th
is divided into A & B subgroups.'A' sub groups element are called normal elements
and 'B' sub groups elements are called transition elements.
(vii) The VIII
th
group was consists of 9 elements in three rows (Transitional metals group).
(viii) The elements belonging to same group exhibit similar properties.
(c) Merits or advantages of Mendeleef's periodic table :
(i) Study of elements :  First time all known elements were classified in groups according to their similar
properties. So study of the properties of elements become easier .
(ii) Prediction of new elements : It gave encouragement to the discovery of new elements as some gaps
were left in it.
Sc (Scandium) Ga (Gallium) Ge (Germanium) Tc (Technetium)
These were the elements for whom position and properties were well defined by Mendeleev even before
their discoveries and he left the blank spaces for them in his table.
Ex. Blank space at atomic weight 72 in silicon group was called Eka silicon (means properties like
silicon) and element discovered later was named Germanium .
Similarly other elements discovered after mendeleef periodic tabel were.
Eka aluminium  – Galium(Ga) Eka  Boron  – Scandium (Sc)
Eka Silicon  – Germanium (Ge) Eka Mangense  – Technetium (Tc)
(iii) Correction of doubtful atomic weights : Correction were done in atomic weight of some elements.
Atomic weight = Valency × Equivalent weight.
Initially, it was found that equivalent weight of Be is 4.5 and it is trivalent (V = 3), so the weight of Be was
13.5 and there is no space in Mendeleev's table for this element. So, after correction, it was found that
Be is actually divalent (V = 2). So, the weight of Be became 2 × 4.5 = 9 and there was a space between
Li and B for this element in Mendeleev's table.
– Corrections were done in atomic weight of elements are – U, Be, In, Au, Pt.
(d) Defects of Mendeleef's Periodic Table:
(i) Position of hydrogen is uncertain. It has been placed in lA and VII A groups because of its resemblance
with both the groups.
(ii) No separate positions were given to isotopes.
(iii) It is not clear whether the lanthanides and actinides are related to IIA or IIB group.
(iv) Although there is no resemblance except valency of subgroups A and B, they have been put in the same
group.
(v) Order of increasing atomic weights is not strictly followed in the arrangement of elements in the periodic
table. For e.g. – Co (At. wt. 58.9) is placed before I (127) and Ar (39.9) before K (39).
JEEMAIN.GURU
7 . MODERN PERIODIC TABLE (MODIFIED MENDELEEF PERIODIC TABLE) :
(a) It was proposed by Moseley.
(b) Modern periodic table is based on atomic number.
(c) Moseley did an experiment in which he bombarded high speed electron on different metal surfaces and
obtained X-rays.
He found out that
? ? Z
where ? ?= frequency of X-rays, Z = atomic number. .
(d) Modern periodic law : The physical & chemical properties of elements are the periodic function of
their atomic number.
Characteristics of modern periodic table
(a) 9 vertical columns called groups.
(b) I
st
to VIII group + 0 group of inert gases.
(c) Inert gases were introduced in periodic table by Ramsay.
(d) 7 horizontal series called periods.
8 . LONG FORM / PRESENT FORM OF MODERN PERIODIC TABLE :
(It is also called as 'Bohr, Bury & Rang, Werner Periodic Table)
(a) It is based on the Bohr-Bury electronic configuration concept and atomic number.
(b) This model is proposed by Rang & Werner
(c) 7 periods and 18 vertical columns (groups)
(d) According to I. U. P. A. C. 18 vertical columns are named as I
st
to 18
th
group.
(e) Elements belonging to same group having same number of electrons in the outermost shell so their
properties are similar.
(f) Elements belonging to same group having same no. of electrons in the outermost shell so their properties
are similar.
JEEMAIN.GURU
Page 5

INTRODUCTION : Periodic table helps us to undergo a systematic study of the various elements found in
nature, Without which it would have been impossible for us to study all the elements. By classifying the elements
into various groups and periods a comparative study of the elements and their compounds can be done. It also
help us to analyze the periodic trend in various properties such as ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity etc.
DEVELOPMENT OF PERIODIC TABLE
1 . PROUT'S HYPOTHESIS
He simply assumed that all the elements are made up of hydrogen, so we can say that
Atomic weight of element = n ×  (Atomic weight of one hydrogen atom)
Atomic weight of H = 1 where n = number of hydrogen atom = 1, 2, 3,....
Drawback or Limitation :
(a) Every element can not be formed by Hydrogen.
(b) The atomic weights of all elements were not found as whole numbers.
Ex. Chlorine (atomic weight 35.5) and Strontium (atomic weight 87.5)
J.W. Dorbereiner pointed out that within a group of three elements having similar chemical and physical properties,
the atomic weight of the middle element is the mean of the other two. Some examples of such triads are given
below. He also pointed out the triad - iron, cobalt and nickel in which the atomic weights of the elements are
almost the same.
Triad Li N a K Ca Sr B a S S e Te Cl  Br I
Elements
Atomic weight 7 2 3 3 9 4 0 8 8 137 3 2 8 0 128 35.5  80 127
Mean value          23 88.5 8 0 81.25
Other example. (K, Rb, Cs), (P, As, Sb) (H, F, Cl) (Sc, Y, La).
Though it was the first successful attempt to rationalise the problem, it could not be generalised or extended.
Drawback or Limitation :  All the known elements could not be arranged as triads.
3 . NEWLAND'S OCTET LAW
John Alexander Reina newland in England made the first attempt to correlate the chamical properties of the
elements with their atomic weight. According to him -
(a) If the elements are arranged in order to their increasing atomic weights, every eighth element had similar
properties to first one like the first and eighth  note in music. For example
Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa
Li Be B C N O F Na
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl K
PERIODIC TABLE
JEEMAIN.GURU
(b) Inert gases were not discovered till then.
(c) All the elements could not be classified on this basis.
4 . LOTHER MEYER'S CURVE:
(a) He plotted a curve between atomic weight and atomic volume of different elements.
(b) The following observation can be made from the curve –
(i) Most electropositive elements i.e. alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs etc.) occupy the peak positions on
the curve.
(ii) Less electropositive i.e. alkali earth metal (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) occupy the descending position on the
curve.
(iii) Metalloids (B, Si, As, Te, At etc.) and transition metals occupy bottom part of the curve.
(iv) Most electronegative i.e. halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) occupy the ascending position on the curve.
Note : Elements having similar properties occupy similar position on the curve.
Conclusion : On the basis of this curve Lother Meyer proposed that the physical properties of the elements are
periodic function of their atomic wt. and this become the base of Mendeleef's periodic table.
5 . TELLURIC HELIX : A three dimensional periodic table given by De-chan-chortois.
6 . MENDELEEF'S PERIODIC TABLE:
(a) Mendeleef's periodic law : The physical and chemical properties of elements are the periodic function
of their atomic weight
(b) Characteristic of Mendeleef's periodic table :
(i) It is based on atomic weight
(ii) 63 elements were known, noble gases were not discovered.
(iii) He was the first scientist to classify the elements in a systamatic manner i.e. in horizontal rows and in
vertical columns.
(iv) Horizontal rows are called periods and there were 7 periods in Mendeleev's Periodic table.
JEEMAIN.GURU
(v) Vertical columns are called groups and there were 8 groups in Mendeleev's Periodic table.
(vi) Each group upto VII
th
is divided into A & B subgroups.'A' sub groups element are called normal elements
and 'B' sub groups elements are called transition elements.
(vii) The VIII
th
group was consists of 9 elements in three rows (Transitional metals group).
(viii) The elements belonging to same group exhibit similar properties.
(c) Merits or advantages of Mendeleef's periodic table :
(i) Study of elements :  First time all known elements were classified in groups according to their similar
properties. So study of the properties of elements become easier .
(ii) Prediction of new elements : It gave encouragement to the discovery of new elements as some gaps
were left in it.
Sc (Scandium) Ga (Gallium) Ge (Germanium) Tc (Technetium)
These were the elements for whom position and properties were well defined by Mendeleev even before
their discoveries and he left the blank spaces for them in his table.
Ex. Blank space at atomic weight 72 in silicon group was called Eka silicon (means properties like
silicon) and element discovered later was named Germanium .
Similarly other elements discovered after mendeleef periodic tabel were.
Eka aluminium  – Galium(Ga) Eka  Boron  – Scandium (Sc)
Eka Silicon  – Germanium (Ge) Eka Mangense  – Technetium (Tc)
(iii) Correction of doubtful atomic weights : Correction were done in atomic weight of some elements.
Atomic weight = Valency × Equivalent weight.
Initially, it was found that equivalent weight of Be is 4.5 and it is trivalent (V = 3), so the weight of Be was
13.5 and there is no space in Mendeleev's table for this element. So, after correction, it was found that
Be is actually divalent (V = 2). So, the weight of Be became 2 × 4.5 = 9 and there was a space between
Li and B for this element in Mendeleev's table.
– Corrections were done in atomic weight of elements are – U, Be, In, Au, Pt.
(d) Defects of Mendeleef's Periodic Table:
(i) Position of hydrogen is uncertain. It has been placed in lA and VII A groups because of its resemblance
with both the groups.
(ii) No separate positions were given to isotopes.
(iii) It is not clear whether the lanthanides and actinides are related to IIA or IIB group.
(iv) Although there is no resemblance except valency of subgroups A and B, they have been put in the same
group.
(v) Order of increasing atomic weights is not strictly followed in the arrangement of elements in the periodic
table. For e.g. – Co (At. wt. 58.9) is placed before I (127) and Ar (39.9) before K (39).
JEEMAIN.GURU
7 . MODERN PERIODIC TABLE (MODIFIED MENDELEEF PERIODIC TABLE) :
(a) It was proposed by Moseley.
(b) Modern periodic table is based on atomic number.
(c) Moseley did an experiment in which he bombarded high speed electron on different metal surfaces and
obtained X-rays.
He found out that
? ? Z
where ? ?= frequency of X-rays, Z = atomic number. .
(d) Modern periodic law : The physical & chemical properties of elements are the periodic function of
their atomic number.
Characteristics of modern periodic table
(a) 9 vertical columns called groups.
(b) I
st
to VIII group + 0 group of inert gases.
(c) Inert gases were introduced in periodic table by Ramsay.
(d) 7 horizontal series called periods.
8 . LONG FORM / PRESENT FORM OF MODERN PERIODIC TABLE :
(It is also called as 'Bohr, Bury & Rang, Werner Periodic Table)
(a) It is based on the Bohr-Bury electronic configuration concept and atomic number.
(b) This model is proposed by Rang & Werner
(c) 7 periods and 18 vertical columns (groups)
(d) According to I. U. P. A. C. 18 vertical columns are named as I
st
to 18
th
group.
(e) Elements belonging to same group having same number of electrons in the outermost shell so their
properties are similar.
(f) Elements belonging to same group having same no. of electrons in the outermost shell so their properties
are similar.
JEEMAIN.GURU
Description of periods
Period n Sub shell No. of elements Element Name of Period
1. 1 1s 2
1
H,
2
He Shortest
2. 2 2s,

2p 8
3
Li   –
10
Ne

Short
3. 3 3s, 3p 8
11
Na   –
18
Ar Short
4. 4 4s, 3d, 4p 1 8
19
K    –
36
Kr Long
5. 5 5s, 4d, 5p 1 8
37
Rb   –
58
Xe Long
6. 6 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p 3 2
55
Cs   –
86
Rn Longest
7. 7 7s, 5f, 6d, 2 6
87
Fr    –
112
Uub Incomplete
Important Points :
(a) 2
nd
period elements (Li, Be, B) Shows diagonal relationship with 3rd period elements (Mg, Al, Si) so (Li,
Be, B) are called  Bridge elements. Because of same ionic potential value they shows similarity in properties.
Li Be B
Na M g Al Si
(b) 3
rd
period elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl) are called typical elements because they represent the
properties of other element of their respective group.
(c) Atomic number of last inert gas element is 86.
(d) Number of Gaseous elements – 11 (H, N, O, F, Cl + Noble gases)
Number of Liquid elements – 6 (Cs, Fr, Ga, Hg, Br, Uub)
Bromine is the only non-metal which exists in liquid form.
Number of Solid elements – 95 (if discovered elements are 112)
(e) 2nd period contains maximum number of gaseous elements. They are 4 (N, O, F, Ne)
Nomenclature of elements
(a) IUPAC gave names to elements above atomic number 100 as follows –
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
nil un bi tri quad pent hex sept oct enn
(b) In all the elements, suffix is – ium. Ex.
Atomic No. IUPAC Name Sy mb ol IUPAC Official Name IUPAC Symbol
101 Un nil unium Unu Mendelevium Md
102 Un nil bium Unb Nobelium No
103 Un nil trium Unt Lawrencium Lr
104 Un nil quadium Unq Rutherfordium Rf
105 Un nil pentium Unp Dubnium Db
106 Un nil hexium Unh Seaborgium Sg
107 Un nil septium Uns Bohrium Bh
108 Un nil octium Uno Hassnium Hs
109 Un nil ennium Une Meitnerium Mt
110 Un un nilium Uun Darmstadtium Ds
JEEMAIN.GURU
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